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Borders of India

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India shares borders with several sovereign countries; it shares land borders with China, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan in the north or north-west, and Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east. India also shares water borders with Sri Lanka, Maldives and Indonesia.[1]

Land borders of India[edit]

Land Border Country Length (m) and (mi)[2] Force Comments
Bangladesh Bangladesh 4,156 kilometres (2,582 mi) Border Security Force Most India–Bangladesh enclaves exchanged in 2015.
Bhutan Bhutan 699 kilometres (434 mi)[3] Sashastra Seema Bal Open border
China China 3,488 kilometres (2,167 mi) Indo-Tibetan Border Police and Special Frontier Force Also see McMahon Line.
Myanmar Myanmar 1,643 kilometres (1,021 mi) Assam Rifles and Indian Army Also see India-Myanmar barrier
Nepal Nepal 1,751 kilometres (1,088 mi)[4] Sashastra Seema Bal Open border.
Pakistan Pakistan 3,323 kilometres (2,065 mi) Border Security Force Also see Radcliffe Line, Operation Meghdoot and Sir Creek.
Afghanistan Afghanistan 106 kilometres (66 mi) Border Security Force Source [[MHA]].

Maritime borders of India[edit]

Maritime borders of India are the maritime boundary recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea entails boundaries of territorial waters, contiguous zones, and exclusive economic zones. India, with its claim of a 12-nautical-mile (22 km; 14 mi) territorial maritime zone and 200-nautical-mile (370 km; 230 mi) exclusive economic zone, has a more than 7,000-kilometre (4,300 mi) maritime border shared with seven nations.

Maritime Border Country Length (km) and (mi)[2] Force Comments
Bangladesh Bangladesh Indian Navy New Moore Island
Indonesia Indonesia Indian Navy Indira Point
Myanmar Myanmar Indian Navy Coco Islands
Pakistan Pakistan Indian Navy Sir Creek
Thailand Thailand Indian Navy Similan Islands
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka >400 kilometres (250 mi)[5] Indian Navy Katchatheevu
Maldives Maldives Indian Navy Maliku Kandu

Designated crossings with ICP & LCS[edit]

The map of ICP and LCS.

Integrated Check Posts (ICP)[edit]

India has 7 functional ICPs, and plans are underway to upgrade 13 more LCS to ICP, including 7 at borders taking total of border ICP to 14, at the cost of 3,000 crore (US$420 million) (c. Oct 2017).[6][7] Designated Integrated Check Posts (ICP), with both customs and immigration facilities are:[8]

India–Bangladesh border[edit]

  • Assam
    • Karimganj-Golapganj uppozilla in Sylhet District of Bangladesh via Sutarkandi integrated checkpost crossing on NH37(India) and Sheola post (Sylhet division, Bangladesh), plan announced c. Oct 2017.[6]
  • Meghalaya
    • Shillong-Sylhet via Dawki ICP integrated checkpost crossing (Jaintia Hills, India) and Tambil post (Bangladesh). Dawki ICP foundation stone laid in January 2017 and will become operation in 2018.[9]
  • Mizoram
    • Kawrpuichhuah / Kawarpuchiah / Kawripuichhuah near Tlabung in Lunglei district, opened in Oct 2017.[6][10][11]
  • Tripura
    • Agartala-Dhaka via Agartala integrated checkpost (India) and Akhaura checkpost crossing, already functional (c. 2017).[7]
    • "Belonia, India - Parshuram, Bangladesh road and rail crossing checkposts" in South Tripura district which connect the railway from Santirbazar in India to Feni in Bangladesh.
  • West Bengal (clockwise from Kolkatta to north)
    • KolkataDhaka via Petrapole integrated checkpost crossing, already functional (c. 2017).[7]
    • Barasat (India) to Ghojadanga (Bangladesh), plan announced c. Oct 2017.[6][12]
    • Mahadipur in Malda district in Malda-Rajshahi via Mahadipur crossing, in-principal approval in 2019.[12][6]
    • Fulbari, plan announced c. Oct 2017.[6]
    • Hili, plan announced c. Oct 2017.[6]
    • Changrabandha railway station, in-principal approval in 2019.[12]

India-Bhutan border[edit]

  • Jaigaon at Alipurduar district of West Bengal, plan approved c. 2016.[13]

India–Myanmar border[edit]

  • Moreh ICP, already operational.[14]
  • Zochawchhuah (Lawngtlai district in India) - Zorinpui (Myanmar) at Indo-Myanmar border on Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project has already been operational since Oct 2017.[14][11] The 22 km long Lunglei–Tlabung–Kawrpuichhuah road was upgraded in 2014-15 in a World Bank-funded project to enhance India-Bangladesh border connectivity.[15] Survey for the Rail line from Sairang to Hmawngbuchhuah (1 km north of Zochawchhuah) was completed in August 2017 and it will be constructed in future phase.[16]

India-Nepal border[edit]

  • Banbasa in Champawat district of Uttrakhand, in-principle approval in 2019.[12]
  • Bhitamore/Bhittamore in Sitamarhi district of Bihar, in-principle approval in 2019.[12]
  • Jogbani, Bihar[13]
  • Panitanki, Darjeeling district of West Bengal,[13] in-principal approval in 2019.[12]
  • Raxaul, Bihar[13]
  • Sonauli, Uttar Pradesh[citation needed]
  • Rupaidiha, Uttar Pradesh[13]
  • Taulihawa-Siddharthnagar, Uttar Pradesh[13]

India–Pakistan border[edit]

  • Attari at Wagah in Punjab, already operational (2017) (see Samjhauta Express).
  • Munabao in Barmer district in Rajasthan (see Thar Express)

Land Customs Stations (LCS)[edit]

India–Bangladesh border[edit]

Designated Land Customs Stations (LCS) are (no immigration facilities):[17]

  • Assam
    • Mankachar Land Customs Stations (India) - Rowmari post (Natun Bandar, Rongpur division, Bangladesh)
    • Karimganj Steamer and Ferry Station (KSFS) (India) - Zakiganj post (Sylhet division, Bangladesh)
    • Guwahati Steamer Ghat (Dhubri district, India) -
    • Dhubri Steamer Ghat (Dhubri district, India) - Rowmati (Maymansingh division, Bangladesh)
    • Assam non-functional LCS are:
      • Mahisasan railway station (Karimganj district, India) - Shahbazpur (Sylhet division)
      • Golokganj (Dhubri district) - Sonahaat (Rongpur Division)
      • Silchar Railway Mail Service (India) - independent of border (no border, inland LCS)
  • West Bengal
  • Meghalaya
    • Baghmara (South Garo Hills, India) - Bijoyour post (Bangladesh)
    • Bholaganj (East Khasi Hills district) - Chatak (Sunamganj division)
    • Borsara Land Customs Stations (West Khasi Hills, India) - Borsara post (Bangladesh)
    • West Garo Hills - Bakshiganj via Mahendraganj crossing on NH12
    • Tura-Nalitabari via Dalu crossing on NH217 (West Garo Hills, India) and Nakugaon post (Bangladesh)
    • Shellabazar (West Khasi Hills district) - Sunamganj(Sylhet division)
    • Gasuapara (South Garo Hills district)- Karoitol (Mymansing division)
    • Meghalaya non-functional LCS are:
      • Ryngku (East Khasi Hills district) - Kalibari (Sonamganj division)
      • Balat (East Khasi Hills district) - Dolura (Sylhet division)
  • Tripura
    • Srimantapur (Sipahijala district) - Bibir Bazar (Comilla division), became operational in January 2016.[18]
    • Dhalaighat (Dhalai district) - Kumarghat (Sunamganj division)
    • Khowaighat (West Tripura district) - Balla (Habiganj division)
    • Manu (Dhalai district) - Chatlapur (Sylhet division )
    • Muhurighat (South Tripura district) - Belonia (Feni division )
    • Old Ragnabazar (North Tripura district) - Betul (Fultali) (Sylhet division)
  • Mizoram
    • Kawarpuchiah integrated checkpost, opened in Oct 2017 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.[19]
    • Non-functional LCS in Mizoram:
      • Demagiri (Lunglei district) - Rangamati (Sylhet division)

India–Pakistan border[edit]

  • Longewala in Jaisalmer district of Rajsthan

Border bazaars and haats[edit]

This proposed list of border bazaars and haats is in varying stages of implementation, as suggested by State Governments to the Ministry of External Affairs for setting up Border Haats.[8]

India–Myanmar border[edit]

As of April 2012, India and Myanmar have approved two locations – Pangsau Pass, Arunachal Pradesh and Somrai in Ukhrul District. These are likely to be finalised soon during a forthcoming visit of Hon’ble Prime Minister to Myanmar.[20]

    • Arunachal Pradesh Border Haats
    • Pangsau Pass (Nampong), Changlang - Pangsau, Kachin Province
    • Chingsa (Khimiyang Circle), Changlang - Langhong, Kachin Province
    • Makantong (Khimiyang Circle), Changlang - Ngaimong, Kachin Province
    • Wakka/Pongchao/Lazu - Tirap, Kachin Province
  • Manipur Border Haats
      • Kongkan Thana, Ukhrul - Aungci Suggested by State Government
      • New Somtal, Chandel - Thenjen, or Khampat
      • Behiang, Churachandpur - Khenman, or Chikha
  • Mizoram Border Haats
    • Hruitezawl, Lawngtlai - Varang
    • Hnahlan, Champhai - Darkhai
    • Vaphai, Champhai - Leilet
    • Chakhang, Saiha - Nviaphia
  • Nagaland Border Haats
    • Avakhung, Phek - Layshi are 32 km from each other
    • Pangsha, Tuensang - Lahe/Hkamti District HQ are 60 km from each other
    • Chemoho/Longwa, Mon - Lahe are 60 km from each other
    • Molhe, Phek - Pansat are 10 km from each other

India–Bangladesh border[edit]

    • Meghalaya
      • Kalaichar, West Garo Hills
      • Balat, West Khasi Hills
    • Mizoram
      • Marpara, Mamit - Longkor
      • Sillsury, Lunglei - Mahmuam
      • Tuipuibari, Mamit - Not provided
      • Nunsuri, Lunglei - Not provided
    • Tripura: Decision on Tripura Haats will be subsequent to the completion of agreement w.r.t. Meghalaya Haats.
      • Kamalasagar, West Tripura
      • Boxanagar
      • Bamutia
      • Srinagar, South Tripura
      • Ekimpur
      • Pal Basti (Raghna), North Tripura
      • Hiracherra (Kailasahar)
      • Kamalpur, Dhalai

In popular media[edit]

Pradeep Damodaran's book "Borderlands: travels across India's boundaries" chronicles all land borders of India.[21] The bollywood director J. P. Dutta has specialised in making Hindi movies with India's border as key element of the theme, his movies are Border (1997 film), Refugee (2000 film), LOC: Kargil, Paltan (film), etc.[22]

See also[edit]


Other articles of the topic India  : Jyothi Rana, Being Muslim Institute, Faculty of Performing Arts, Banaras Hindu University, List of Bollywood Actresses, Buddha Institute of Technology, Maharashtra, India, 2019 Kashmir airstrike
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India related
  • Climate of India
  • Disputed territories of India
  • Exclusive economic zone of India
  • Extreme points of India
  • Geography of India
  • Look East policy
  • Look-East connectivity
  • Northeast India connectivity projects
General
  • How different scales of measurement impacts the length of land border
Lists
  • List of countries and territories by land borders
  • List of countries and territories by land and maritime borders
  • List of countries and territories by maritime boundaries
  • List of countries that border only one other country
  • List of land borders by date of establishment
  • List of divided islands
  • List of island nations
  • List of political and geographic borders

References[edit]

  1. "Neighbouring Countries of India 2020: Map, Capitals, Connected States". www.careerpower.in.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "HugeDomains.com - ejyoti.com is for sale (ejyoti)". www.hugedomains.com.
  3. SSB to strengthen presence on India-Bhutan border, Times of India, 20 Dec 2017.
  4. "doklam: SSB to strengthen presence on India-Bhutan border | India News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  5. "India-Sri Lanka fishing rights dispute". Archived from the original on 2017-12-22. Retrieved 2017-12-20. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 [1], Indian Express, Oct 2017.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "India plans to construct 7 integrated check posts on border with Bangladesh". Dhaka Tribune. October 18, 2017.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region, North East India". mdoner.gov.in.
  9. Dawki ICP foundation stone laid.
  10. India opens two border crossing points with Myanmar, Bangladesh, Business Line.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "12th Five Year Plan".
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 Delhi approves Sutarkandi integrated check post along Indo-Bangla border, North East News, 7 Jan 2019.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 Indo-Nepal and Indo-Bhutan border to have more ICP, Oct 2016.
  14. 14.0 14.1 India opens two border crossing points with Myanmar, Bangladesh, Times of India, 1 Oct 2o17.
  15. $107 Million World Bank Project to Connect Mizoram with Bangladesh and Myanmar via Roads, World Bank.
  16. India's north east opened up, PowerUpConstruction.Com
  17. ICP and LCS
  18. "Tripura opens new land customs station along Bangladesh border". bdnews24.com.
  19. "India opens two border crossing points with Myanmar, Bangladesh". @businessline.
  20. Border haats of India
  21. What will you see if you visit the precise point where India ends and Sri Lanka begins?, Scroll.in, 1 March 2017.
  22. Adrian M. Athique, 2010, A Line in the Sand: The India–Pakistan Border in the Films of J.P. Dutta, Centre for Critical and Cultural Studies, University of Queensland, Pages 472-499.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]


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