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Cognitive communication disorder

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Cognitive-communication Disorders
Brain-anatomy.jpg
Cognitive communication disorders are those problems associated with communication because of the brain damage making the person have difficulties in thinking and social interaction skills.
Coursepsychology


Analysis of Cognitive-communication Disorders[edit]

Cognitive-communication disorders are challenges associated with mode of communication, which are mainly brought about by a cognitive deficit and not by a basic language or a deficit in speech[1] . It occurs mostly due to improper functioning of many cognitive processes which include, orientation, memory, language, reasoning, and insight, judgments among others which are abilities that are controlled by cortical and subcortical structures in the brain. These cognitive processes stop when the frontal lobe of the brain is damaged either through an accident or diseases such as stroke which affects the right side of the brain. Individuals who suffer from these disorders mainly have difficulties in paying attention to a topic, understanding jokes, following direction, and remembering specific information[1]. The severity of the diseases varies from one person to the other where those who have a severe impairment have difficulties in communicating while those who have a mild effect lose concentration in a loud environment. The following essay will focus on the analysis of the cognitive-communication disorder.

Classifications[edit]

There are various types of cognitive disorder which includes;

·     Delirium – this is when ones conscious is disturbed for a short period, mainly because of a haste change in mental condition. It has some sub-categories related to them;

o  Substance Withdrawal Delirium

o  Substance Intoxication Delirium

o  Unspecified Delirium

·     Dementia – it is where one's brain loses its functions, causing other cognitive impairments. It has the following sub-categories;

Dementia is not a natural part of growing old (6871015972).jpg

o  Vascular Dementia

o  Dementia Due to Alzheimer's Disease

o  Dementia caused by HIV Disease

o  Substance-Induced Persisting Dementia

o  Dementia due to Pick's disease

·     Amnestic Disorders – it is malfunctioning of one's memory where no other symptoms of other cognitive disorder are found. It has the following sub-categories;

o  Organic Amnesic Syndrome

o  Unspecified Amnestic Disorder

Causes[edit]

Many health problems may lead to cognitive disorders. One of them is a stroke. 35% to 44% of patients who suffer from stroke and survives in most cases get themselves suffering from cognitive-communication impairment [2]. The other cause is a traumatic brain injury, brain tumor, or any degenerative disease; for example, Parkinson's disease also leads to these impairments.  These diseases always tamper with the cognitive processes, which may lead to communication impairment. It can, however, occur on its own as a disease which attacks the right hemisphere, thus improper functioning of the brain[2]. It can also combine with other conditions like, slurred speech or impaired language, which may lead to communication impairment.

Identification and Symptoms[edit]

These are ways that are used to identify whether an individual is suffering from this disease. Some of the methods include screening. It is done to those patients who have suffered from a brain injury or stroke. The testing is done a screening tool known as the cognitive-communication checklist for acquired brain injury (CCCABI), which is an online screening tool[2]. When the assessment is done, those who are identified to be suffering from the disorder should be referred to a speech-language pathologist for further evaluation to distinguish between cognitive-communication deficit and aphasia especially when the patient is not talking. The two diseases have similar symptoms since they cause a weakness in the communication process of an individual. [3]This now then makes it essential for those individuals who suffer difficulties in communication to visit a speech-language pathologist for consultations. The signs and symptoms of cognitive-communication disorders include the following;

o  Problems in participating in the conversation,

o  Inability to write and read, understanding the content being communicated,

o  Difficulties in responding on time, they also do not communicate transparently,

o  Difficulties in remembering their experiences and conversations made,

o  Inability to respond in a socially acceptable manner while expressing their sexual feelings in public,

o  Failure to understand the instructions given or the movies they watch.

These occur to the individuals since their mind is incapable of functioning various functions.

Treatment[edit]

These cases occur uniquely for every victim, and thus, each patient benefits from private treatment and assessment from a speech-language pathologist. Patients undergo a therapy which is a combination of various techniques that has their main aim to;

·     Restore the normal functioning through activities such as carrying out exercises to bring back the lost cognitive process for example attention, completing tasks which were hard to practice through giving them support and build confidence and retrieving training to solidify memories[3]. It ensures that the patient and family members are educated about the disorder and how to treat it in various ways, for example,

o  Use of audios and videos to make the patient and the family members aware of how the deficit looks like,

o  Analyzing the results with the patient and family members,

·     Providing therapy for the whole group and teaching the family on how to discover and help individuals who suffer from the condition.

·     The other aim is to compensate for the deficits through forming schedules and routines, giving strategies on how to improve memories as well as teaching how to solve a problem and thus enhance executive functioning. The therapy will help to provide knowledge to the family members as well as the patient and give them the best mentality in assisting the patient. It also psychologically prepares them on what to expect from the patient and how to deal with the various conditions that the patients experience.

Precautions[edit]

These are various ways on how an individual who is a survivor of brain injury or has a mental weakness should behave and work since the condition is different from one person to another. They act as guidelines and measures that one should take to avoid humiliations or damages that can be caused[3] . These precautions include:

o  Writing down important notes or appointments to prevent forgetting

o  Limit background noise to enhance attention in your activities and success

o  Make use of checklists and a detailed plan to improve executive functioning

o  Share experiences with other individuals who are suffering from a similar problem.

This will help one in controlling decision making and activities which happen in your day to day life. For those individuals who have friends or family members who are suffering from this disorder, there are various ways you can help them[3]. They include,

o  Giving time to the patient to process the information communicated

o  Provide information in short sections or parts

o  Write down key instruction and information or advise the patient to write

o  Verifying the information given by the patient from another person

o  Avoid talking too loudly and speak in simple terms in which the individual will be able to comprehend and understand fast.

The functional role of different areas in the diverse information processing stages is also specified.

The model of cognitive-communication competence[edit]

Bearing in mind that Cognitive-communication impairments are mostly associated with acquired brain injury (ABI) or the Traumatic brain injuries (TBI), these model helps to guide evidence-based communication control and regulatory measures after a traumatic brain injury[4] . The model outlines an overview of a complex arrangement of factors influencing communication henceforth bringing out a common approach of cognitive communication competence after an acquired brain injury (ABI) or a Traumatic brain injury (TBI).

These model, Cognitive-communicative impairments competence, helps diagnose deficiencies in linguistic and nonlinguistic cognitive functions. At this stage, a speech-language pathologist takes the role of multidisciplinary team player member of experts that evaluates and offers treatment to acquired brain injury (ABI) or a Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients.

The speech-language pathologist monitors and evaluates the communication aspects of the patient, also the communicative impacts of cognitive limitations and swallowing; treatment strategy and programming, according to the patient’s level of recovery [5]. The scientific and clinical evidence obtained from already carried out tested and approved group-treatment and single-sample studies and case studies confirm the effectiveness of a speech and language pathologist intervention for particular cognitive limitation such as attention, memory, execution roles as well as general issues of social-skills training and early intervention.

The Traumatic brain impairments after brain injury have widely spread and are devastating. Most of brain injury victims will sustain a brain injury or get affected with these communication impairment incidence rates are at higher rates at more than 75%.[6]

The model of cognitive-communication competence[edit]

Development of this model of cognitive-communication competence is aimed at innovatively structuring communication approach that is integrated, continuous and uniting which allows the making of crucial variables, synthesize results of various dimensions of inquiry, and enhance medical application as well as a consistent development of relevant evidence for optimal communication intervention[7]

This model functionality is based on the following principles:

1.    It outlines the significant roles of communication skills and procedures at all levels of interactions inclusive of the community integration and societal inclusion while triggering the essence of communication sampling features and techniques and complexity in communication.

2.    This model portrays communication as a complicated, multidisciplinary structure with a wide variety of cognitive, communicative, psychological, tangible, self-control, and relevance factors.

3.    To process the available evidence such as the practice standards, evidence summaries, and guidelines, which is related to communication impairments such as global procedures for Cognitive-Communication control measures.

4.    It helps to combine subjects of inquiry in SLP, emotional control, recovery and rehabilitation, and formal education, from a variety of aspects inclusive of directive order and practices.

5.    The mode helps to indicate the significance of relevance in communication impairment competence, such as the conditional conversational party requirements, by involving the principles of the World Health Organization’s global categorization of Functioning.

6.    The model also works by promoting communication competence in the real world context as a communication intervention. Communication impairmentis, therefore, a complex framework that has been frequently assessed in the language’s contexts, and education aspect.

According to a clinical implication’s summary research by Semin Speech Lang[7], the sole aim and objective of achieving a communication competence beyond the required standards or what can be termed as communication ‘success’ involve the capability to influence the way others behave. You should be able to acquire the attention and combability with your peers, family members, friends establish friendships, school, and work community. Conclusively, the updated identity of a competent communication must integrate the outline standards by the global body World Health Organization. Communication competence final outline and achievement will, therefore, involve a strategic and effective inclusion of communication aspects and production experiences and skills. Which will be determined by a multidisciplinary cognitive, language contexed, psychological, and self-regulatory abilities, within daily operations and ever-changing interpersonal exchanges, to meet the individual’s inclusion objectives and mission at a family level community, social, work, academic levels, and problem-solving contextual levels.

A comprehensive communication competence model can as therefore as well interrelate communication impairments and disorders after a brain injury this can be done on the provision of an integrated map of different results, and a structure for the continuing development well-performing operations for communication interventions.

Groups at risk[edit]

Children or adult population groups are the most vulnerable, especially those who have experienced the following conditions:

  • Damage of the right lobe of the brain
  • Acquired brain injury
  • Genetically acquired impairment
  • Insufficient oxygen supply to the brain (anoxia)
  • Past infections of tumor in the brain

Risk factors[edit]

These involve the active and passive or historical observable behavioral disease features that indicate a child is prone to risk of having or developing a. the typical common risk factors communication disorders are such as of a case of a child having a history of adverse chronic ear infections and hearing loss.

There are other risk factors or indicators to communication disorders, primarily referred to as the Clinical clues. They involve unusual behavior patterns or physical discoveries that elevate the risk of communication disorder development in a child. For instance, if a child fails to speak at 18 months, and the parent notices this, then this is a clinical clue of an impending communication disorder, which is inclusive of loss of hearing by the child. Clinical traces can be found out by the parents, other family members who look after the child or a medical expert who is assessing the condition of the child.

Challenges in early identification of communication disorders[edit]

  •     Early identification of communication disorders of children at the age of three years and below is difficult, diagnosis of the communication disorders is challenging and almost impossible
  •     In cases where the communication disorder is diagnosed at a very young age, predicting the following course and occurrence of the communication disorder may be difficult.
  •     As the child at risk of the communication disorder, gets older, the reliability and accuracy of the diagnosis for speech/language also improves with time. This makes its assessment of the disorder reliable and at the same time, more irreversible and untreatable as the cognitive development progressively occurs.

Conclusion[edit]

In conclusion, cognitive-communication disorders are caused by brain injuries or diseases such a stroke, and it can happen to every individual regardless of age or gender. Individuals suffering from these disorders have memory loss and difficulties in making the effective communication. These individuals should, therefore, make efforts to carry out various activities that remind them of their operations. In cases where one is living with these patients, one should construct simple sentences which are easily understandable by the person or that which the patients' mind can digest fast and respond accordingly. Writing down notes, diaries and timetables help these patients to remember what they could have forgotten easily. The individuals should have people who will assist them by carrying out various therapies to regain their reasonable condition and be in a capacity to retrieve the information given.

References[edit]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Norbury, Courtenay F. (2013-10-09). "Practitioner Review: Social (pragmatic) communication disorder conceptualization, evidence and clinical implications". Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 55 (3): 204–216. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12154. ISSN 0021-9630.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Voytek, Bradley; Knight, Robert T. (2015-06-15). "Dynamic Network Communication as a Unifying Neural Basis for Cognition, Development, Aging, and Disease". Biological Psychiatry. 77 (12): 1089–1097. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.04.016. ISSN 0006-3223.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Threats, Travis T. (2012-07-12). "Aphasia and Related Neurogenic Communication Disorders edited by Ilias Papathanasiou, Patrick Coppens and Constantin Potagas". International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 47 (4): 473–474. doi:10.1111/j.1460-6984.2012.00161.x. ISSN 1368-2822.
  4. Coelho, Carl A.; DeRuyter, Frank; Stein, Margo (1996-10-01). "Treatment Efficacy". Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 39 (5). doi:10.1044/jshr.3905.s5. ISSN 1092-4388.
  5. Steel, Joanne; Togher, Leanne (2018-10-10). "Social communication assessment after traumatic brain injury: a narrative review of innovations in pragmatic and discourse assessment methods". Brain Injury. 33 (1): 48–61. doi:10.1080/02699052.2018.1531304. ISSN 0269-9052.
  6. MacDonald, Sheila (2017-10-24). "Introducing the model of cognitive-communication competence: A model to guide evidence-based communication interventions after brain injury". Brain Injury. 31 (13–14): 1760–1780. doi:10.1080/02699052.2017.1379613. ISSN 0269-9052.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Smith, Martine M (2009-07-16). "The Dual Challenges of Aided Communication and Adolescence". Augmentative and Alternative Communication. 21 (1): 67–79. doi:10.1080/10428190400006625. ISSN 0743-4618.


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