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Aleviler

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Aleviler is an idiom[by whom?] to characterize the Zaydids of Tabaristan, Daylam and Gilan; the Bātinī-Ismāʿīlīs[1] of Pamir Mountains in Badakhshan and Turkestan; the Non-Ja'fari Twelver-Shi’ites in Turkey; Arab Khaṣībī-Nusairis in Syria and Alawis in Hatay.

There are lots of diversified groups who call themselves by the name of Aleviler (pronounced as "Oalavees"), some of them are Sufis, some of them are Shi'ite Muslims and the others are non-Muslims. The examples are Alevi (Sufis), Alawi (Twelver-Shi'ites), Pamiri-Ismailis, Zaydi-Alavids of Tabaristan, Kızılbaşes, and even some non-Muslim Kaka'is and Ishik Alevis. This page summarizes their differences.

Definition[edit | edit source]

Alevism represents Kızılbaş faith which is considered as a Muslim sect. But, there are a lot of different groups they call themselves as Alevi and some of them claims that they are not Muslim at all. Aleviler (translated as Alevis) includes all groups, muslim or non-muslim, christian or any other thing. The word Aleviler is used in Turkish for all Shia Muslim sects other than Sunnis, it includes Three Muslim sects: Alevi, Alawites, Ja'faris and Two non-muslim sects: Ishikism and Yarsanism. In the classical textbooks, Alavids, Kaysanites, Qarmatians, Fatimid Ismailis, Nizaris and Pamiris are called as Alevi(ler) (Alevi(s).).[2]

Many groups call themselves as Alevi but they don't share Muslim Alevi faith described in this article. All these people are called "Aleviler" in Turkish: Qizilbashes (also known as Turk Alevileri) and Nosairis (also known as Arab Alevileri) are two distinct Muslim sects; Ahl-E Haqq (also known as Kurd Alevileri) and Chinarism (also known as Işık Alevileri) are two distinct Non-Muslim sects. All these groups uses the term Alevi to define their own faith. Nusayris uses the term Alawi (also known as Arab Alevileri) instead of Alevi which is a Turkish term. Furthermore, all the Shi'ites including Ja'faris, Alavids, Kaysanites, Qarmatians, Fatimid Ismailis, Nizaris and Pamiris are called as "Aleviler" in Turkish as well. The topic Alevi refers to "Kızılbaş faith". Even though Ja'faris, Nosairis, Yarsanis and Ishik Alevis uses the term "Alevi" (or Alawi term in Arabic) to describe their own faith, they don't share "The Kızılbaş faith".

Classification of Aleviler[edit | edit source]


File:Imam chart-q.pdf
Aleviler amongst Shia islam

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Balcıoğlu, Tahir Harimî, Türk Tarihinde Mezhep Cereyanları - The course of madh'hab events in Turkish history (Preface and notes by Hilmi Ziya Ülken), Ahmet Sait Press, 271 pages, Kanaat Publications, Istanbul, 1940. (in Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Unicode data' not found.)[[Category:Articles with Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Unicode data' not found.-language external links]]
  2. Balcıoğlu, Tahir Harimî (1940). Hilmi Ziya Ülken, ed. Türk tarihinde mezhep cereyanları (in Türkçe). İstanbul: Kanaat Yayınları, Ahmed Sait tab'ı.For example this book uses the term ALEVİLER for various groups who are not Alevi, in short Aleviness is the Kızılbaş faith)
  3. Cagaptay, Soner (17 April 2012). "Are Syrian Alawites and Turkish Alevis the same?". CNN. Retrieved 2017-07-28.
  4. Some sources (Martin van Bruinessen and Jamal Shah) call Alevi "a blanket term for a large number of different heterodox communities", and includes Arabic speaking Alawites in southern Turkey, and Azerbaijani speaking Turkish in the eastern province of Kars "whose Alevism differs little from the 'orthodox' Twelver Shi`ism of modern Iran".
  5. van Bruinessen, Martin (c. 1995). "Kurds, Turks, and the Alevi Revival in Turkey". islam.uga.edu. Retrieved 2017-07-31.
  6. Izady, Mehrdad R. (1992), The Kurds : a concise handbook, Washington & London: Taylor & Francis, pp. 170 passim, ISBN 0-8448-1727-9
  7. Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Unicode data' not found. Ahl-e Haqq "People of Truth"), is a syncretic religion founded by Sultan Sahak in the late 14th century in western Iran.
  8. Hamzeh'ee, M. Reza Fariborz (1995). Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi; et al., eds. Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East. Leiden: Brill. pp. 101–117. ISBN 90-04-10861-0.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Many are called Christian-Alevi or Alevi-Christian Kurds.
  10. P. G. Kreyenbroek (1992). Review of The Yaresan: A Sociological, Historical and Religio-Historical Study of a Kurdish Community, by M. Reza Hamzeh'ee, 1990, ISBN 3-922968-83-X. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol.55, No.3, pp.565-566.
  11. Elahi, Bahram (1987). The path of perfection, the spiritual teachings of Master Nur Ali Elahi. ISBN 0-7126-0200-3.
  12. Bulut, Faik. (2011), "Ali'siz Alevîlik" - Alevism without Ali, Berfin Yayıncılık.
  13. Erdoğan Çınar (2004). "Aleviliğin Gizli Tarihi". Chivi Yazıları. (http://www.idefix.com).
  14. 14.0 14.1 According to scholar Soner Cagaptay, Alevism is a "relatively unstructured interpretation of Islam".
  15. Ali Yildiz, spokeswoman of the Christian-Alevi Friends of the CDU declared their fears concerning unconstitutional Sharia agenda of Muslims seeking to join the CDU [1]
  16. http://www.economist.com/node/16439205/comments?page=3
  17. Journalist Patrick Kingsley states that for some self-described Alevi, their religion is "simply a cultural identity, rather than a form of worship".
  18. Kingsley, Patrick (22 July 2017). "Turkey's Alevis, a Muslim Minority, Fear a Policy of Denying Their Existence". New York Times. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
  19. Formation of Alevi Sycretism, Ceren Selmanpakoglu, 2006
  20. "Alevism " Hannah Arendt Center for Politics and Humanities". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  21. The making of world society; Anghel, Gerharz et al.; Transaction Publishers; 2008; page 106
  22. "Are Syrian Alawites and Turkish Alevis the Same?". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  23. Soner Cagaptay, The Rise of Turkey: The Twenty-First Century's First Muslim Power, p. 85. Date=?
  24. Struggling for recognition, Sokefeld, Berghahn books, 2008, page 103

Further reading[edit | edit source]

Alavids[edit | edit source]

Bektashism[edit | edit source]

  • Brown, John (1927), The Darvishes of Oriental Spiritualism.
  • Küçük, Hülya (2002) The Roles of the Bektashis in Turkey’s National Struggle. Leiden: Brill.
  • Mélikoff, Irène (1998). Hadji Bektach: Un mythe et ses avatars. Genèse et évolution du soufisme populaire en Turquie. Leiden: Islamic History and Civilization, Studies and Texts, volume 20, ISBN 90-04-10954-4.
  • Vorhoff, Karin. (1998), “Academic and Journalistic Publications on the Alevi and Bektashi of Turkey.” In: Tord Olsson/Elizabeth Özdalga/Catharina Raudvere (eds.) Alevi Identity: Cultural, Religious and Social Perspectives, Istanbul: Swedish Research Institute, pp. 23–50.
  • Yaman, Ali & Aykan Erdemir (2006). Alevism-Bektashism: A Brief Introduction, London: England Alevi Cultural Centre & Cem Evi. ISBN 975-98065-3-3

Kızılbaşism[edit | edit source]

  • Halm, H. (1982). Die Islamische Gnosis: Die extreme Schia und die Alawiten. Zurich.
  • Kehl-Bodrogi, Krisztina (1992). Die Kizilbas/Aleviten. Untersuchungen uber eine esoterische Glaubensgemeinschaft in Anatolien. Die Welt des Islams, (New Series), Vol. 32, No. 1.
  • Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi, Krisztina, & Barbara Kellner-Heinkele, Anke Otter-Beaujean, eds. (1997) Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East. Leiden: Brill, pp. 11–18.
  • Moosa, Matti (1988). Extremist Shiites: The Ghulat Sects, Syracuse University Press.

Ahl-e Haqq Tariqa and Kurdish Alevis[edit | edit source]

  • Elahi, Bahram (1987). The path of perfection, the spiritual teachings of Master Nur Ali Elahi. ISBN 0-7126-0200-3.
  • Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa (Detroit: Thompson Gale, 2004) p. 82.
  • Edmonds, Cecil (1957). Kurds, Turks, and Arabs: politics, travel, and research in north-eastern Iraq, 1919-1925. Oxford University Press.
  • Hamzeh'ee, M. Reza Fariborz (1995). Krisztina Kehl-Bodrogi; et al., eds. Syncretistic Religious Communities in the Near East. Leiden: Brill. pp. 101–117. ISBN 90-04-10861-0.
  • Kreyenbroek, P. G. (1992). Review of The Yaresan: A Sociological, Historical and Religio-Historical Study of a Kurdish Community, by M. Reza Hamzeh'ee, 1990, ISBN 3-922968-83-X. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol.55, No.3, pp. 565–566.
  • White, Paul J. (2003), “The Debate on the Identity of "Alevi Kurds".” In: Paul J. White/Joost Jongerden (eds.) Turkey’s Alevi Enigma: A Comprehensive Overview. Leiden: Brill, pp. 17–32.


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