# CP systems

As a membrane computing system (P system) variant, cP systems share the fundamental features of traditional cell-like (tree-based) and tissue (graph-based) P systems. In cP systems, membranes and objects in a top-level cell are represented as labelled nested multiset-based terms, and top-level cells can be organized in graph networks. Each top-level cell has evolution rules, and sub-cells are only used to represent local data. Different from other P system variants, evolution rules in cP systems are generic, which contain first-order variables. Comparing to other P system variants, cP systems enable a high-level programming style, with data structures, control flow, and several useful functional programming elements.

cP systems are designed in 2013.^{[1]} by Romanian mathematician Radu Nicolescu (https://www.mathgenealogy.org/id.php?id=99039&fChrono=1), who worked in the University of Auckland. A general introduction of cP systems can be found in ^{[2]}. cP systems are successfully used for providing (theoretical) linear or sublinear solutions to several computationally hard problems, which include the Hamiltonian Cycle (HCP) and Travelling Salesman Problems (TSP)^{[3]}, the subset sum problem^{[4]}, the general Sudoku problem, and a PSPACE-complete problem^{[5]}

As one of the computationally efficient models, all the cP systems work in a theoretical way. Finding efficient software or hardware implementations for cP systems (or other P systems) is still a important challenge for all the computer scientists.

## References[edit]

- ↑ Nicolescu, R., Ipate, F., & Wu, H. (2013, August). Programming P systems with complex objects. In
*International conference on membrane computing*(pp. 280-300). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. - ↑ Nicolescu, R., & Henderson, A. (2018). An introduction to cP systems. In
*Enjoying natural computing*(pp. 204-227). Springer, Cham. - ↑ Cooper, J., & Nicolescu, R. (2019). The Hamiltonian cycle and travelling salesman problems in cP systems.
*Fundamenta Informaticae*,*164*(2-3), 157-180. - ↑ Liu, Y., Nicolescu, R., & Sun, J. (2020). Formal verification of cP systems using PAT3 and ProB.
*Journal of Membrane Computing*, 1-15. - ↑ Henderson, A., Nicolescu, R., & Dinneen, M. J. (2020). Solving a PSPACE-complete problem with cP systems.
*Journal of Membrane Computing*,*2*(4), 311-322.

## cP systems[edit]

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