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History of the Kurfürstendamm

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The Kurfürstendamm, an avenue in the western districts of Berlin, was built during the 1880s, when this territory was being urbanized. It became rapidly one of the boulevards of the German capital. Its history mirrors the social, cultural and political vicissitudes of twentieth century Germany.

The Kurfürstendamm before the Kurfürstendamm[edit]

The Plan Géométral de Berlin (1685), drawn by the engineer La Vigne, is the first document in which the Kurfürstendamm's layout can be seen. In the centre of the map we can see the Tiergarten. The Kurfürstendamm is the road that starts at the South-West of the forest, pointing towards West-South-West. The Kurfürstendamm's name is instead first found in a map by Friedrich Wilhelm Carl von Schmettenau, a military topographer, in 1748

The Kurfürstendamm as we know it today was built between 1882 and 1885. Its layout follows that of an old country road that connected Berlin to the Grunewald forest, a hunting preserve owned by the prince-electors (Kurfürst) of Brandenburg. In 1542, a castle was built there in order to accommodate the prince during the hunting season (Jagdschloss of Gruenevald). The prince-electors' palace in Berlin was connected to the Grunewald forest by a road divided in three parts: the first was, and still is, called the Unter der Linden, which cut through the western districts (Friedrichstadt); the second crossed the Tiergarten East to West; the third started from the south-western corner of the Tiergarten direction West-South-West until it reached the forest. The road is clearly visible on the Plan Géometral de Berlin of 1685.[1]

The birth of the modern Kurfürstendamm[edit]

Bismarck's Project[edit]

It is to Bismarck that we owe the project of transforming this country road into a modern avenue. Having Berlin become the capital of the German Empire, the Chancellor was concerned with giving it an appearance that could parallel its newly acquired status and compete with other European capitals. Bismarck's admiration for Paris as an urban and architectural model is known to us thanks to a letter from 1873, in which he exposed the idea of rebuilding the Kurfürstendamm in order to provide Berlin with something akin to the notorious Champs-Élysées avenue.

"The fact that [the country road] is a public property offers us the possibility to transform it into a larger and more beautiful road," he wrote. "[In view of Berlin's expansion] the Kurfürstendamm will be too small: it cannot become a road for carriages and horsemen [as was the Champs Élysées avenue]. Now, Grunewald will become like the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, and the road that will lead to it [the Kurfürstendamm] should be as big as the Champs Élysées."[2]

The social and economic reasons for the Kurfürstendamm's success[edit]

Work on the avenue began in 1883, in the same period in which urbanization started in the three villages crossed by the old road: Charlottenburg, Wilmersdorf and Halensee. This transformation was caused by Berlin's industrialization, started around 1850 and continued, at an accelerated pace, after Germany's victory against France in 1870 and the creation of the empire. The development of urban industries attracted growing numbers of peasants from the impoverished Eastern regions, and the city grew from 430,000 inhabitants in 1852 to 2 million in 1900.[3] Even more remarkable was the development of towns in the area surrounding the capital, particularly in the North, East and South-East of the city, where the industries relocated. It was in these areas that the great working-class districts emerged, soon to become famous for their miserable conditions; their buildings were named "Mietkasernen", large tenement "barracks". In them, families lived in one or two room apartments with no kitchen or toilet.[4]

Instead the bourgeoisie, who could allow themselves houses that corresponded to their needs and their status, occupied the areas in the West and South-West of the city: Schöneberg, Steglitz, Zehlendorf, Charlottenburg, Wilmersdorf and Halensee.[5] Soon enough, the latter three villages became proper "bourgeoisie towns". In particular, Charlottenburg became the area with the highest concentration of wealthy citizens in the whole of Germany.[6]

Bismarck's project soon attracted the attention of the Deutsche Bank, which saw the opportunity to profit from the great changes it entailed. It thus created the "Kurfürstendamm Gesellschaft" (the "Society of Kurfürstendamm"), which began transforming this small country road into a great modern avenue. The presence of wealthy citizens in the area, together with the lavish style with which this new road was being constructed, encouraged investors to buy the land around it in order to build luxurious houses, which they would then sell or rent at high prices[7]

Construction finished in 1885, and in the following twenty years almost all the land surrounding the avenue was built up (though the very last plots, which correspond to the current Lehniner Platz, were erected only in 1928). It was then that the Kurfürstendamm took the semblance that some of its parts have today. The structure and dimensions were precisely those instructed by Bismarck: 53 meters wide, with a 7 ½ meter garden in front of every house and, in front of these gardens, a 4 meter pavement. Furthermore, the carriageway was to be divided into two 10 meter lanes, separated by a central one which contained a track for pedestrians and another for people on horseback.[8]

Interval: Kurfürstendamm's route[edit]

The Kurfürstendamm in 1916

Until 1925, Kurfürstendamm's route was longer than the present one. This was because its first part, having crossed Breidscheidplatz, would extend inside the Tiergarten up to Corneliusbrücke (Cornelius bridge). However, in 1925 this section took the name of Budapester Straße. For this reason, today the Kurfürstendamm begins at Breitscheidplatz, among the ruins of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche. The avenue then extends West-South-West until it reaches Rathenauplatz, just as it had in the days of the elector-princes. For those coming from the Kurfürstendamm, today the Budapester Straße does not appear as its continuation. Instead, East of the Breidscheidtplatz it seems to continue into the Tauentzienstraße. A few metres later, the latter leads to Wittenberg Platz (where you can find the department store KaDeWe - Kaufhaus des Westens)

Breidscheidplatz and Rathenauplatz have changed names more than once since they were first built. The former, dedicated to Johannes Gutenberg in 1889, was then renamed Auguste-Viktoria-Platz in 1892 in honour of Kaiser Wilhelm II's wife. Finally, in 1947 it was named after Rudolf Breidscheid, a distinguished victim of Nazism. Rathenauplatz was called Henrietteplatz. It was only after World War II that it was dedicated to Walther Rathenau, an industrialist (owner of AEG), intellectual, patron and politician, who was assassinated in a plot organized by nationalists in the military in 1924, when he was Foreign Minister.

The Wilhelmine period (from creation to World War I)[edit]

The Architecture[edit]

The buildings of the Kurfürstendamm were characterized, from an architectural point of view, by their grandeur and the richness of their decorations. However, their style was in harmony with contemporary architectural trends, which were dominated by historicism and eclecticism. Buildings were thus overwhelmed by caryatids, columns, loggias, garlands, stuccos; their main purpose being that of underlining the richness of their owners. It is said that, having finished the structure of a building, architects would ask the builder: "in what style would you like the facade?" In this way, many buildings would become a pastiche of styles – romanesque, renaissance, Bavarian, Austrian. [9]

The flats, with 10,12,15 or even 20 rooms, were enormous and equipped with all the comforts of that age: multiple bathrooms, central heating, hot running water, elevators, electric lighting and even central vacuum cleaners, with pipes that could reach every room of the house.[9]

Restaurants, cafés and shops – upper and working class[edit]

Even the shops, restaurants and cafés of the Kurfürstendamm were characterized by their luxury, especially in its Eastern section. After the inauguration of the KaDeWe department store, the most elegant stores in Berlin opened new branches in the new avenue or in the Tauentzienstraße close by, and so did restaurants, cafés and pastry shops. Furnished according to the latest fashion, they made German and foreign newspapers available and offered live orchestra music which would play until late in the evening.

The more one walked westward the more the bars became working class. In some cases, especially around Henrietteplatz (the current Rathenauplatz), these became proper taverns (Weinstuben). In this same area, one could find a number of dance halls and other attractions that could appeal to working class crowds. Laborers, small office workers, clerks; all came from the distant working-class districts during the summer weekends to participate in that era's favorite pastime: dancing.[10]

Poster of a dancing hall near Henrietteplatz.

The Café des Westens[edit]

Café des Westens

Of all the cafés of the Kurfürstendamm, one in particular needs to be remembered: the Café des Westens (café of the West). The latter was the first café to be created in this area, in 1893, when nothing but fields surrounded the avenue.[11] It was, and remained, a modest café. However, because of its role as the meeting place for Berlin's cultural avant-garde, it soon became one of the most famous in the whole city. It was frequented daily by members of the Secession movement (whose gallery was to be found on the Kurfürstendamm) and by representatives of other artistic and literary movements that were born in those years. Other regular customers were Expressionist artists, theorists and writers. It was in this café that their magazines, like "Der Sturm" and "Die Aktion", were conceived.

Working inside cafés and using them as open space offices, was a widespread phenomenon in Europe before World War II. In such places artists worked, exchanged ideas with colleagues and friends (sometimes heatedly), shared information regarding new theories and artistic currents, and, importantly, it was in such places that they could often be found by those who looked for them.

Other regulars were the famous actor, director and impresario Max Reinhardt, the protagonists of the theatrical rebirth of the early 20th century such as Frank Wedekind or exponents of the Berliner bohème.[12] The German "cabaret", a form of theatrical entertainment soon destined to enormous success, was also born in the Café des Westens. Also, the latter was attended by journalists and editors that opposed nationalism and Wilhelmine authoritarianism, liberals, socialists and anarchists. Finally, on a more irregular basis, one could see famous independent personalities such as Richard Strauss, Heinrich Mann, Walther Rathenau or Karl Kraus (who would go there on his visits to Berlin).[13] [14]

Fun and games[edit]

On the Kurfürstendamm and in the surrounding area one could also find theaters and art galleries together with more popular forms of entertainments. For example, in 1890, in an uncultivated patch of land to the south of Gutenberplatz (today Breitscheidplatz), Buffalo Bill set up his circus, followed immediately by his rival Doctor Carver, "the greatest marksman in the world". In the summer of 1897, between the Kurfürstendamm and what is now the elegant Savignyplatz, the Berliners could visit the "Transvaal exhibition". There, in the middle of a scenic design that faithfully recreated a South African landscape, one could find the reconstruction of an aboriginal and a Boer village, complete with their actual inhabitants and animals.

Other extravagant entertainments were organized in 1904 and 1905 with respectively the Flottenspiele (naval games) and the "Untergang von Pompei" ("The end of Pompeii"), both taking place in the vast stretch of land where one can now find the Lehniner Platz. For the former, a broad artificial basin was dug, where small scale man steered ships fought each other ireproducing the most famous naval battles of the time. The latter consisted instead of a majestic choreographic performance inspired by the well-known novel by Edward Bulwer-Lytton: "The Last Days of Pompeii". Every night, when the ballet came to an end, fireworks would reproduce the eruption of the Vesuvius, and every night the entire set would crumble to the ground.

However, the most successful working-class entertainment was the "Luna Park", an enormous, baroque amusement park, modeled on its namesake in Coney Island, New York. The latter was located next to Rathenauplatz, in an area including the Halensee lake.[15]

The Luna Park was inspired by the park by the same name in Coney Island, New York. It was enormous, spectacular and extravagant.

World War I[edit]

The men on the front, the war effort, the tragic news coming daily from the battlefields, the slow but inexorable approach of total defeat; World War I was by no means a joyful period for the life of the Kurfürstendamm. For some time, the activities on the avenue came to a halt, while some of them shut down indefinitely. For example, a military hospital and a factory of preserves for the army were set up where the "Luna Park" used to be.

The Weimar Republic: Kurfürstendamm's golden age[edit]

The Kurfürstendamm becomes the center of Berlin[edit]

In front of café Kranzler

In 1920 Berlin´s municipal area was expanded in order to absorb some neighboring town. To them belonged the three towns crossed by the Kurfürstendamm, that is Charlottenburg, Wilmersdorf and Halensee. Though the area remained suburban, the social and cultural life of the Kurfürstendamm led this avenue to become more important than the center itself, where the most representative street from this point of view was the Friedrichstraße. Franz Lederer wrote on a guide: "the Kurfürstendamm has become the main street for entertainment in the whole of Berlin; from this point of view it has even surpassed the Friedrichstraße. There one can seamlessly find cinemas, cafés, bars, cabaret, pubs, wine bars, libraries, art galleries, fashion shops, and luxury stores".[16]

Architectural works of particular interest[edit]

In the period following World War I, architectural ideas were changing radically, and this can evidently be seen on the Kurfürstendamm.

Products of the modernist movement, the buildings constructed in these years were characterized by a preference for geometrical purity. If compared to the buildings erected before the war, with their lavish decorations, the new constructions were characterized by their simplicity.[17]

Two such buildings are often mentioned by the historians of architecture.

One of these, reconstructed after World War II, is still visible. This is the WOGA complex in Lehniner Platz, designed by Erich Mendelsohn. It is composed of a block of flats and two public buildings. One of these was the "Universum Cinema", faithfully reconstructed after the war and then transformed into the "Schaubühne" theatre in the 1970s. Next to the "Universum" one could find the "Kabarett der Komiker" (cabaret of comedians) theatre and the café "Leon", Erich Kaestner's working place.[18]

The other, destroyed during the war, was never rebuilt. It had been designed by Hans Poelzig and it could be found on the northern side of today's Breitscheidtplatz. It comprised several commercial activities and the "Capitol" cinema. Where it used to lie we can now find the shopping center called "Bikini Berlin".[19][20]

It is also noteworthy that during this period some of the facades were "transformed" in order to adhere to the style of the new architectural trend.[21]

Culture and the development of new arts (cinema, variety)[edit]

After World War I most of the artists and intellectuals which patronized the Café des Westens kept their headquarters on the avenue, even though some of them, like Max Liebermann, now played an official role (Liebermann had become director of the Academy of Arts). New figures also started to appear on the Kurfürstendamm: Alfred Döblin, Bertholt Brecht and Erich Kaestner, for example. One met as well the artists who worked in the new artistic industry, cinema, like Ernst Lubitsch, Fritz Lang, Billy Wilder, Asta Nielsen or Paola Negri. Variety shows and cabarets were flourishing again. Close by lived musicians like Victor Hollaender or Rudolf Nelson, both famous pianists and authors of many songs. Nelson in particular was also a brilliant impresario: it was him that brought to his theater in the Kurfürstendamm one of the greatest divas of the variety show of the time, the French-American Josephine Baker.[22]

IThe UFA Palast cinema. In the 1920s the great production companies opened luxurious cinemas on the Kurfürstendamm to show their new films.

The "romanisches Café"[edit]

The "Romanisches Café" in the "Romanisches Haus"

After the war, having moved and become more elegant and expensive, the "Café des Westens" no longer attracted Berlin's intellectuals. Their new meeting place became instead the "Romanisches Café", situated in one of the two so called "romanesque" houses in Breischeidplatz..[23] Among its regulars were the expressionists (now joined by Alfred Döblin), some painters and the old exponents of the Bohème.[24] Also, this was the place favored by Luigi Pirandello, who had a reserved table for him during his stay in Berlin from 1928 to 1930.[25] Other celebrities of the day preferred different places. Brecht, for example, frequented the "Schlichter" restaurant, not too far from the Kurfürstendamm. The theater companies went instead to the café-restaurant "Schwanneke", while those from the world of cinema to the "Gaststätte Josty" in Potsdamer Platz. However, during the Weimar period the "Romanisches Café" remained a place where one could meet friends, colleagues and financiers. Thus, even when groups decided to eat somewhere else, the café would always be their meeting place.[26]

The Kurfürstendamm during the Nazi era[edit]

As far back as 1926, when Joseph Goebbels was nominated the head of Berlin's National Socialist party, the regulars and inhabitants of the Kurfürstendamm became victims of his menacing threats. Among them was a high percentage of Jews, mostly successful professional men whose career was held up by the Nazis as an object of envy to the poor of Berlin. Goebbels viciously and absurdly described them as "rich and communist Jews", whose wealth derived from the exploitation of the German people. Their life, in his words, was "divided between plots and immorality, spending their days in the Romanischen Café busy with their sinister revolutionary plans", and their nights "dancing music played by Negros and mocking the widespread poverty of that period".[27]

Mingling Communism and Judaism, Goebbels aimed at exploiting the natural envy that much of the population felt for the wealthy, in order to spread hatred towards both the Jews and the political adversaries of the Nazis. In fact, the Kurfürstendamm seemed to embody everything which this party loathed and wished to suppress.

Thus, after they had taken over power, the Nazis unleashed on this avenue and its frequenters the same violence they directed over the whole of Germany. Those intellectuals that didn't embrace Nazism were persecuted; some of them, like Erich Mühsam and Carl von Ossietzki were quickly arrested, tortured and then killed. The majority, however, managed to escape out of the country. The Jews were subject to discriminatory laws, dispossessed of their properties, murdered. Even the Luna Park was "arianized" and forced to close in 1935.

Nonetheless, the Kurfürstendamm continued to be a place of entertainment and nightlife, the only difference being that, instead of the old protagonists, one would now encounter the new stars of the Nazi period like Gustav Gründgens, Leni Riefenstahl or Zarah Leander.[28]

The War[edit]

Breitscheidtplatz in 1945

For the Kurfürstendamm, the war was characterized by the destruction of many of its buildings due to the frequent bombings to which Berlin was subjected. Already on the 22nd of November of 1943, the first day of the aerial raids, a pile of rubble was all that was left of the buildings of Breischeidplatz. The following day an American airplane crashed into the KaDeWe department store, destroying it entirely. The bombing continued in 1944 and 1945. And yet the Kurfürstendamm was but irregularly hit: though 190 buildings out of 235 were destroyed, some segments of the avenue remained untouched.[29][30]

From division to reunification: 1945–1989[edit]

During the war, in Berlin nearly 600,000 homes were destroyed, with at least 1,700,000 homeless people wondering about the city.[31] In the divided city reconstruction took years. In West Berlin it really took place only during the 1960s. Slowing down the process were not only the magnitude of the work to be done and the absence of necessary funds, but the uncertainty regarding the city's future as well. This can partly be ascribed to the Soviet Union's manifested intentions of annexing the entire city to the German Democratic Republic. The confrontation escalated when Soviet forces blocked all access and communication between West Berlin and the German Federal Republic. The blockade lasted from June 1948 to May 1949, when the United States' firm defense of the city's allied sectors led to the annexation of West Berlin to the Federal Republic. Their resolution put an end to all doubts regarding the city's future, so that in West Berlin reconstruction finally truly began. [32]

The Kurfürstendamm in the years of uncertainty (May 1945 – May 1949): the rapid recovery of shows and commerce[edit]

Between April and July 1945, before the arrival of the Allied forces, Berlin was governed by those who had won over the city after a long battle: the Soviet military command. On the 28th of April, General Bersarin, head of the Soviet troops and the city's temporary military governor, issued his first decree. Among its provisions was the imposition of a curfew. An exception was allowed: "cinemas, theaters, circuses and stadiums" could stay open until 9 in the evening[33]. As the city's main entertainment area, this exception was especially important for the Kurfürstendamm. This was especially true as it now stood alone in its provision of entertainment; its traditional "rivals", the Friedrichstraße and the Potsdamer Platz had been all but completely destroyed.

Thus, the Renaissance-Theater, not far from the Kurfürstendamm, reopened on the the 26th of May, no longer than three weeks after Berlin's capitulation. On the 1st of June, the Kabarett der Komiker company retrieved their old venue in Lehniner Platz. Slowly, other rooms were restored too, covering them with temporary roofs and rearranging the interiors. Also the cafés, restaurants and shops restarted their activities as fast as possible, though more often than not their activity consisted of "a couple of tables on a sidewalk in a clearance among the rubble"[34]. Already in July 1946, 210 shops had been reopened, among which 43 fashion stores, a distinguishing feature of the Ku'damm. Two years later, set up inside a building with nothing left but the first two floors, the "Eva Moden" opened, specializing in high-end fashion garments. For the most part, its clientele consisted of the wives of occupying military officers.

Thus, growing in the middle of the rubble and using any means available, the Kurfürstendamm gradually reclaimed its place as the city's main spot for entertainment and luxury shopping. Yet, never again did it return to be the city's cultural hub.[35]

Photograph of the Burgkeller restaurant in 1947 (Owner: Deutsches Historisches Museum)

From the blockade to the building of the wall (1949–1961)[edit]

In 1951, the Berlin International Film Festival was created. Otherwise known as the "Berlinale", this event gave a new life to the Kurfürstendamm, as the majority of events from 1953 onward took place in the cinemas of the boulevard. In this way, the avenue returned to being the city's most important area for anything concerning the cinema, and, during the festival, the protagonists of this field could be seen parading on its pavements.[36]

In those years the Kurfürstendamm also changed its face from an architectonic perspective, with new large buildings modeled on the style of the 1950s. Public opinion welcomed these changes, even demanding a complete renovation of the avenue so as to leave no trace of its past. These buildings rise in stark contrast to their surroundings, both stylistically and for their dimensions.[37]

From the wall to unification (1961–1989)[edit]

Center of West Berlin[edit]

After the construction of the Wall, the western half of Berlin found itself isolated from the former Soviet sector. The Kurfürstendamm thus acquired a new role: it became the city center of West Berlin. Before the war, a center for the entire city existed: the area that stretched between Postdamer Platz, to Alexanderplatz along the Unter den Linden, with Friedrichstraße as its North-South axis. Then the Kurfürstendamm was an avenue at the periphery of the city, even though it was considered the main place for luxury products, entertainment and culture. Now the old center was destroyed, and what remained of it it belonged to the Eas Germany. Becuse of its situation, the Kurfürstendamm became central to West Berlin. The administrative part of the city was in Schöneberg, where the Mayor resided, but the avenue became its symbolic center, where tourists came in great numbers, politicians showed themselves on official visits and where protests took place.[38] For example, it was here that thousands of Berliners came to greet John F. Kennedy in 1963. Or where student demonstrations clashed with police in 1968. The following years saw a number of protests take place on the avenue: the "squatters" movement, the "anti-nuclear" movement, or that of the "alternatives". Last but not least, a number of famous personalities were welcomed there: the lunar landing astronauts, Presidents Nixon, Carter and Reagan, Queen Elizabeth and many others.[39]

An architecture chasing modernity[edit]

Although much of the rubble had been cleared when the Wall was raised, among the restored buildings there remained the empty spaces of those that could not be saved.These spaces were filled with skyscrapers gradually growing from large to gigantic. In this growth even the most recent constructions were demolished to make place for newer ones.[40]

The large areas of the avenue that had been spared by the bombing testimony to this day what the Kurfürstendamm looked like before the war. This is even more true after the 1980s, when a new interest for Berlin's historical heritage led the city to finally restore some older buildings and their decorations.[41]

From the reunification onward[edit]

Because of the construction of the Wall, the Kurfürstendamm had become the new center of West Berlin. When the wall "fell", it completely lost such a role. Suddenly, the curiosity of tourists, and of Berliners too, abandoned the West to concentrate on the old East. In the meantime, at pace with the rest of the world, commerce was changing: small luxury boutiques gave way to large international chains and shopping centers. One after the other, all shops, cafés and restaurants were substituted by the stores of multinational brands.

Notes[edit]

  1. Stürickow 2013, pp. 62–79
  2. Bohm 1980
  3. Ribbe, Schmeidecke, 1994
  4. Geist, Johann Friedrich; Kürvers, Klaus (1984). Das berliner Mietshaus. 2 (1862–1945). München: Prestel. Search this book on
  5. Häußermann, Kapphan, pp. 31–42
  6. Engel, Helmut (1993). Charlottenburg. Residenzstadt, Großstadt, City. Berlin: Stapp Verlag. pp. 77–83. Search this book on
  7. Metzger, Dunker 1987, p. 15
  8. Vossische Zeitung, 05/28/1885
  9. 9.0 9.1 Dreppenstedt, Hinnerk; Esche, Klaus (2007). Ganz Berlin. Berlin: Nicolai. pp. 228–229. Search this book on
  10. Berliner illustrierte Zeitung, vol. 4, n° 38, 1895
  11. Edel, Edmund (1913). Pauly, Ernst, ed. 20 Jahre Café des Westens. Erinnerungen vom Kurfürstendamm. Berlin: Richard Labish. pp. 7–16. Search this book on
  12. Bab, Julius (1904). Die berliner Bohème. Berlin and Leipzig: Hermann Seemann. Search this book on
  13. Fohsel, Hermann J.(1995). ´´Im Wartesaal der Poesie´´ Das Arsenal: Berlin
  14. Schebera, Jürgen (1988). ´´Damals im Romanischen Café´´,Westermann: Leipzig
  15. Metzger; Dunker, pp. 76–82
  16. Lederer, Franz (1925). Berlin und Umgebung. Berlin: Terramare Reisebücher. p. 47. Search this book on
  17. Loos, Adolf (1997). Ornament and Crime. Riverside (CA). Search this book on
  18. Zevi, Bruno (1999). E. Mendelsohn – The Complete Works. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag. Search this book on
  19. Bienert, Michael; Buchholz, Elke Linda (2006). Die Zwanziger Jahre in Berlin. Berlin: Berlin Story Verlag. p. 208. Search this book on
  20. Christina Tilmann, "Kinos auf dem Kurfürstendamm", in Zajonz; Kuhrau, p. 102
  21. Kuhrau Sven, "Sehnsucht nach Stadt", in Zajonz; Kuhrau, pp. 11–24
  22. Metzger; Dunker, 126–140
  23. Zivier, Georg (1965). Das Romanische Café. Berlin: Haude & Spenersche Verlagsbuchhandlung. pp. 7–10. Search this book on
  24. Schebera, Jürgen (1990). Damals im Romanischen Café. Braunschweig: Westermann. pp. 29–65. Search this book on
  25. Zivier, Gorg (1965). Das romanische Café. Berlin: Haude & Spenesche Verlagsbuchhandlung. pp. 34–35. Search this book on
  26. Schebera, Jürgen (1990). Damals im romanischen Café. Braunschweig: Westermann. pp. 65–85. Search this book on
  27. Goebbels, Joseph (1937). Vom Keiserhof zu Reichkanzelei. Munich: Franz Eher. p. 36. Search this book on
  28. Metzger; Dunker, p. 158–179
  29. Studnitz, Hans-Georg (1963). Als Berlin brannte. Stuttgard: Kohlhammer. p. 145. Search this book on
  30. Meichsner, Oswin (1966). Der Kurfürstendamm von Oswin in ganzer Länge gezeichnet. Berlin: Oswin. Search this book on
  31. Demps, Laurenz, ed. (2012). Luftangriffe auf Berlin. Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag. pp. 94–110. Search this book on
  32. Ribbe; Schmeidecke, p. 196–205
  33. Metzger; Dunker, p. 194
  34. Metzger; Dunker, p. 200
  35. Metzger; Dunker, pp. 214–218
  36. Borgelt, Hans (1982). Stars und Stories. Filmgeschicht(n) aus Berlin. Munich: Herbig Verlag. Search this book on
  37. Zajonz; Kuhrau, pp. 11–24
  38. Metzger; Dunker, pp. 239–243
  39. Metzger, Karl-Heinz (2004). "Der Kurfürstendamm - Boulevard und Symbol". Bezirkamt Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. Retrieved 2018-06-13.
  40. Kuhrau Sven; Kohnen, Oskar "Wiederaufbau. Ein Foto Essay" in Zajonz; Kuhrau, pp. 40-53
  41. Hardt-Waltherr Hämer (1990). "Behutsame Stadterneuerung", in Senatsverwaltung für Bau- und Wohnungswesen (dir), Berlin: Senatsverwaltung für Bau- und Wohnungswesen.

References[edit]

  • Bohm, Eberhard (1980). "Kurfürstendamm. Entstehung und erste Entwicklung". In Ribbe, Wolfgang. Von der Residenz zur City. 250 Jahre Charlottenburg. Berlin: Colloquium Verlag. pp. 67–102. Search this book on
  • Häußermann, Hartmut; Kapphan, Andreas (2012). Berlin: von der geteilten zur gespaltenen Stadt. Opladen: Leske und Budrich. p. 292. Search this book on
  • Jochens, Birgit; Miltenberger, Sonja (2011). Von Haus zu Haus am Kurfürstendamm. Berlin: Text Verlag. p. 253. Search this book on
  • Metzger, Karl-Heinz; Dunker, Ulrich (1987). Der Kurfürstendamm. Leben und Mythos des Boulevards in 100 Jahren deutscher Geschichte. Berlin: Konopka. p. 285. Search this book on
  • Ribbe, Wolfgang; Schmeidecke, Jürgen (1994). Kleine Berlin-Geschichte. Berlin: Stapp Verlag. p. 532. Search this book on
  • Stürickow, Regina (2013). "Vom Feldweg zum Boulevard". Damals (in German). Vol. 45 no. 1. pp. 62–69.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  • Zajonz, Michael; Kuhrau, Sven, eds. (2010). Heimweh nach dem Kurfürstendamm. Geschchte, Gegenwart und Perspektiven des berliner Boulevards. Berlin: Michael Imhof Verlag. pp. 5–176. Search this book on


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