Mayoralty of Fiorello La Guardia

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Fiorello LaGuardia.jpg
Mayoralty of Fiorello La Guardia
January 1, 1934[1] – December 31, 1945[2]
PartyRepublican
Election1933
1937
1941
John P. O'Brien • William O'Dwyer
Seal of New York City BW.svg
Seal of New York City, New York

The mayoralty of Fiorello La Guardia lasted from January 1, 1934, to December 31, 1945, while he served as the 99th Mayor of New York City. His mayoralty presided over New York City during the Great Depression and World War II. He is considered the builder of modern New York City due to his numerous infrastructure projects.[3] He replaced John P. O'Brien and was succeeded by William O'Dwyer.

Before La Guardia's election as mayor in 1933, Tammany Hall had controlled the mayoralty for the past twelve years.[4] He would win reelection two times and became the first Mayor of New York City to serve three terms. During his three terms as mayor he oversaw government reforms, fought against Tammany Hall, increased the budget by over $200 million, oversaw the development and completion of multiple infrastructure projects, and collaborated with President Franklin D. Roosevelt on multiple New Deal policies. During his tenure La Guardia served as president of the United States Conference of Mayors.[5]

La Guardia is regarded as the best mayor in New York City's history and as one of the best mayors in American history according to The New York Times.[6] The Guardian, in its obituary of La Guardia, stated that he was "the most remarkable mayor of a great city in American history".[7] Another Republican would not win election as Mayor of New York City until John Lindsay won in the 1965 election and a Republican would not serve more than one term as mayor until Rudy Giuliani.[8][9]

Tenure[edit]

A letter written by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia regarding the 1939 New York World's Fair

City government[edit]

La Guardia wrote legislation in 1934, which would have reformed New York City's government, but it failed as it lacked a two-thirds majority with 81 members of the New York State Assembly voting in favor and 61 voting against.[10] An almost identical version of the legislation was put up again, but failed with 93 members voting in favor and 50 members voting against.[11] Another version of the legislation, which was described by La Guardia as a "puny, anaemic and undersized baby", passed in the Assembly with 120 members voting in favor and 23 members voting against.[12] The legislation passed in the New York State Senate and was signed into law by Governor Herbert H. Lehman on April 10, 1934.[13]

Fred C. Lemmerman, a commissioner of the Triborough Bridge Authority and who had been appointed by the pro-Tammany Hall Mayor John P. O'Brien, was placed under investigation and accused of receiving $930 as a brokerage fee for consummating a lease for bridge authority offices. Lemmerman later resigned from his position and La Guardia appointed George Vincent McLaughlin to fill the vacancy.[14][15][16] La Guardia later fired Commissioner John Stratton O'Leary and replaced him with Robert Moses causing the Triborough Bridge Authority to only have one pro-Tammany Hall member, Nathan Burkan, on the board.[17][18] Burkan, who was an influential district leader in Tammany Hall, died on June 6, 1936.[19]

La Guardia appointed William Bowne Parsons to succeed Raymond J. O'Sullivan, secretary of Tammany Hall, on the Board of Assessors.[20]

Civil rights and race[edit]

Jane Bolin, the first black woman to serve as a judge in the United States, was appointed by Mayor Fiorello La Guardia in 1939

La Guardia appointed Eugene Faulkner as a New York City Marshal, in 1935, making him the second black person and first black Republican to hold that position.[21] He appointed Jane Bolin as a judge in 1939, making her the first black woman to serve as a judge in the United States.[22]

La Guardia's efforts to improve racial relations were awarded by the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture and the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History in 1940. However, he was criticized by Adam Clayton Powell Jr. who accused La Guardia of ignoring the concerns of black people as he no longer needed their votes and stated that La Guardia was "one of the most pathetic figures on the current American scene".[4]

The Quinn-Ives Act, which prohibited discrimination in hiring and established a committee to investigate complaints, was signed into law by Governor Thomas E. Dewey in March 1945, and La Guardia created the Mayor's Committee to Integrate Baseball with Branch Rickey serving on the committee.[23]

Crime[edit]

La Guardia appointed Austin MacCormick to serve as Commissioner of the New York City Department of Correction and during their tenure they oversaw the development and completion of Rikers Island Penitentiary to replace Welfare Island Penitentiary as New York City's jail.[24]

Following the Harlem riot of 1935, which resulted in over $2 million worth of property damage, La Guardia created an interracial commission to study the conditions that led to the riot occurring. The commission, which included Oswald Garrison Villard, Countee Cullen, Hubert Thomas Delany, A. Philip Randolph, and E. Franklin Frazier, reported after an eight-month investigation that the lack of social services, employment discrimination, police brutality, and overcrowded schools led to the riot.[25] Following the Harlem riot of 1943, La Guardia instituted a curfew of 10:30 P.M., the last curfew instituted in New York City until the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, and had it enforced by 6,000 police and 1,500 civilian volunteers.[26][27]

La Guardia stated in 1935, that New York City was no longer the crime capital of the United States and that Chicago, Illinois, now held the highest crime rate in the United States.[28] However, Wilbert Crowley, the First Assistant State's Attorney, criticized La Guardia's statement and said that "we consider ourselves in a splendid position" and asked for where La Guardia got his crime statics from.[29]

La Guardia commissioned a report by the New York Academy of Medicine in 1938, to study the effects of marijuana. The report was released in 1944, and showed that marijuana was not physically addictive, not a gateway drug, and did not lead to crime.[30][31]

La Guardia appointed William Fellowes Morgan Jr. to serve as Commissioner of Public Markets to prevent racketeering in New York City's markets and Morgan appointed Michael Fiaschetti to clear racketeers out of the markets.[32]

Development policy[edit]

Map of the Independent Subway System (IND) from 1939

La Guardia revealed a plan in 1934, to develop a $101 million municipal power plant in New York City starting on February 1, 1935.[33] However, the Consolidated Gas Company filed a lawsuit top prevent a proposed referendum on whether or not to build the municipal plant and the courts ruled in favor of the Consolidated Gas Company.[34]

La Guardia created 200,000 jobs using the Civil Works Administration, which was twenty percent of the total amount of jobs created nationally by that program. The Civil Works Administration, Works Progress Administration, and Public Works Administration spent more than $1.1 billion in New York City from 1934 to 1939.[3]

He presented an outline for a $1 billion public works program to President Franklin D. Roosevelt which would be completed using part of the $4 billion in Roosevelt's national work relief plan.[35] The $1 billion proposal called for educational, sewage, highway, fire department, hospital, housing, and power plants funding. Included in the plan was allocations of $30 million towards the building of municipal power plants, $19 million for 500 steel subway cars, $57,639,000 for the Sixth Avenue subway line, $2,189,000 for the completion of the city subway system, $25,245,000 for sewage treatment works on Wards Island, $9 million for elevated highways, $12 million for the Queens Civic Centre in Jamaica, $18,500,000 for Central Criminal Courts, $9 million for Brooklyn College, $5 million for Brooklyn Public Library, $69 million for thirty-seven sewage treatment plants, $805,000 for nine new fire buuildings, $82,241,000 for 142 elementary schools, and $38,508,000 for twenty-two high schools.[36]

The Independent Subway System (IND) was opened in 1932, but New York City did not assume control of the system until 1940, under La Guardia and would remain under political control until the system was given to the New York City Transit Authority in 1953.[37] He sought a $57,639,000 loan from the Public Works Administration to construct the Sixth Avenue Line in 1935, started construction on March 23, 1936, and the project was completed at a cost of $59,500,000 in 1940.[38][39][40]

La Guardia formed the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation in 1934, by consolidating the five boroughs' independent parks departments and placing it under the control of Robert Moses as its commissioner. During his tenure 1,800 engineers and designers, along with 70,000 workers in 1934, were employed, using money from New Deal programs, to expand and modernize public spaces.[41]

The New York City Center was converted from a meeting place of the Shriners to a performing arts centers during La Guardia's tenure as mayor and he himself led the New York Philharmonic in The Star-Spangled Banner when the center was officially converted on December 11, 1943.[42]

La Guardia called for the creation of a municipal airport in 1935.[43] The New York City Board of Estimate voted twelve to one, with only George U. Harvey voting against, on November 2, 1939, to rename the Municipal Airport to La Guardia Field. Following the death of General Alexander E. Anderson the New York City Council voted to name an airport after him. La Guardia vetoed the legislation, but his veto was overridden by the council.[44]

Economic policy[edit]

New York City's budget under Mayor Fiorello La Guardia

New York City had a budget of $550,961,960.06 in 1935, a budget of $545,541,842 in 1936, a budget of $554,998,917.10 in 1937, a budget of $587,980,567 in 1938, a budget of $578,509,839 in 1939, a budget of $581,048,834.10 from 1940 to 1941, a budget of $573,740,594.13 from 1941 to 1942, a budget of $656,314,369 from 1942 to 1943, a budget of $753,071,123.40 from 1943 to 1944, a budget of $737,400,923 from 1944 to 1945, and a budget of $759,266,401.82 in 1945.[45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53]

La Guardia inherited a $31 million budget deficit from Mayor O'Brien upon taking office and he reduced the deficit by $19 million during 1934.[54] He reduced spending through budget cuts and eliminating over 1,000 positions.[55] A lawsuit was filed regarding the 1938 budget of $589,980,567, which La Guardia was against, and the court ruled five to one in favor of retaining the budget and invalidating the lower budget proposed by La Guardia.[56]

La Guardia vetoed legislation which would have created an eight hour workday for members of the New York City Fire Department.[57] He supported legislation which would have created an eight hour workday for nurses.[58]

Foreign policy[edit]

Mayor Fiorello La Guardia was a vice president of the Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League to Champion Human Rights and supported boycotting German products

Prior to taking office La Guardia had participated in a rally to protest Nazi Germany's discrimination against Jews. While giving the keynote address at the American National Conference Against Racial Persecution in Germany he stated that Adolf Hitler was "a perverted maniac". After taking office as Mayor of New York City he supported a boycott of German products which was being organized by Jews in New York.[59]

Paul Marchandeau, the Mayor of Reims, France, and the head of the Association of the Mayors of France, visited New York City in 1934, and was greeted by La Guardia.[60]

James Clement Dunn, chief of the Division of Western European affairs in the United States Department of State, delivered an apology to Hans Thomsen, counselor of the German embassy in the United States, on behalf of the Department of State in regards to a statement made by La Guardia about Adolf Hitler.[61]

La Guardia served as one of the vice presidents of the Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League to Champion Human Rights.[62] La Guardia and Allen Wardwell, the chairman of the Greater New York Campaign of Russian War Relief, announced Russian War Relief Week on June 20, 1942, in which they called for people to donate to buy medical supplies for the army of the Soviet Union fight the Nazis.[63]

He supported changing the name of Manhattan's Sixth Avenue to Avenue of the Americas, stating that it would be an expression of the "love and affection… for our sister republics of Central and South America".[64] La Guardia signed a bill to officially rename the avenue on October 2, 1945.[65] The move was criticized as "propaganda" by those who wanted to return to the original name.[64]

Housing policy[edit]

La Guardia created the New York City Housing Authority in 1934, and received up to $25 million in earmarked funding from the Public Works Emergency Housing Corporation.[66][67] From 1934 to 1943, fourteen low rent public housing projects, which housed 17,040 families, were built.[4]

He announced in 1934, that he would remove 67,000 tenement buildings which housed 650,000 people and constituted the slums of New York City.[68] In 1935, he asked for $150 million to $200 million in federal funding for low-rental housing projects in New York City and stated that it would cost $1,500,000,000 to properly house the 500,000 families currently living in sub-standard houses.[69] He later asked the state legislature in 1939, to lend $120 million to municipalities for housing programs, with $100 million going to New York City for the rehousing of 1,500,000 people living in sub-standard conditions.[70] In 1937, La Guardia was among two hundred mayors who wrote an open letter supporting the United States Conference of Mayors' slum clearance and rehousing plans and asked for the establishment of a permanent federal agency for slum clearance and low-rent housing programs.[71]

When the Castle Village was completed in 1939, it was dedicated by La Guardia who stated that it was a "magnificent housing unit, which will afford the sunshine, scenery and comforts of a millionaire's living quarters to those without a millionaire's income".[72] La Guardia signed a $6 million contract for the construction of the Riverton Houses by the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company in 1944.[73]

Elections[edit]

1933[edit]

La Guardia, who had unsuccessfully ran for Mayor of New York City in the 1929 election and who had recently lost his seat in the United States House of Representatives in the 1932 election, announced that he would seek the Republican nomination for mayor in the 1933 election.[74][6] La Guardia won the nomination of the Republican and City Fusion parties.[75][76] He defeated incumbent Mayor John P. O'Brien, former Mayor Joseph V. McKee, and other minor political candidates in the election with a plurality of the popular vote.[77] Tammany Hall had controlled the mayoralty for the past twelve years prior to La Guardia's victory.[4]

1937[edit]

La Guardia announced that he would seek reelection as Mayor of New York City in the 1937 election and he was opposed for the Republican nomination by Almbert Fairchild, Thomas J. Curran, and Charles G. Bond.[78][79] All 475 delegates of the City Fusion Party voted unanimously to give their party's nomination to La Guardia, the American Labor Party voted unanimously to give its nomination to La Guardia, and he won the Republican primary.[80][81][82][83] The Socialist Party initally selected to give its nomination to Norman Thomas, but he withdrew and the party endorsed La Guardia.[84][85] He was endorsed by the Communist Party USA, but LaGuardia disavowed their support.[86] He defeated Jeremiah T. Mahoney [de], the Democratic nominee, with over 60% of the popular vote.[87]

1941[edit]

La Guardia stated in 1939, that he would not seek reelection in the 1941 mayoral election.[88] However, he announced that he would seek reelection to a third term in 1941.[89]

[90]

La Guardia's election victory made him the first mayor in New York City history to serve three terms.[91]

References[edit]

  1. "La Guardia Sworn In As City Greets 1934". New York Daily News. January 1, 1934. p. 134. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  2. "Goom-by, Butch - Welcome, Bill". New York Daily News. December 31, 1945. p. 229. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kessner, Thomas (1993). "Fiorello H. LaGuardia". Society for History Education. 26 (2): 151–159. ISSN 0164-0178. JSTOR 494812.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Capeci, Dominic J. (1977). "From Different Liberal Perspectives: Fiorello H. La Guardia, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., and Civil Rights in New York City, 1941-1943". The Journal of Negro History. 62 (2): 160–173. doi:10.2307/2717176. ISSN 0022-2992. JSTOR 2717176. Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  5. "Mayors' Group To Be Headed By LaGuardia". The Ithaca Journal. November 20, 1935. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Fiorello!". The New York Times. July 18, 2013. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  7. "From the archive, 22 September 1947: New York mayor LaGuardia dies". The Guardian. September 22, 2015. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  8. "It's ScuttleButton Time!". NPR. February 12, 2013. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  9. "Giuliani Abroad". NPR. October 26, 1998. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  10. "Economy Bill Turned Down By Assembly". Times Union. January 30, 1934. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  11. "Only 7 Votes Lacking; New Measure Due". Times Union. March 6, 1934. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  12. "N.Y. Bill Passed In Amended Form". Star-Gazette. April 6, 1934. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  13. "Lehman Signs Bill". The Post-Star. April 11, 1934. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  14. "Tammany Head of N.Y. Bridge Authority Accused of Taking Fees in First Cleanup Blowoff". Press & Sun-Bulletin. January 10, 1934. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  15. "Accused Official Resigns Position". Star-Gazette. January 11, 1934. p. 3. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  16. "LaGuardia Appoints McKee Man to Office". Democrat and Chronicle. January 17, 1934. p. 3. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  17. "Mayor Ousts O'Leary, Puts Moses in Post". New York Daily News. February 4, 1934. p. 190. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  18. "O'LEARY IS OUSTED; MOSES GETS POST; Mayor Dismisses Triborough Bridge Official as Deutsch Finds He Shirked Duties. FUSION CONTROLS BOARD Burkan Only Tammany Man Left -- High Salaries and Needless Jobs Denounced. O'LEARY IS OUSTED; MOSES GETS POST". The New York Times. February 4, 1934. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  19. "Nathan Burkan Lawyer and Tammany Leader". New York Daily News. June 8, 1936. p. 32. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  20. "W.B. Parsons Gets Post As Assessor". Times Union. January 22, 1934. p. 3. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  21. "Mayor LaGuardia Appoints Eugene Faulkner As City Marshal; Second Negro Appointee". The New York Age. January 12, 1935. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  22. "Remembering Those Who Left Us in 2007". NPR. January 2, 2008. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  23. "Breaking the Color Line: The Politics of Signing Jackie Robinson". The New Republic. April 13, 2016. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  24. "An Incomplete History of Muralism at Rikers Island". The Brooklyn Rail. July 1, 2020. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  25. Johnson, Lauri (2004). "A Generation of Women Activists: African American Female Educators in Harlem, 1930-1950". The Journal of African American History. 89 (3): 223–240. doi:10.2307/4134076. ISSN 1548-1867. JSTOR 4134076. Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  26. "New York City's Last Curfew: Harlem in 1943". Rolling Stone. June 2, 2020. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  27. "New York City Spends Night Under Historic Curfew; Expected To Start Earlier Tuesday". WLNY-TV. June 2, 2020. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  28. "MAYOR DENIES CITY IS CRIME CAPITAL; Retorts Sharply to Chicago Charge as 10 Police Officials Are Promoted. BACKS 'MUSSING UP' ORDER Orders Force to 'Kick Out' Thugs Found at Fights and Ball Games. MAYOR DENIES CITY IS CRIME CAPITAL". The New York Times. December 3, 1935. Archived from the original on December 16, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  29. "MAYOR'S FIGURES DISPUTED.; Chicago Prosecutor Doubts City Keeps Accurate Check on Crime". The New York Times. December 3, 1935. Archived from the original on December 16, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  30. "Why isn't pot legal yet?". City & State. November 11, 2020. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  31. "The Science behind the DEA's Long War on Marijuana". Scientific American. April 19, 2016. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  32. "MARKET CLEAN-UP STARTS; W.F. Morgan Jr. Named as Bureau Head to End Racketeering". The New York Times. January 9, 1934. Archived from the original on December 16, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  33. "City Power Unit Start By Feb. 1 Seen By Mayor". Times Union. December 24, 1934. p. 3. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  34. "Court Bars Vote On Power Plant; City To Appeal". Times Union. September 29, 1935. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  35. "Roosevelt Hears Mayor On Billion City Works Plan". Times Union. February 11, 1935. p. 3. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  36. "City's Billion-Dollar Plan". Times Union. February 11, 1935. p. 9. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  37. "The history of who's in charge of NYC subways". Spectrum News. July 22, 2017. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  38. "LOAN OF $57,639,000 FOR 6TH AV. SUBWAY IS SOUGHT BY CITY; Mayor Endorses Delaney Plan for PWA Request -- Will Ask Estimate Board Backing". The New York Times. January 22, 1935. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  39. "WORK ON SUBWAY TO BEGIN; Mayor to Break Ground March 23 for Sixth Avenue Line". The New York Times. March 13, 1936. Archived from the original on December 16, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  40. "NEW SUBWAY LINE ON 6TH AVE. OPENS AT MIDNIGHT FETE; Mayor and 2,000 Guests Jam Two 'First Trains'--Supper and Show Mark Event WORK COST $59,500,000 2-Mile Link in City System to Ease Bottleneck, Make New Express Services Possible". The New York Times. December 15, 1940. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  41. "The Story Of NYC's Official Magician, "Doc" Hurwitz". Gothamist. February 19, 2016. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  42. "City Center to Begin $75 Million Renovation". The New York Times. March 16, 2010. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  43. "MAYOR URGES NEED FOR AIRPORT HERE; Rehabilitation of Shipping Also Stressed at Business Forum of Ad Club". The New York Times. May 10, 1935. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  44. "Overhauling La Guardia, an Airport With a Historical Name but a Tarnished Image". New York Daily News. July 29, 2015. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  45. "Half-Billion Budget Gets Board's O.K." New York Daily News. December 31, 1934. p. 99. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  46. "N.Y. Board Adopts 545 Million Budget". Democrat and Chronicle. December 3, 1935. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  47. "New York City Budget to Be $554,998,917". Los Angeles Times. December 1, 1936. p. 14. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  48. "Creditors Repossess Courthouse Machines". Richmond Times-Dispatch. October 28, 1939. p. 2. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  49. "$581,048,834 Goal Of Realty Tax". New York Daily News. April 27, 1940. p. 105. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  50. "City Council Okays Budget Of $573,740,594". New York Daily News. May 22, 1941. p. 2. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  51. "1942 to 1943 city budget". Edmonton Journal. April 11, 1942. p. 4. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  52. "New York City Budget Is Cut $24,870,835.37". Intelligencer Journal. April 1, 1943. p. 13. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  53. "5 Million Budget Cut Approved by Council". Brooklyn Eagle. May 21, 1944. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  54. "Mr. La Guardia's First Year". Brooklyn Eagle. December 31, 1934. p. 14. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  55. "BUREAU HEADS' PAY CUT, 1,010 JOBS ENDED AS CITY PRESSES ECONOMY DRIVE; 13 DEPARTMENTS ARE HIT Most Commissioners Are Slashed From $13,390 to $10,000 a Year. $1,429,541 MORE IS SAVED Blanshard Staff Unaffected and Mrs. Whitney's Salary Is Not Reduced. PRIAL SEES REPRISALS LaGuardia Going to Albany on Tuesday to Seek Power for Emergency Tax Plan. CITY DROPS 1,010; MORE PAY SLASHES". The New York Times. April 12, 1934. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  56. "Appeals Court Junks Budget Of LaGuardia". New York Daily News. March 1, 1938. p. 274. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  57. "LaGuardia Vetoes 8-Hour Day for Firemen; Assails Move to Add $5,000,000 to Budget". The New York Times. January 24, 1934. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  58. "LaGuardia Vetoes 8-Hour Day for Firemen; Assails Move to Add $5,000,000 to Budget". The New York Times. January 24, 1934. Archived from the original on December 16, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  59. Esposito, David M.; Esposito, Jackie R. (1988). "LaGuardia and the Nazis, 1933–1938". American Jewish History. 78 (1): 38–53. ISSN 0164-0178. JSTOR 23883281.
  60. "French Mayor Welcomed: Paul Marchandeau of Rheims, on Tour, Greeted by LaGuardia". The New York Times. September 18, 1934. p. 25. ISSN 0362-4331. ProQuest 101145089.
  61. "U.S. Apology Given Reich On LaGuardia Hitler Speech". The Ithaca Journal. March 5, 1937. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  62. Luconi, Stefano (2006). "'The Venom of Racial Intolerance': Italian Americans and Jews in the United States in the Aftermath of Fascist Racial Laws". Revue française d'études américaines. 107 (107): 107–119. doi:10.3917/rfea.107.0107. ISSN 0397-7870. JSTOR 20875665.
  63. "Mayor La Guardia Urges WNYC Listeners to Support Soviets Fighting Nazis". WNYC. January 1, 2011. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  64. 64.0 64.1 "NY's Avenue of the Americas Linked to Latin American Independence". NBC News. January 25, 2016. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  65. "6th Avenue's Name Gone With the Wind; Sure Sign of Sixth Avenue's Passing". The New York Times. October 3, 1945. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 26, 2021.
  66. "Financing the Restoration and Repair of NYCHA Property". Gotham Gazette. December 16, 2019. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  67. "$25,000,000 PUT UP FOR HOUSING HERE; Ickes Notifies LaGuardia Sum Has Been Earmarked for Slum-Clearance Work. NEW JOB PLAN WEIGHED Mayor Would Have 'Economic Survey' of City Made by White-Collar Workers". The New York Times. January 5, 1934. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  68. "LaGuardia to Evict 650,000 from Slums". The Ithaca Journal. March 7, 1934. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  69. "LAGUARDIA TO ASK $150,000,000 LOAN FOR HOUSING HERE; Confident He Can Get Federal Fund -- Slum Conditions Are 'Shameful,' He Asserts". The New York Times. February 7, 1935. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  70. "LaGuardia URges Housing Fund". The Ithaca Journal. January 10, 1939. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  71. "LA GUARDIA URGED TO ACT ON SLUMS; He and 200 Other Mayors Asked to Back National Housing Conference Plan". The New York Times. February 15, 1937. Archived from the original on December 16, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  72. Cohen, Paul (1986). "Columbia I: Castles, Skyscrapers, and the Charles V. Paterno Library". Italian Americana. 8 (1): 9–14. ISSN 0096-8846. JSTOR 29776053.
  73. "RIVERTON CONTRACT SIGNED BY THE MAYOR". The New York Times. November 19, 1944. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  74. "O'Ryan to Run If Republicans Indorse Him". Brooklyn Eagle. August 1, 1933. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  75. "La Guardia Picked By Fusionists". New York Daily News. August 4, 1933. p. 368. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  76. "Fusion Takes La Guardia". Star-Gazette. August 9, 1933. p. 6. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  77. "Official Canvas Shows La Guardia Winner By 259,569". Times Union. November 28, 1933. p. 20. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  78. "Mayor Ready To Run Again". The Ithaca Journal. July 9, 1937. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  79. "Three Oppose LaGuardia". The Ithaca Journal. July 12, 1937. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  80. "LaGuardia Asked To Succeed Self". Times Union. April 1, 1937. p. 2. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  81. "Labor Pledged For La Guardia". Democrat and Chronicle. June 20, 1937. p. 5. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  82. "Labor Party Backs Mayor And Wagner". New York Daily News. June 20, 1937. p. 18. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  83. "La Guardia Gets 'Write Ins'". Democrat and Chronicle. September 19, 1937. p. 4. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  84. "Socialist Support Dangled Before LaGuardia in Race". Brooklyn Eagle. July 13, 1937. p. 3. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  85. "Norman Thomas Withdraws". Brooklyn Eagle. September 20, 1937. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  86. "Blow to Mayor Seen in Support By Communists". The Brooklyn Citizen. August 27, 1937. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  87. "LaGuardia Wins; Yes, It's Official". New York Daily News. November 30, 1937. p. 103. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  88. "LaGuardia to Retire". The Ithaca Journal. April 12, 1939. p. 1. Archived from the original on December 14, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  89. "LaGuardia Out For 3rd Term". The Ithaca Journal. July 22, 1941. p. 11. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020 – via Newspapers.com. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  90. Bone, Hugh A. (1946). "Political Parties in New York City". The American Political Science Review. 40 (2): 272–282. doi:10.2307/1950681. ISSN 0003-0554. JSTOR 1950681.
  91. "La Guardia--New York's First Three-Term Mayor". WNYC. November 2, 2009. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)


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