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List of ancient Anatolian peoples

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This is a list of ancient Anatolian peoples who inhabited most of Anatolia (or Asia Minor). “Anatolian” here has the meaning of an Indo-European branch of peoples that lived in the Anatolia Peninsula or Asia Minor, although not all ancient peoples that dwelt in this Peninsula were Indo-Europeans. These peoples were speakers of the Anatolian branch (or subfamily) of the Indo-European language family.[1]

Ancestors[edit]

Map 1: Indo-European migrations as described in The Horse, the Wheel, and Language by David W. Anthony
Map 2: Anatolian peoples in 2nd millennium BC; Blue: Luwians, Yellow: Hittites, Red: Palaics.
Map 3: Late Bronze Age regions of Anatolia / Asia Minor (circa 1200 BC) with main settlements.
Map 4: Anatolia / Asia Minor in the Greco-Roman period. The classical regions and their main settlements (circa 200 BC).
  • Proto-Indo-Europeans (Proto-Indo-European speakers)[2]
    • Proto-Anatolians (Indo-European) (Proto-Anatolian speakers)[3][4][5][6]

Hittites (Nesitic / Central Anatolians)[edit]

  • Hittites / Nesites[7][8][9] (𒉈𒅆𒇷 - Nesumines)
    • Cappadocians? / Leucosyri? (according to Herodotus, Cappadocians and Leucosyri were the same people[10] - Cappadocians was the Persian name and Leucosyri the Greek name) (Cappadocians also inhabited the West Pontus that originally was part of Cappadocia)[11]
      • Amiseni? (inhabited Themiscyra district in West Pontus)
      • Cases? / Kases?
      • West Pontians?

Luwics (Southern Anatolians)[edit]

  • Luwians[12][13][14]
    • Cataonians (possibly assimilated by the Cappadocians in the Classical Age) (in the Bronze Age and early Iron Age, Cataonia was part of the Neo-Hittite kingdoms who were Luwian speaking; however in Classical Antiquity, Strabo states that although they were distinct peoples, they spoke the same language as the Cappadocians)[15]
    • Cilicians[16][17]
      • Danuna[18][19] - they dwelt in the "Land of the Danuna" (they may have been the inhabitants of Adana, Adaniya or Ataniya city and region, in Cilicia and also they may have been the people called Denyen by the ancient Egyptians, one of the Sea peoples)
    • Commagenians? (Commagene in early Iron Age had a bilingual population of Luwian and Hurrian, later, with the Assyrian Empire conquest, the region was Assyrianized and was in the cultural sphere of Mesopotamia, later, ancient Armenians also had an important presence in the region; the ancient Romans considered Commagene part of the province of Syria, east of the Amanus and south of the Taurus mountains)
    • Isaurians[20][21]
    • Lycaonians[22][23]
    • Philistines? (they may have been the people called Peleset by the ancient Egyptians, one of the Sea peoples)[24][25]
    • Southwest
      • Carians[26][27][28]
      • Leleges?[29][30][31]
      • Pamphylians (Non-Hellenics)
      • Pisidio-Sidians
        • Pisidians / Pamphylians (Pamphylians, on the coast, and Pisidians, in the inland, were the same people and spoke the same language, the difference was that Anatolian Pamphylians were more Greek influenced since Iron Age) (there was an Anatolian Pamphylian dialect, part of the Pisidian language, and a Pamphylian Greek dialect, part of Ancient Greek, depending on the degree of Hellenization)
          • Homanades (Homana or Homona was their main settlement)
        • Sidians (in Side region)
      • Solymoi / Solymi (according to Strabo, this was the older name of the Milyans) (they may have been or not the same people as the Lycians)[32][33]
        • Milyans / Milyae ("Lycian B" or “Lycian II” speakers)[34][35]
          • Lycians / Termilae (𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊍𐊆 – Trm̃mili = Trəmmili (m̃ = əm))[36][37]
      • Telchines?

Western Anatolian?[edit]

Related to but not part of Luwics

  • Lydians / Maeonians[38][39][40] (Maíones) (𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣𐤸𐤯𐤦𐤳 - Śfardẽtis)
    • Kaystrianoi / Caystriani
    • Kilbianoi / Cilbiani
  • Trojans? / Taruisans?[41][42][43]

Palaics (Northern Anatolian)[edit]

  • Palaics[44][45][46] (in Pala region, northern Anatolia or Asia Minor)
    • Paphlagonians (mainly in Paphlagonia, roughly matching Pala, northern Anatolia or Asia Minor)

Possible Anatolian (Indo-European) peoples[edit]

  • Mysians?[51][52] (possibly they were more related to the Phrygians, a non Anatolian Indo-European people, and therefore they were possibly not an Anatolian Indo-European people, Mysia was also known as Phrygia Hellespontica, however they probably had a mixing with an Anatolian people closer to the Lydians, which would explain some statements by ancient authors such as Strabo when he stated that Mysian language was, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and Phrygian languages)
    • Milatai? / Milatae?

See also[edit]


Other articles of the topics Asia AND Turkey : Saudi Arabia–Turkey proxy conflict, Iran–Turkey proxy conflict

Other articles of the topic Asia : Arash Mardani, Treasure 13, Iran–Turkey proxy conflict, Telangana, List of Canadians of Asian ancestry, China–United States proxy conflict, List of tourist Attractions in Karachi

Other articles of the topic Turkey : Afşin-C coal mine, Iran–Turkey proxy conflict, Yakup Avşar, Saudi Arabia–Turkey proxy conflict, Miskender, Turkish Brazilians, Afşin-D coal mine
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  • Anatolians
  • List of ancient peoples of Anatolia
  • Mitanni
  • Kassites
  • Purushanda
  • Hyksos
  • Sea peoples
  • Maryannu
  • Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni
  • Kikkuli
  • Ancient Regions of Anatolia

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. https://academic-eb-com.eres.qnl.qa/levels/collegiate/article/Anatolian-languages/109768
  2. Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  3. Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  4. https://academic-eb-com.eres.qnl.qa/levels/collegiate/article/Anatolian-languages/109768
  5. Melchert, H. Craig (2012). "The Position of Anatolian" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-09. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  6. Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BCE). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  7. Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  8. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hittite
  9. Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BCE). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  10. Herodotus, Histories
  11. Herodotus, Histories
  12. Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  13. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Luwian
  14. Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BCE). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  15. "And Cataonia, also, is a tenth portion of Cappadocia. In my time each of the two countries had its own prefect; but since, as compared with the other Cappadocians, there is no difference to be seen either in the language or in any other usages of the Cataonians, it is remarkable how utterly all signs of their being a different tribe have disappeared. At any rate, they were once a distinct tribe, but they were annexed by Ariarathes, the first man to be called king of the Cappadocians." Strabo in Geographica, Book XII, Chapter 1. https://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Strabo/12A*.html
  16. Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  17. Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BCE). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  18. "A dictionary of archaeology", Ian Shaw, Robert Jameson. Wiley-Blackwell, 2002. ISBN 0-631-23583-3 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., ISBN 978-0-631-23583-5 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png.. p. 515
  19. The journal of Egyptian archaeology, Volumes 47–49. Egypt Exploration Fund, Egypt Exploration Society. 1961. p. 80
  20. Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  21. Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BCE). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  22. Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  23. Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BCE). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  24. Bonfante, G. (1946). "Who were the Philistines?". American Journal of Archaeology. 50 (2): 251–62. doi:10.2307/499052. JSTOR 499052.
  25. Dothan, Trude Krakauer; Dothan, Moshe (1992). People of the Sea: The Search for the Philistines. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 0-02-532261-3. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  26. *Bean, George Ewart (1989). Turkey beyond the Meander. London: John Murray Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-7195-4663-X. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  27. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Leleges
  28. Strabo. Geographica, 12.8.5. "Not only the Carians, who in earlier times were islanders, but also the Leleges, as they say, became mainlanders with the aid of the Cretans, who founded, among other places, Miletus, having taken Sarpedon from the Cretan Miletus as founder; and they settled the Termilae in the country which is now called Lycia; and they say that these settlers were brought from Crete by Sarpedon, a brother of Minos and Rhadamanthus, and that he gave the name Termilae to the people who were formerly called Milyae, as Herodotus says, and were in still earlier times called Solymi, but that when Lycus the son of Pandion went over there he named the people Lycians after himself. Now this account represents the Solymi and the Lycians as the same people, but the poet makes a distinction between them."
  29. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Leleges
  30. Strabo. Geographica, 12.8.5. "Not only the Carians, who in earlier times were islanders, but also the Leleges, as they say, became mainlanders with the aid of the Cretans, who founded, among other places, Miletus, having taken Sarpedon from the Cretan Miletus as founder; and they settled the Termilae in the country which is now called Lycia; and they say that these settlers were brought from Crete by Sarpedon, a brother of Minos and Rhadamanthus, and that he gave the name Termilae to the people who were formerly called Milyae, as Herodotus says, and were in still earlier times called Solymi, but that when Lycus the son of Pandion went over there he named the people Lycians after himself. Now this account represents the Solymi and the Lycians as the same people, but the poet makes a distinction between them."
  31. *Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  32. Strabo. Geographica, 12.8.5. "Not only the Carians, who in earlier times were islanders, but also the Leleges, as they say, became mainlanders with the aid of the Cretans, who founded, among other places, Miletus, having taken Sarpedon from the Cretan Miletus as founder; and they settled the Termilae in the country which is now called Lycia; and they say that these settlers were brought from Crete by Sarpedon, a brother of Minos and Rhadamanthus, and that he gave the name Termilae to the people who were formerly called Milyae, as Herodotus says, and were in still earlier times called Solymi, but that when Lycus the son of Pandion went over there he named the people Lycians after himself. Now this account represents the Solymi and the Lycians as the same people, but the poet makes a distinction between them."
  33. *Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  34. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Leleges
  35. Strabo. Geographica, 12.8.5. "Not only the Carians, who in earlier times were islanders, but also the Leleges, as they say, became mainlanders with the aid of the Cretans, who founded, among other places, Miletus, having taken Sarpedon from the Cretan Miletus as founder; and they settled the Termilae in the country which is now called Lycia; and they say that these settlers were brought from Crete by Sarpedon, a brother of Minos and Rhadamanthus, and that he gave the name Termilae to the people who were formerly called Milyae, as Herodotus says, and were in still earlier times called Solymi, but that when Lycus the son of Pandion went over there he named the people Lycians after himself. Now this account represents the Solymi and the Lycians as the same people, but the poet makes a distinction between them."
  36. Strabo. Geographica, 12.8.5. "Not only the Carians, who in earlier times were islanders, but also the Leleges, as they say, became mainlanders with the aid of the Cretans, who founded, among other places, Miletus, having taken Sarpedon from the Cretan Miletus as founder; and they settled the Termilae in the country which is now called Lycia; and they say that these settlers were brought from Crete by Sarpedon, a brother of Minos and Rhadamanthus, and that he gave the name Termilae to the people who were formerly called Milyae, as Herodotus says, and were in still earlier times called Solymi, but that when Lycus the son of Pandion went over there he named the people Lycians after himself. Now this account represents the Solymi and the Lycians as the same people, but the poet makes a distinction between them."
  37. *Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  38. Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  39. https://www.britannica.com/place/Lydia-ancient-region-Anatolia
  40. Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BCE). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  41. Dalby, Andrew (2006), Rediscovering Homer, New York, London: Norton, ISBN 0-393-05788-7, pp. 129–133.
  42. *Latacz, Joachim (2004), Troy and Homer: towards a solution of an old mystery, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-926308-6, pp. 49–72
  43. Watkins, Calvert (1986), "The language of the Trojans" in Troy and the Trojan War: a symposium held at Bryn Mawr College, October 1984 ed. M. J. Mellink. Bryn Mawr.
  44. Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  45. https://academic-eb-com.eres.qnl.qa/levels/collegiate/article/Palaic-language/58046
  46. *Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BCE). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  47. Wainwright JEA 47 (1967) 71 note 5; Albright BASOR 55 (1959) 33ff.
  48. LacusCurtius
  49. Pliny the Elder, Natural History 6.1.
  50. Scylax, p. 34
  51. Mallory, J. P. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Douglas Q. Adams. ISBN 1884964982. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  52. Sharon R. Steadman; Gregory McMahon (15 September 2011). The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia: (10,000–323 BCE). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537614-2. Retrieved 23 March 2013. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png

Sources[edit]

Category:Lists of ancient Indo-European peoples and tribes Category:3rd-millennium BC establishments Category:5th-century disestablishments Category:Indo-European peoples Category:Ancient peoples of Anatolia Category:Peoples of the Caucasus Category:Ancient Anatolia Category:Ancient Greece Category:Ancient history of Turkey



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