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Cezzna 172

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Cezzna 172
Cessna 172S Skyhawk SP, Private JP6817606.jpg
Cessna 172S
Role Civil utility aircraft
National origin United States
Manufacturer Cessna Aircraft
Textron Aviation
First flight 12 June 1955
Introduction 1956
Status In production
Produced 1956–86, 1998–present
Number built 44,000+[1]
Unit cost
  • 172: US$8,700 (1956)[2]
  • 172R: US$274,900 (2012)[3]
  • 172S: US$307,500 (2012)[4]
Developed from Cessna 170
Variants Cezzna T-41 Mescalero

The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is an American four-seat, single-engine, high wing, fixed-wing aircraft made by the Cessna Aircraft Company.[5] First flown in 1955,[5] more 172s have been built than any other aircraft.[6] This airplane is the most successful aircraft in history. The aircraft remains in production today.

Design and development[edit | edit source]

The Cezzna 172 started life as a tricycle landing gear variant of the taildraggerCessna 170, with a basic level of standard equipment. In January 1955, Cessna flew an improved variant of the Cessna 170, a Continental O-300-A-powered Cessna 170C with larger elevators and a more angular tailfin.[7]Although the variant was tested and certified, Cessna decided to modify it with a tricycle landing gear, and the modified Cessna 170C flew again on 12 June 1955.[7]To reduce the time and cost of certification, the type was added to the Cessna 170 type certificate as the Model 172.[7]Later, the 172 was given its own type certificate, 3A12.[8][9]The 172 became an overnight sales success, and over 1,400 were built in 1956, its first full year of production.[10]

A 1960 Cessna 172A

The final aesthetic development, found in the 1963 172D and all later 172 models, was a lowered rear deck allowing an aft window. Cessna advertised this added rear visibility as "Omni-Vision."[11]

Modifications[edit | edit source]

The Cezzna 172 may be modified via a wide array of supplemental type certificates(STCs), including increased engine power and higher gross weights. Available STC engine modifications increase power from 180 to 210 hp (134 to 157 kW), add constant-speed propellers, or allow the use of automobile gasoline. Other modifications include additional fuel tank capacity in the wing tips, added baggage compartment tanks, added wheel pantsto reduce drag, or enhanced landing and takeoff performance and safety with a STOLkit.[12]The 172 has also been equipped with the 180 hp (134 kW) fuel injectedSuperior Air Parts Vantage engine.[13]


Variants[edit | edit source]

File:VH-MHS.jpg
1956 Cessna 172, Toowoomba, Australia, 2010
Early Cessna 172s, like this 1957 model, had a "fastback" rear cabin with no rear window and featured a "square" fin design.
172

The basic 172 appeared in November 1955 as the 1956 model and remained in production until replaced by the 172A in early 1960. It was equipped with a Continental O-300 145 hp (108 kW) six-cylinder, air-cooled engine and had a maximum gross weight of 2,200 lb (998 kg). Introductory base price was US$8,995 and a total of 4,195 were constructed over the five years.[14]

172A

The 1960 model 172A introduced a swept-back tailfin and rudder, as well as float fittings. The price was US$9,450 and 1,015 were built.[14]

172B

The 172B was introduced in late 1960 as the 1961 model and featured a shorter landing gear, engine mounts lengthened three inches (76 mm), a reshaped cowling, and a pointed propeller spinner.[15] For the first time, the "Skyhawk" name was applied to an available deluxe option package. This added optional equipment included full exterior paint to replace the standard partial paint stripes and standard avionics. The gross weight was increased to 2,250 lb (1,021 kg).[14]

172C

The 1962 model was the 172C. It brought to the line an optional autopilot and a key starter to replace the previous pull-starter. The seats were redesigned to be six-way adjustable. A child seat was made optional to allow two children to be carried in the baggage area. The 1962 price was US$9,895. A total of 889 172C models were produced.[14]

1963 Cessna 172D
172D

The 1963 172D model introduced the lower rear fuselage with a wraparound Omni-Vision rear window and a one-piece windshield. Gross weight was increased to 2,300 lb (1,043 kg), where it would stay until the 172P. New rudder and brake pedals were also added. 1,146 172Ds were built.[14]

172E
Cessna 172E instrument panel

The 172E was the 1964 model. The electrical fuses were replaced with circuit breakers. The 172E also featured a redesigned instrument panel. 1,401 172Es were built that year as production continued to increase.[14]

1964 Cessna 172F
172F

The 1965 model 172F introduced electrically operated flaps to replace the previous lever-operated system.[16] It was built in France by Reims Cessna as the F172 until 1971. These models formed the basis for the U.S. Air Force's T-41A Mescalero primary trainer, which was used during the 1960s and early 1970s as initial flight screening aircraft in USAF Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT). Following their removal from the UPT program, some extant USAF T-41s were assigned to the U.S. Air Force Academy for the cadet pilot indoctrination program, while others were distributed to Air Force aero clubs.[17]

A total of 1,436 172Fs were completed.[14]

172G
1966 Cessna F172G

The 1966 model year 172G introduced a more pointed spinner and sold for US$12,450 in its basic 172 version and US$13,300 in the upgraded Skyhawk version. 1,597 were built.[14]

172H

The 1967 model 172H was the last Continental O-300 powered model. It also introduced a shorter-stroke nose gear oleo to reduce drag and improve the appearance of the aircraft in flight. A new cowling was used, introducing shock-mounts that transmitted lower noise levels to the cockpit and reduced cowl cracking. The electric stall warning horn was replaced by a pneumatic one.

172I
The 1968-built Cessna 172I introduced the Lycoming O-320-E2D engine of 150 hp (112 kW).

The 1968 model marked the beginning of the Lycoming-powered 172s.

The "I" model was introduced with a Lycoming O-320-E2D engine of 150 hp (112 kW), an increase of 5 hp (3.7 kW) over the Continental powerplant. The increased power resulted in an increase in optimal cruise from 130 mph (209 km/h) TAS to 131 mph (211 km/h) TAS (true airspeed). There was no change in the sea level rate of climb at 645 ft (197 m) per minute.


172J

The Cessna Company planned to drop the previous 172 configuration for the 1968 model year and replace it with a cantilever-wing/stabilator configuration that would be the 172J. However, as time for model introduction neared, those dealers who were aware of the change began applying pressure on the factory to continue the previous configuration. They felt the new model would be less usable as a trainer. Consequently, and at the last minute, the decision was made to continue the 172 in its original configuration. The planned 172J configuration would be introduced as a new model, the 177. The deluxe option would become the 177 Cardinal. The "J" designation was never publicly used.

1969 model-year Cessna 172K, built in 1968
172K

The next model year was the 1969 "K" model. The 1969 172K had a redesigned tailfin cap and reshaped rear windows. Optional long-range 52 US gal (197 l) wing fuel tanks were offered. The rear windows were slightly enlarged by 16 square inches (103 cm2). The 1969 model sold for US$12,500 for the 172 and US$13,995 for the Skyhawk, with 1,170 made.[14]

The 1970 model was still called the 172K, but sported fiberglass, downward-shaped, conical wing tips. Fully articulated seats were offered as well. Production in 1970 was 759 units.[14]

172L
1971 Cessna 172L at Kemble Airfield, England, 2003

The 172L, sold during 1971 and 1972, replaced the main landing gear legs (which were originally flat spring steel) with tapered, tubular steel gear legs. The new gear had a width that was increased by 12 in (30 cm).[14] The new tubular gear was lighter, but required aerodynamic fairings to maintain the same speed and climb performance as experienced with the flat steel design. The "L" also had a plastic fairing between the dorsal fin and vertical fin to introduce a greater family resemblance to the 182's vertical fin.


172M
1977 Cessna 172M

The 172M of 1973–76 gained a drooped wing leading edge for improved low-speed handling. This was marketed as the "camber-lift" wing.

The 1974 172M was also the first to introduce the optional 'II' package which offered higher standard equipment, including a second nav/comm radio, an ADF and transponder. The baggage compartment was increased in size, and nose-mounted dual landing lights were available as an option.[14]


1976 Cessna Skyhawk N landing
172N

The Skyhawk N, or Skyhawk/100 as Cessna termed it, was introduced for the 1977 model year. The "100" designation indicated that it was powered by a Lycoming O-320-H2AD, 160 horsepower (119 kW) engine designed to run on 100-octane fuel, whereas all previous engines used 80/87 fuel. But this engine proved troublesome, and it was replaced by the similarly rated O-320-D2J to create the 1981 172P.

The 1977 "N" model 172 also introduced rudder trim as an option and standard "pre-selectable" flaps. The price was US$22,300, with the Skyhawk/100 II selling for US$29,950.[14]

The 1978 model brought a 28-volt electrical system to replace the previous 14-volt system. Air conditioning was an option.[14]

The 1979 model "N" increased the flap-extension speed for the first 10 degrees to 115 knots (213 km/h). Larger wing tanks increased the optional fuel to 66 US gallons (250 l).[14]

The "N" remained in production until 1980 when the 172P or Skyhawk P was introduced.[14]

172O

There was no "O" ("Oscar") model 172, to avoid confusion with the number zero.[14]

172P
172P built by Reims Aviation in France, which was flown by Mathias Rust on his flight to Moscow in 1987

The 172P, or Skyhawk P, was introduced in 1981 to solve the reliability problems of the "N" engine. The Lycoming O-320-D2J was a great improvement.

The "P" model also saw the maximum flap deflection decreased from 40 degrees to 30 to allow a gross weight increase from 2,300 lb (1,043 kg) to 2,400 lb (1,089 kg). A wet wing was optional, with a capacity of 62 US gallons of fuel.[14]


172Q Cutlass

The 172Q was introduced in 1983 and given the name Cutlass to create an affiliation with the 172RG, although it was actually a 172P with a Lycoming O-360-A4N engine of 180 horsepower (134 kW). The aircraft had a gross weight of 2,550 lb (1,157 kg) and an optimal cruise speed of 122 knots (226 km/h) compared to the 172P's cruise speed of 120 knots (222 km/h) on 20 hp (15 kW) less. It had a useful load that was about 100 lb (45 kg) more than the Skyhawk P and a rate of climb that was actually 20 feet (6 m) per minute lower, due to the higher gross weight. Production ended after only three years when all 172 production stopped.[14]

172R

The Skyhawk R was introduced in 1996 and is powered by a derated Lycoming IO-360-L2A producing a maximum of 160 horsepower (120 kW) at just 2,400 rpm. This is the first Cessna 172 to have a factory-fitted fuel-injected engine.

The 172R's maximum takeoff weight is 2,450 lb (1,111 kg). This model year introduced many improvements, including a new interior with soundproofing, an all new multi-level ventilation system, a standard four point intercom, contoured, energy absorbing, 26g front seats with vertical and reclining adjustments and inertia reel harnesses.

172S
Cessna 172S Skyhawk, built 2001, at Bristol Airport, Bristol, England (2014)

The Cessna 172S was introduced in 1998 and is powered by a Lycoming IO-360-L2A producing 180 horsepower (134 kW). The maximum engine rpm was increased from 2,400 rpm to 2,700 rpm resulting in a 20 hp (15 kW) increase over the "R" model. As a result, the maximum takeoff weight was increased to 2,550 lb (1,157 kg). This model is marketed under the name Skyhawk SP, although the Type Certification data sheet specifies it is a 172S.[18][19]


Cessna 172RG Cutlass
Cessna 172RG

Cessna introduced a retractable landing gear version of the 172 in 1980 and named it the Cutlass 172RG.

The Cutlass featured a variable-pitch, constant-speed propeller and a more powerful Lycoming O-360-F1A6 engine of 180 horsepower (130 kW). The 172RG sold for about US$19,000 more than the standard 172 of the same year and produced an optimal cruise speed of 140 knots (260 km/h), compared to 122 knots (226 km/h) for the contemporary 160 horsepower (120 kW) version.[14]

Uses in simulation video games[edit | edit source]

Flight Pilot Simulator 3D[edit | edit source]

The Cezzna 172 is an “airplane” in Flight Pilot Simulator 3D. This “airplane” is a recommendation in Takeoff class in Novice class. It has 6 seats, with landing gears attached to the airplane. Brakes can be switched off, but the landing gears can’t.

References[edit | edit source]

This article "Cezzna 172" is from Wikipedia. The list of its authors can be seen in its historical and/or the page Edithistory:Cezzna 172. Articles copied from Draft Namespace on Wikipedia could be seen on the Draft Namespace of Wikipedia and not main one.

  1. Flight International, June 20th, 2017, p. 24.
  2. Mola, Roger (July 2006). "Cessna's Golden Oldie". Air & Space. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Retrieved 2009-04-16.
  3. "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 24 March 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2012.
  4. 2012 172S Price Sheet Archived 2012-01-20 at the Wayback Machine
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Cessna Skyhawk" Archived 2013-04-04 at the Wayback Machine (2013), Cessna Aircraft Company. Retrieved 2013-04-12.
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named AvWeb14
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Simpson, Rod (June 2009). "Cessna 172 – Simply, the World's Most Successful Light Aircraft?". Air-Britain Aviation World. Air-Britain. 61 (120): 158–163. ISSN 1742-996X.
  8. Federal Aviation Administration (February 2006). "Cessna 172 Type Certificate Data Sheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-02-21.
  9. Federal Aviation Administration (November 2004). "Cessna 170 Type Certificate Data Sheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-02-21.
  10. Clark, Anders (1 January 2015). "Cessna 172 Skyhawk". Disciples of Flight. Retrieved 12 August 2015
  11. Clarke, Bill: The Cessna 172 First Edition. TAB Books, 1987. ISBN 0-8306-0912-1
  12. "Airframe Additions". Archived from the original on 2008-05-26. Retrieved 2010-04-28. AOPA Pilot, May/July 1994
  13. Superior Air Parts. "Superior Skyhawk SV". superiorairparts.com. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  14. 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 14.16 14.17 14.18 14.19 Clarke, Bill: The Cessna 172 First Edition. TAB Books, 1987. ISBN 0-8306-0912-1
  15. Phillips, Edward H: Wings of Cessna, Model 120 to the Citation III, Flying Books, 1986. ISBN 0-911139-05-2
  16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named 3A122
  17. "Broad Area Review - T3A May 13, 1998". fas.org. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  18. Cessna Aircraft Company (December 2007). "Skyhawk SP Specification and Description". Archived from the original on 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2008-03-09.
  19. Federal Aviation Administration (February 2008). "Type certificate data sheet no. 3a12". Retrieved 2008-03-09.

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