Matija Ambrožič (24 February 1889 - 15 July 1966) was a pediatrician, professor at the University of Belgrade Faculty of Medicine.
Matija Ambrožić was born in Hrastenice in Austro-Hungary, today Slovenia, Municipality of Dobrova–Polhov Gradec on 24 February 1889. In 1910 he enrolled at the Faculty of Medicine in Vienna. Due to his actions and his Politika and political orientation, he was imprisoned and persecuted by the Austrian police that delayed his studies in 1918. In the period from 1918 to 1921 he specialized in pediatrics at the "St. Anne" Children's Hospital in Vienna. Upon completion of his studies, from 1919 to 1926, he worked at the General State Hospital in Ljubljana, where he initiated the establishment of the Institute for Social and Hygienic Protection of Mothers and Children with the first school for pediatric nurses in Slovenia in 1923. He was appointed the first director of the Institute. In 1926, he founded the first children's colony for neglected children in the village of Lukovica, Slovenia.  In the same year he moved to Belgrade where he became an associate professor Faculty of Medicine.
Dr. Matija Ambrožić with second-generation students of the School for the Protection of Mothers and Children in Belgrade in 1929, founded the first Experimental Children's Dispensary in Belgrade and a colony for neglected children that still exists today in the village Miloševac. The first Yugoslav Congress of Pediatricians was organized at Bled in 1934 by him.
According to Ambrožič's plan of interior design and the project architect Milan Zloković, the construction of the modern building of the Children's Clinic in Belgrade began in 1936. The following year, he also organized the European Congress for the Protection of Mother and Child in Belgrade. During World War II he was imprisoned in 1941 and taken to the Banjica concentration camp. After being liberated from the camp in 1944, he was re-appointed director of the Children's Clinic in Belgrade. From 1946 to 1960, he was a full professor of Pediatrics at the Faculty of Medicine. He retired in 1960 at the age of 71. From the official documents left by Dr. Matija Ambrožič from 1910 show him as the manager of the Children's Clinic and the Department of Pediatrics of the Faculty of Medicine from its inception. He was the first in Serbia to deal with social pediatrics. He drafted the first law for the health care of mothers and children. He dedicated the focus of his professional, scientific and organizational work to Preventive Medicine. He was also an author of many published scientific and professional papers, primarily from the field of social pediatrics, on eating disorders in children.
Matija Ambrožič was appreciated outside the country's borders. He is one of the founders and long-time president of the Association of Pediatricians of Yugoslavia and was its representative at UNICEF in the headquarters in New York.
He died in Belgrade 1966 at age 77.
- Enciklopedija Slovenije Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana 1987. tom 1
- Text by Dr. Dušan Jakovljev univ. prof of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade in the "Encyclopedia of Yugoslavia" JLZ Zagreb 1980. volume 1 p. 130.
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- Text by Dr. Dušan Jakovljev univ. prof. Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade in Enciklopediji Jugoslavije JLZ Zagreb 1980. tom 1 str.
- Jovanovic Simic, J. (2016). Velikani srpske medicine: 19. vek i prva polovina 20. veka [povodom 175 godina SANU i 145 godina Srpskog lekarskog drustva]. Belgrade: SANU: Museum of Science and Technology: Serbian Medical Society. p. 91. Search this book on
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