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List of authoritarian regimes supported by the Soviet Union or Russia

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Over the 20th century until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the government of the Soviet Union often provided, financial assistance, education, arms, military training and technical support to numerous authoritarian regimes and political groups across the world. Since 1991, the Soviet Union's successor state, the Russian Federation continues to provide similar support to a number of such regimes.[1]

Decommissioned UNITA BMP-1 and BM-21 Grads at an assembly point
Disabled T-62 tank in Addis Ababa, 1991
The day after the Saur revolution in Kabul
Alexei Kosygin (left) and Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr signing the Iraqi–Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Co-Operation in 1972

Authoritarian regimes currently supported[edit]

Date of support Country Regime Notes
1999–present  Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika[2][3] Arms Sales[4],Political Support in Syria[5]
2002–present  Angola José Eduardo dos Santos; João Lourenço[6]
1991–present  Armenia Republican Party of Armenia[7] Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Eurasian Union Member, and CSTO Member
1991–present  Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev; Ilham Aliyev[8]
1994–present  Belarus Alexander Lukashenko CSTO, Eurasian Union and SCO Member
2015–present  Burundi Pierre Nkurunziza[9]
1985–present  Cambodia Hun Sen[10]
1991–present  People's Republic of China Communist Party of China[11] China–Russia relations[12][13]
1960–present[14]  Cuba Fidel Castro, Raúl Castro Cuban Revolution, Cuban Missile Crisis, Angolan Civil War
2013–present  Egypt Abdel Fattah el-Sisi Egypt–Russia relations
1991–present  Eritrea Isaias Afwerki [15]
1989–present  Iran Ali Khamenei[16]
1991–present  Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev CSTO, Eurasian Union and SCO Member
2011–present  Kyrgyzstan Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan CSTO, Eurasian Union and SCO Member
1975–present  Laos Laos People's Revolutionary Party
2011–present  North Korea Kim Jong-un[17][18]
2015–present  South Sudan Salva Kiir Mayardit[19]
1989–present  Sudan Omar al-Bashir[20] War in Darfur
2000–present  Syria Bashar al-Assad[21] Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War
1992–present  Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon Tajikistani Civil War, CSTO and SCO Member
2006–present  Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow[22]
2014–present  Uganda Yoweri Museveni[23]
2016–present  Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev SCO Member
1999–present  Venezuela Hugo Chavez
Nicolás Maduro[24]
1945–present  Vietnam Communist Party of Vietnam[25] Vietnam War
2017–present  Zimbabwe Emmerson Mnangagwa

Authoritarian regimes supported in the past (Soviet Union)[edit]

Date of support Country Regime Notes
1973-1992 Afghanistan Mohammed Daoud Khan, People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan Saur Revolution, Soviet–Afghan War
1944-1961  Albania Enver Hoxha Until the Soviet-Albanian split of 1961
1962-1989  Algeria National Liberation Front (Algeria)
1968-1979  Equatorial Guinea Macias Nguema
1975-1991  Angola MPLA Angolan War of Independence and Angolan Civil War
1972-1991 Benin Mathieu Kerekou
1983-1987  Upper Volta
 Burkina Faso
Thomas Sankara Chairman of the National Revolutionary Council of Republic of Upper Volta
1979-1989  Cambodia Heng Samrin
1945-1960  People's Republic of China Mao Zedong Relations later deteriorated drastically due to the Sino-Soviet split.
1948-1989  Czechoslovakia Communist Party of Czechoslovakia 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état, Prague Spring, Velvet Revolution
1949-1990  East Germany Socialist Unity Party
1956-1970  Egypt
 United Arab Republic
Gamal Abdel Nasser Egypt–Russia relations
1975-1991 Derg
People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Mengistu Haile Mariam Ethiopian Civil War
1979-1983 Grenada Maurice Bishop, then Hudson Austin New Jewel Movement - Coup d'état 1979
1979-1990  Nicaragua Junta of National Reconstruction
Daniel Ortega
1974-early 1990s  Guinea-Bissau PAIGC, Luís Cabral[26] After a visit by Amílcar Cabral to Moscow in 1961, the Soviets formally established ties with the armed revolutionary group African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC). The Soviets gave weaponry to PAIGC guerrillas, including bazookas, rocket-propelled grenades, AK-47 rifles, and eventually (shortly after the assassination of Amílcar Cabral) Strela-2 missiles.[27] The Soviets also provided guerrilla-warfare training for PAIGC fighters at Perevalne, Ukraine, as well as training for nurses.[27] On February 21, 1975, the Soviets and Bussau-Guineans signed a bilateral accord providing for close ties; as part of the agreement, Aeroflot flew Bissau-Guinean students to the Soviet Union for training and education.[27] Between 1973 and 1992, about 3,000 young Bissau-Guineans studied on scholarships in the Soviet Union; an additional 3,000 scholarships came from Cuba, and 61 from East Germany.[27] Many other such cultural, economic, and technical treaties were signed between the two nations.[28] Soviet-Guinea-Bissau ties weakened after the USSR began to collapse in 1991.[27] The "huge stockpile of Soviet-made weapons and ammunition" in the county fell into the hands of rebels led by Ansumane Mané during the Guinea-Bissau Civil War (1998-1999).[27]
1945-1967  Indonesia Sukarno
1958-1963 Iraq Abd al-Karim Qasim Qasim reestablished ties between Iraq and the Soviet Union; the Soviets had previously broken off diplomatic relations in 1954, after Iraq participated in the Baghdad Pact. Under Qasim, Iraq signed a "major economic and technical agreement" in March 1959. The Soviets provided significant military hardware to Iraq, such as military aircraft (including MiG fighter jets), tanks, and a surface-to-air missile system), as well as aid in the former of Soviet military and civilian advisers who provided technical assistance.[29]
1968-1970s/2003  Iraq Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, Saddam Hussein The Baathist regime "drew even closer to the Soviet Union, with relations hitting their peak from 1969 to 1973."[29] A fifteen-year Iraqi-Soviet "treaty of friendship and cooperation" was signed in April 1972.[30] The Soviets assisted the Iraqis in the development of the Rumaila oil field, and Soviet premier Alexei Kosygin participated in the ribbon-cutting ceremony.[29] Soviet arms were also used by the Iraqis to crush the Kurdish uprising led by Mustafa Barzani.[29] Iraqi secret police received training from Soviet and East German agents.[31] Ties between the two nations "weakened in the mid-1970s as Baghdad sought to mend fences with its Gulf neighbors and get access to Western technology."[29] The Russian Federation provided Iraq with intelligence information on the impending US attack until recently.[32]
1969-1991  Libya Muammar Gaddafi[33] 1969 Libyan coup d'état
1975-1976  Nigeria Murtala Mohammed[34] Nigerian Civil War
1945-1991  North Korea Kim Il-sung See Soviet Union in the Korean War, North Korea–Russia relations. North Korea was founded as part of the Communist bloc, received major Soviet support; North Korea lost "significant political and financial support" after the fall of the Soviet Union.[35] China and the Soviet Union competed for influence in North Korea during the Sino-Soviet split in the 1960s, as the North Korean regime tried to maintain relations with both countries.[36]
1968-1975  Peru Juan Velasco Alvarado [37]
1944-1989  Poland Polish United Worker's Party At the Yalta Conference in February 1945, Stalin was able to present his western allies, Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, with a fait accompli in Poland. His armed forces were in occupation of the country, and his agents, the communists, were in control of its administration. The USSR was in the process of incorporating the lands in eastern Poland which it had occupied between 1939 and 1941, after participating in the invasion and partition of Poland with Nazi Germany. Stalin was determined that Poland's new government would become his tool towards making Poland a Soviet puppet state controlled by the communists. He had severed relations with the Polish government-in-exile in London in 1943, but to appease Roosevelt and Churchill he agreed at Yalta that a coalition government would be formed. The communists held a majority of key posts in this new government, and with Soviet support they soon gained almost total control of the country, rigging all elections. Many of their opponents decided to leave the country, and others were put on staged trials and sentenced to many years of imprisonment or execution. The Soviet Union had much influence over both internal and external affairs, and Red Army forces were stationed in Poland (1945: 500,000; until 1955: 120,000 to 150,000; until 1989: 40,000).[38] In 1945, Soviet generals and advisors formed 80% of the officer cadre of the Polish Armed Forces. Poland ultimately threw off the Soviet yoke after a successful campaign of civil resistance by the trade union Solidarity, which ultimately convinced the PUWP to negotiate for reforms and allow free elections.
1947-1989  Romania Romanian Communist Party, Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, Nicolae Ceaușescu
1969-1977 Somalia Siad Barre Derg, Ogaden War, People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
1969-1972  Sudan Gaafar Nimeiry[39] First Sudanese Civil War, Second Sudanese Civil War
1969-1990  South Yemen Yemeni Socialist Party Soviet influence was "pervasive" in South Yemen; the South Yemeni military was "supplied almost exclusively with Soviet arms" and "[t]he training of party and civil service cadres has been accomplished largely with Soviet advice and help."[40]
1962-1985  Tanganyika
 Tanzania
Julius Nyerere
1970-1991  Syria Hafez al Assad[33]
1947-1989  Hungary Hungarian Communist Party
Hungarian Working People's Party
Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party
Following the Soviet occupation of Hungary after World War II, the Soviets set up a police system that persecuted all opposition through direct force and propaganda, hoping this would lead to a Communist victory in the elections of 1946 .[41] Despite these efforts, the Hungarian Communist Party came in third place in the elections, prompting the Soviets to directly impose a puppet government the following year. The next few years were spent consolidating power, using the ÁVH secret police to suppress political opposition through intimidation, false accusations, imprisonment and torture.[42] The worst of the repression came under the rule of Mátyás Rákosi. At the height of his rule, Rákosi developed a strong cult of personality.[43] Dubbed the "bald murderer", Rákosi imitated Stalinist political and economic programs, resulting in Hungary experiencing one of the harshest dictatorships in Europe.[44][45] He described himself as "Stalin's best Hungarian disciple"[43] and "Stalin's best pupil".[46] After Khrushchev's "Secret Speech" decouncing Stalin's cult of personality, Rákosi was ultimately removed from power and replaced by the reformist Imre Nagy, who attempted to take Hungary out of the Soviet bloc. This led to the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, which was brutally crushed by the Soviets. Following the crushing of the revolution, the Soviets instituted János Kádár as the leader of Hungary. After an initial period of repressions against the revolutionaries, Kádár implemented a more moderate form of communism, which he referred to as "Goulash Communism." He would rule until 1988, when he was removed from power just before the "revolution" that ended Communism in Hungary.
1946-1990  Bulgaria Bulgarian Communist Party The Soviet Red Army backed the Bulgarian coup d'état of 1944 which brought communists to power in 1944. From 1945 to 1948, the country became firmly entrenched as part of the Soviet sphere of influence under the control of the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) which oversaw a program of Stalinization in the late 1940s and 1950s.[47] The country joined the Warsaw Pact in 1955.[47] Political repression was widespread.[47] Bulgaria was highly dependent on Soviet patronage, with Soviet technical and financial aid enabling it to rapidly industrialize and the USSR providing Bulgaria with energy and markets for its goods.[48] Bulgaria also received large-scale military and defense-industry aid from the Soviet Union, taking in nearly $US16.7 billion between 1946 and 1990.[49] Bulgaria remained part of the Soviet bloc until 1989, when the BCP began to drift away from the USSR; the first multi-party elections were held in 1990, and the BCP lost power in elections the following year.[47]
1943-1948 1955-1980  Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito Until the Tito-Stalin split of 1948 and back during Khrushchev Thaw
1921-1990  Mongolia Mongolian People's Party The Soviets supported the revolution which brought the Mongolian People's Party (later the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) to power[50] as the ruling party of the Mongolian People's Republic (MPR), established in 1924.[51] Over the next seventy years, Mongolia "pursued policies in imitation of the devised by the USSR" as a Soviet satellite state.[51] Mongolian supreme leader Khorloogiin Choibalsan, acting under Soviet instructions, carried out a mass terror from 1936 to 1952 (see Stalinist repressions in Mongolia), with the greatest number of arrests and executions (targeting in particular the Buddhist clergy) occurring between September 1937 and November 1939.[50] Soviet influences pervaded Mongolian culture throughout the period, and schools through the nation, as well as the National University of Mongolia, emphasized Marxism-Leninism.[50] Nearly every member of the Mongolian political and technocratic elite, as well as many members of the cultural and artistic elite, were educated in the USSR or one of its Eastern European satellites.[51] The Mongolian economy was heavily reliant on the Soviet bloc for electric power, trade, and investment.[51] The MPR collapsed in 1990 and the first democratically elected government took office the same year, leading to "a wedge in the previously close relationship between Mongolia and the Soviet bloc."[51] After 1992, Russian technical aid stopped, and Russia made a request to Mongolia to pay back all the aid which it had received from the Soviet Union from 1946 to 1990, a figure which the Soviets estimated at 11.6 billion Soviet transferable rubles (disputed by the Mongolians).[52]
1987–1991  Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe[53]

Authoritarian regimes supported in the past (Post Soviet Union)[edit]

Date of support Country Regime Notes
1991-2002  Angola MPLA Angolan War of Independence and Angolan Civil War
1991-2003  Georgia Eduard Shevardnadze
1991–2005  Kyrgyzstan Askar Akayev[54] SCO and CSTO Member
1991-2011  Libya Muammar Gaddafi[33] 1969 Libyan coup d'état
1992-2011  Myanmar Than Shwe[55] Internal Conflict in Myanmar
1991-2011  North Korea Kim Jong-il[56]
1991-2000  Syria Hafez al Assad[33]
1991–2006  Turkmenistan Saparmurat Niyazov
1991-2016  Uzbekistan Islam Karimov[57]
1991–2017  Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe[58]

See also[edit]


Other articles of the topic Russia : Rusneftegaz, Russia–United States proxy conflict, Aliya Prokofyeva, COVID-19 pandemic in the Commonwealth of Independent States, RC CSKA Moscow, E-Dostluk, Ksenia Shoygu
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References[edit]

  1. "Belarus and Armenia Re-Evaluate Relations with Russia". Stratfor.
  2. https://sputniknews.com/military/201707181055642941-maks-russia-algeria-deal/
  3. http://www.fort-russ.com/2016/06/algeria-moves-closer-to-russia.html
  4. http://www.fort-russ.com/2016/06/algeria-moves-closer-to-russia.html
  5. https://www.unwatch.org/2017-2018-unga-resolutions-condemning-countries-72nd-session/
  6. https://www.africaportal.org/publications/russia-and-angola-the-rebirth-of-a-strategic-partnership/
  7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy_Index
  8. «Новый Азербайджан» и «Единая Россия» обсудили межпартийное сотрудничество
  9. https://foreignpolicy.com/2015/08/28/how-the-west-lost-burundi/
  10. http://thediplomat.com/2016/06/cambodia-russias-gateway-to-asean/
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  12. Smolchenko, Anna. "Putin Welcomes China's Xi for landmark talks."[dead link] AFP. 22 March 2013.
  13. "China-Russia: a special relationship". Euronews. 22 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  14. "Russia to carry on with modern weapons supplies to Cuba — Defense Minister Shoigu". TASS.
  15. http://www.madote.com/2014/02/eritrea-and-russia-to-boost-trade-and.html
  16. http://thediplomat.com/2015/01/russia-and-iran-sign-military-cooperation-agreement/
  17. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2017/06/07/russia-north-korea-trade-china/102605222/
  18. http://www.bild.de/politik/ausland/nordkorea/nordkorea-russland-51366936.bild.html
  19. http://www.southsudannewsagency.com/index.php/2017/04/25/us-russia-clash-south-sudan-embargo/
  20. https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/198/40304.html
  21. Valenta, Jiri; Valenta, Leni Friedman (Spring 2016). "Why Putin Wants Syria". Middle East Forum. Retrieved 2016-07-09.
  22. http://www.eurasiareview.com/29012010-turkmenistan’s-relations-with-russia/
  23. http://allafrica.com/stories/201706210128.html
  24. http://globalriskinsights.com/2017/10/russia-venezuela-strategy/ /
  25. https://www.forbes.com/sites/stratfor/2013/12/12/russia-strengthens-ties-with-vietnam/#15da23b07811
  26. Chabal, Patrick (2003). Amilcar Cabral: Revolutionary Leadership and People's War. ISBN 978-1592210824. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 Peter Karibe Mendy & Richard A. Lobban Jr., "Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)/Russia, Relations With" in Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (4th ed.: Scarecrow Press, 2013), pp. 407-10.
  28. A Calendar of Soviet Treaties: 1974-1980 (ed. George Ginsburgs: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987), p. 450.
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 "Russia / Soviet Union" in Historical Dictionary of Iraq (eds. Beth K. Dougherty & Edmund A. Ghareeb: 2d ed: Scarecrow Press, 2013), pp. 508-09.
  30. Gibson, Bryan R. (2015). Sold Out? US Foreign Policy, Iraq, the Kurds, and the Cold War. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-137-48711-7. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  31. Makiya, Kanan (1998). Republic of Fear: The Politics of Modern Iraq, Updated Edition. University of California Press. p. 66. ISBN 9780520921245. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  32. https://deutsch.rt.com/international/37880-russland-hatte-irak-noch-kurz/
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  34. Angela Stent, The Soviet Union and the Nigerian Civil War: A Triumph of Realism, Issue: A Journal of Opinion 3.2, Summer 1973.
  35. Kyung-Ae Park & Scott Snyder, "North Korea in Transition: Evolution or Revolution?" in North Korea in Transition: Politics, Economy, and Society (eds. Kyung-Ae Park & Scott Snyder: Rowman & Littlefield: 2013), p. 275.
  36. Chi Young Pak, Korea and the United Nations (Kluwer Law International: 2000), p. 43.
  37. https://www.jstor.org/stable/157029?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
  38. Rao, B. V. (2006), History of Modern Europe Ad 1789-2002: A.D. 1789-2002, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
  39. John Pike. "Sudan Civil War".
  40. Robert W. Stookey, South Yemen, a Marxist Republic in Arabia (Westview Press: 1982), p. 105.
  41. Wettig, Gerhard (2008), Stalin and the Cold War in Europe, Rowman & Littlefield, p. 51, ISBN 0-7425-5542-9
  42. UN General Assembly Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary (1957) "Chapter II.N, para 89(xi) (p. 31)" (PDF). (1.47 MiB)
  43. 43.0 43.1 Sugar, Peter F., Peter Hanak and Tibor Frank, A History of Hungary, Indiana University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-253-20867-X Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., page 375-77
  44. Granville, Johanna, The First Domino: International Decision Making during the Hungarian Crisis of 1956, Texas A&M University Press, 2004. ISBN 1-58544-298-4 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png.
  45. Gati, Charles, Failed Illusions: Moscow, Washington, Budapest, and the 1956 Hungarian Revolt, Stanford University Press, 2006 ISBN 0-8047-5606-6 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., page 9-12
  46. Matthews, John P. C., Explosion: The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Hippocrene Books, 2007, ISBN 0-7818-1174-0 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., page 93-4
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 47.3 David Walker & Daniel Gray, "Bulgaria, People's Republic of" in The A to Z of Marxism (Scarecrow Press, 2009), pp. 36-39.
  48. Bulent Gokay, Eastern Europe Since 1970: Decline of Socialism to Post-Communist Transition (Routledge, 2001), p. 19.
  49. Deborah Sanders, Maritime Power in the Black Sea (Routledge, 2014), p. 176.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 Balazs Szalontai, "From the Demolition of Monastaries to the Installation of Neon Lights: The Politics of Urban Construction in the Mongolian People's Republic" in Sites of Modernity: Asian Cities in the Transitory Moments of Trade, Colonialism, and Nationalism (ed. Wasana Wongsurawat), pp. 165-66.
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 51.4 Morris Rossabi, Modern Mongolia: From Khans to Commissars to Capitalists (University of California Press, 2005), pp. 31-37.
  52. Alan J. K. Sanders, "Russia: Relations With Mongolia" in Historical Dictionary of Mongolia (3d ed.: Scarecrow Press, 2010), pp. 616-23.
  53. http://www.theafricareport.com/Southern-Africa/russia-zimbabwe-in-3bn-mining-deal-negotiations.html
  54. https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/centralasia/kyrgyz-forrel-ru.htm
  55. https://www.armscontrol.org/print/2387
  56. https://thediplomat.com/2017/02/russias-love-affair-with-north-korea/
  57. http://www.sldinfo.com/uzbekistan-and-russia-cooperation-at-arms-length/
  58. http://www.theafricareport.com/Southern-Africa/russia-zimbabwe-in-3bn-mining-deal-negotiations.html

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