Medrano (surname)

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Prince Abd Al-Rahman "El Medrano"
Medrano Family Crest.jpg
Progenitor: Prince Abd al-Rahman from the Caliphate of Córdoba
PredecessorAl-Hakam II
SuccessorHisham II
BornCordoba
DynastyUmayyad
FatherAl-Hakam II
MotherSubh of Cordoba
ReligionSunni Islam

Medrano is an ancient and noble house derived from a Moorish Prince in Cordoba. The etymology of the surname Medrano comes from the Basque word "edi" meaning fern and the suffix "ano" which implies abundance. Medrano can also mean "Narrow plain." Take into consideration the name “Eden”, which derives from the Akkadian “Edinnu”, and from a Sumerian word “edin” meaning "plain" or "steppe", closely related to an Aramaic root word meaning "fruitful, well-watered" - “Eden”, a well-watered and fruitful abundant plain.

The Umayyad Dynasty and the house of Medrano[edit]

Tutored by the patriarch of the lineage, a lineage comprised the head of the lineage, his wife, children, sons-in-law / daughters-in-law, etc. then logically most of them would not have the same surname, but every one of those surnames would be part of the same Trunk Lineage.The same happens with the surname Medrano, derived from the Moorish Prince whose trunk lineage is the Umayyad Dynasty.

“Medrano, the Sir-Name of a Noble Family in Spain, lineally descended from a Moorish Prince who was converted and baptized 800 years ago.”[1]

The progenitor of this surname is Abd Al-Rahman, a Moorish Prince in Cordoba during the Umayyad Caliphate in 979 CE.

It is documented in the archives of the Inquisition of the Indies (America) that the surname Medrano has Sephardic Jewish and Moorish heritage. Al-Hakam II married Subh of Cordoba, a Basque concubine from Navarre. She held sway and strong influence over the court.[2] She bore him two sons, the first is Abd al-Rahman and the second is Hisham II.[3]

Mr. Mosquera Barnuevo, the famous Andalusian historian, wrote about the origin of the Medrano lineage, he said, "Abd al-Rahman, from Cordoba, was a great fan of the Christian faith and that trying to destroy Navarre, his people in-subordinated him and then he went to the service of King Don García, who had him baptized and called him Don Andrés Velaz. The king asked his followers many times about him, saying "medra or no?" To which they answered "no", to which the Moor having news of it took the surname El Medrano".

Mr. Mosquera Barnuevo, who belongs to one of the twelve noble and ancient lineages of the city of Soria, says thus: "The Medrano family is incorporated and belongs to this lineage, whose nobility is so notorious that there is no house in Spain that more be it. They are natives of Navarre…

Coat-of-Arms of the Medrano family with a goshawk on the hand of Prince Abd Al-Rahman. falcons (and hawks) are a symbol of legitimacy for the Umayyad Dynasty.

The Moorish Prince Andres Velaz de Medrano (Abd Al-Rahman ibn Al-Hakam c.979)[edit]

Palace of Don Andres Velaz de Medrano (Abd al-Rahman) in Iguzquiza, Navarre

“Battered by time and man, a large part of this noble and ancient estate of the Velaz de Medrano family still stands, whose illustrious surname is legendarily derived from a Moorish Prince who, at the head of a powerful army, entered Navarre in the year 979, and who is supposed to be secretly devoted to the Blessed Virgin (See Mary in Islam), and as such pursued by the devil, who, taking the human form, was in the capacity of a steward at his service, to assassinate him on a propitious occasion; And they say that this great lord, being in Iguzquiza accompanied by his devilish servant, was praying to Ave Maria, when suddenly a goshawk came (See Hawk of Quraish) bringing a ribbon written with the angelic greeting hanging from its beak, and landing on the hand of this Prince.

The Apostle San Andres was seen immediately entering the enclosure, who exhorted and baptized him, the Prince then fleeing the pretended butler with great roars and frightful earthquakes. The Knight took the name of Andres, by the Apostle that regenerated him to grace and the name Velaz or Belaz, that in Basque Language means goshawk, by the one that rested in his hand and the Ave Maria in the beak, Orlando on the shield with the blades of San Andres. As he was now a Christian, he became a leader of them, which the Caliph (Hisham II) of Cordoba felt very strongly about, and as he (Abd al-rahman) was very powerful among the Moors, having great wealth, which he then lost, without the King of Navarre, whom he served, giving him much, the king asked: "Medra or no?" Answering him: "no Medra no", giving him for this reason the surname of Medrano.

Such is the fantastic way that, few chroniclers of the XVII century tried to explain for the origin of the name, of the surname and of the coat of arms, of which they suppose to be the head of the Velaz de Medrano. Later the cross of gold, in red field was added, that also figures in their shield. And undoubtedly, there is one, already very blurred, on the main door of the palace of Iguzquiza, whose photograph illustrates these lines.”[4]

Description of the Palace of Iguzquiza by Don Pedro Emiliano Zorrilla[edit]

Don Pedro Emiliano Zorrilla gives the aforementioned account which is as follows and contains the description of the Palace of the Velaz de Medrano:

“Of the antiquity of this one, located in Igúzquiza (valley of Santesteban de la Solana, judicial district of Estella), when Don Ferran Velaz de Medrano married Doña Elvira de Goñi, it was already described as very old; and this adjective is corroborated by the fact that Don Ferran Velaz de Medrano himself extensively rebuilt it, and it was famous for its splendid festivities celebrated in it by his Lord, his children and grandchildren, to which he and his children and grandchildren, were often attended by the Navarrese Monarchs themselves.This ancient building, reconstructed in the 16th century, conserves the large parade ground, with its low embrasured walls flanking its entrance, the high quadrangular tower rises in its southeast corner, remade in the 16th century, to the southeast. Judging by its design, and in the northeast corner there is another stone tower, of lesser size of smaller elevation at the present time, covered and conserved between both the North side of the remains of the castle consisting of large stables, dismantled rooms and other outbuildings, including a small oratory, with a dark oil painting, a spacious kitchen with a carved stone fireplace, a spiral staircase and thick walls.

This is the stately mansion of the illustrious Vélaz de Medrano family, rich men of Navarre, who were the keepers of the famous castle of Monjardín, whose portentous cross is said to have been picked up by one of those keepers when he appeared to one of his shepherds; that they were also lords of Learza, and later Marquises of Espinal; some of them having intervened in deeds with Carlos II of Navarre, and others, finally, being warden of the castle of Maya, Don Jaime Vélaz de Medrano, and fighting inside it with his son Don Luis Vélaz de Medrano, they fought in its defense like lions, and when they capitulated, against the will of Don Luis, they were taken like sheep to the slaughter, dying fourteen days after their imprisonment in Pamplona.

"Not without some cruelty; that the Count (of Miranda) was very rigid against the natives, being Navarrese", says Don Francisco de Eguía y Beamont in his History of Estella, handwritten, of the year 1644. Today this palace belongs to the Viscount of Val de Erro, also owner of Learza, being uninhabited, and destined to shelter livestock in its stables, to store farm implements in its lower floors, and to keep dovecotes in its disfigured tower of homage.

When Mr. Juan Mañé y Flaquer went on a tour of Navarre to write his delightful work “El Oasis” and “Viaje al país de los Fueros”, in 1877, he had the opportunity to hear in the village of Igúzquiza, the formal refrain that the uneducated people have for all the old stones that the past ages have bequeathed to us: Palace of the Moors. It would be more graceful to answer: “I do not know; but surely the zealous present parish priest will have taken upon himself the care to teach his parishioners about these local minutiae, in favor of their culture and the the culture of the parishioners, and in this way it will be known in Igúzquiza.”

The current palace owned today (according to our reports) by Mr. Marqués de Vesolla, is the same one that in the 15th century was rebuilt by the honourable Navarrese knight Don Ferrán Velaz de Medrano, on the same site his ancestors had erected the original building centuries earlier. On both sides of the main door, there are still the two defensive cannons similar to those existing in the native houses of Loyola and Xavier.

Two of its defensive towers are still standing, less mutilated than its companion the one that can be seen in the enclosed photogravure, as also, there are evident signs of additions made with a view to establish barns, warehouses and rooms for settlers, but the periphery reveals the magnitude, proportions and form of what was once the sumptuous dwelling of the Medrano’s, often honored by the presence of the sovereigns of the Kingdoms, in honor of whom, I repeat, splendid feasts were celebrated there." [5]

Tracing the Paternal Trunk Lineage (5th-10th century)[edit]

Tutored by the patriarch of the lineage, a lineage comprised the head of the lineage, his wife, children, sons-in-law/daughters-in-law etc. then logically most of them would not have the same surname, but every one of those surnames would be part of the same trunk lineage. The same happens with the surname Medrano, derived from the Moorish Prince Abd Al-Rahman from Cordoba, his trunk lineage being the Umayyad Dynasty.

In the genealogical tradition of Islam, the eponymous ancestor of the Kinana tribe was Kinana ibn Khuzayma ibn Mudrika ibn Ilyas. Before Islam, the tribe claimed descent from worshippers of Meccan goddesses such as Al-lata, Uzza and Manata. After Islamisation, the tribe traced its ancestry to Ishmael, who married a woman of the Jurhum tribe. The Kinana were polytheists, with their worship centering on the goddess al-Uzza.

There were six principle branches of the Kinana tribe, namely the Nadr, Malik, Milkan, Amir, Amr and Abd Manat groups. The Nadr were the parent tribe of the Quraysh, the tribe of the Umayyad and Islamic prophet Muhammad, which were counted independently of the Kinana.

To begin tracing Andres Velaz de Medrano’s paternal ancestry, we will start with an old ancestor and prominent figure in Islamic tradition, Al-Nadr ibn Kinana ibn Khuzayma ibn Mudrika ibn Ilyas (ٱلنَّضْر); he was the ancestor of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He precedes Muhammad by 13 generations.

Malik ibn Al-Nadr was the son of Al-Nadr and father of Fihr. He precedes by 12. Fihr ibn Malik (Arabic: فِهْر ٱبْن مَالِك, romanized: Fihr ibn Mālik, fl. c. 230–240 CE), is counted among the direct ancestors of Prophet Muhammad.[2] In the lineage of Muhammad from Adnan, Fihr precedes Prophet Muhammad by eleven generations. According to Ibn Ishaq, Fihr defended Mecca against the Himyarite King of Yemen who wanted to transfer the Kaaba to Yemen.

Ghalib ibn Fihr (Arabic: غَالِب ٱبْن فِهْر, romanized: Ghalib ibn Fihr, fl. c. 230–240 CE), is counted among the direct ancestors of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[1] In the lineage of Muhammad from Adnan, He is the son of Malik bin An-Nadr who lived in Makkah. He died and was buried in Makkah, which was also his birth place.

Lu'ayy ibn Ghalib (Arabic: لُؤَيّ ٱبْن غَالِب) was an ancestor of Islamic Prophet Muhammad of Arabia. He is the son of Ghalib ibn Fihr who lived in Makkah.

Ka'b ibn Lu'ayy (Arabic: كَعْب ٱبْن لُؤَيّ) is an ancestor of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in Arabic tradition.

Murrah ibn Ka'b (Arabic: مُرَّة ٱبْن كَعْب) ibn Luay ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr ibn Malik was a man from Quraysh tribe, supposed to have lived in the 4th century.[1] He was the sixth-in-line of Muhammad's grandfathers. He is the common ancestor of all four of Muhammad's grandparents. He is also the common ancestor of six of Muhammad's eight great-grandparents. He is also the common ancestor of Muhammad and his friend Abu Bakr.

Kilab ibn Murrah (Arabic: كِلَاب ٱبْن مُرَّة) (born 373 AD) was an ancestor of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[1] In other words, he is prophet Muhammad's great-great-great-great-grandfather. Qusai ibn Kilab ibn Murrah (Arabic: قصي ٱبن كلاب ٱبن مرة, Qusayy ibn Kilāb ibn Murrah; ca. 400–480), also spelled Qusayy, Kusayy, Kusai, or Cossai, born Zayd (Arabic: زيد), was an Ishmaelite descendant of the Prophet Abraham, orphaned early on he would rise to become King of Makkah, and leader of the Quraysh tribe. He is best known for being an ancestor of the Umayyad, Abbasid and other Hashemite Dynasties, which included Islamic Prophet Muhammad as well as the 3rd and the 4th Rashidun Caliph: Uthman and Ali, and the later Umayyad, Abbasid Caliphs and Fatimids along with several of the most prominent dynasties in the orient.

Abd Manaf al-Mughirah ibn Qusai (Arabic: عبد مناف ٱلمغيرة ٱبن قصي, Abd Manāf al-Mughīrah ibn Quṣayy) was a Qurayshi and great-great-grandfather of Islamic prophet Muhammad. His father was Quṣai ibn Kilāb.

Abd Shams ibn Abd Manaf (Arabic: عبد شمس بن عبد مناف c. 464–497), was the son of Abd Manaf al-Mughirah ibn Qusai and a prominent member of the Quraish tribe of Mecca in modern-day Saudi Arabia. The Banu Abd Shams sub-clan of the Quraish tribe and their descendants take its name from him.

Umayya ibn Abd Shams (Arabic: أمية بن عبد شمس) was the son of Abd Shams and is said to be the progenitor of the line of the Umayyad Caliphs. The clan of Banu Umayya as well as the dynasty that ruled the Umayyad Caliphate and Caliphate of Córdoba are named after Umayya ibn Abd Shams.

Harb ibn Umayya (Arabic: حرب بن أمية) was the father of Abu Sufyan (Sakhr) and Arwa and the son of Umayya ibn Abd Shams.

Sakhr ibn Harb (Arabic: صخر بن حرب بن أمية بن عبد شمس, romanized: Ṣakhr ibn Ḥarb ibn Umayya ibn ʿAbd Shams; c. 565—653), better known by his kunya Abu Sufyan (Arabic: أبو سفيان, romanized: Abū Sufyān), was a prominent opponent turned companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was the father of Mu'awiya I and thus the forefather of all the Ummayid Caliphs.

Mu'awiya I ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: معاوية بن أبي سفيان; c. 597, 603 or 605–April 680) was the son of Abu Sufyan and the founder and first caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, ruling from 661 until his death. He became caliph less than thirty years after the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and immediately after the four Rashidun ('rightly-guided') caliphs. Unlike his predecessors, who had been close, early companions of Muhammad, Mu'awiya was a relatively late follower of the Islamic prophet.

Abd al-Rahman I ibn Mu’awiya was the son of Mu'awiya. Abd al-Rahman I ibn Mu’awiya was the founder of the Moorish dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries (including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba). Abd al-Rahman was a member of the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus, and his establishment of a government in Iberia represented a break with the Abbasids, who had overthrown the Umayyads in Damascus in 750.

Hisham I Al-Reda ibn Abd ar-Rahman was the son of Abd Al-Rahman I and the second Emir of Cordoba, ruling from 788 to 796 in al-Andalus.

Al-Hakam I ibn Hisham I was the son of Hisham I. He was Umayyad Emir of Cordoba from 796 until 822 in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia).

Abd ar-Rahman II ibn Al-Hakam I (Arabic: عبد الرحمن الأوسط) (792–852) was the son of Al-Hakam I and fourth Umayyad Emir of Córdoba in the Al-Andalus Iberia from 822 until his death.

Muhammad I ibn Abd ar-Rahman II (822–886) (Arabic: محمد بن عبد الرحمن الأوسط) was the son of Abd Al-Rahman II and Umayyad emir of Córdoba from 852 to 886 in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia).

Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad I (Arabic: عبد الله بن محمد الأموي; January 11, 844 – October 15, 912) was the son of Muhammad I and seventh Emir of Córdoba, reigning from 888 to 912 in Al-Andalus (Islamic Iberia). His son was Muhammad ibn Abdullah.

Abd-Al-Rahman III ibn Muhammad was the son of Muhammad ibn Abdullah and Umayyad Emir of Córdoba from 912 to 929 after his grandfather Abdullah, at which point he founded the Caliphate of Córdoba, serving as its first official Caliph until his death. 'Abd al-Raḥmān won the laqab (sobriquet) al-Nasir li-Dīn Allāh – Defender of God's Faith – in his early 20s when he supported the Maghrawa in North Africa against Fatimid expansion and rose to the Caliphate.

Al-Hakam II ibn Abd-Al-Rahman III, (born January 13, 915 – October 16, 976), was the son of Abd Al-Rahman III and Caliph of Córdoba. He was the second Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba in Al-Andalus, and son of Abd-ar-Rahman III and Murjan. He ruled from 961 to 976. He had two sons, the first was Prince Abd Al-Rahman and the second was Prince Hisham II.

Finally, Abd Al-Rahman ibn Al-Hakam II or Andres Velaz de Medrano was the first son of Caliph Al-Hakam II and became the lord of Iguzquiza and Learza, Navarre. In 979 AD, he created the noble house of Medrano and is the progenitor of the surname. If not for conversion, he would have been the third Caliph and is the fourth of the Abd Al-Rahman name after Abd Al-Rahman III.

Inigo Velaz de Medrano (12th-13th century)[edit]

Monestary of Leyre

Inigo Velaz de Medrano was the father of Juan Martinez de Medrano, he was Lord of Sartaguda and was in the crusade with the kings Luis de Francia and Teobaldo of Navarre.[6] The seal of this knight is preserved in several documents, including the one containing a donation from the king to the monastery of Leyre (1268).[7] Inigo Velaz de Medrano must have enjoyed a great reputation as a prudent man, since the kings of Navarre and Castile chose him as their arbitrator. He was the father of III D. Juan Martinez de Medrano, Lord of Sartaguda, rich man from Navarre.

The oldest records of the monastery of Leyre date from 842 when Inigo Velaz de Medrano's ancestor Íñigo Arista, considered the first king of Pamplona, and his Bishop Wilesindo of Pamplona, made a donation to the monastery. Fortún Garcés was the grandson of Inigo Arista, he reigned with a policy very accommodating to the wishes of the Banu Qasi clan, which caused anger within the Pamplonese nobility.

Don Juan Martinez de Medrano - Regent of Navarra (13th-14th century)[edit]

Don Juan Martinez de Medrano, son of Inigo Velaz de Medrano. Philip III, for his services, gave Juan the Castle of Dicastillo, and shortly after the town of Arroniz. He was Lord of Sartaguda, alcaide of Viana.

The 1262 monetary reform established the livre tournois as 20 sous tournois, or 80.88 grams of fine silver.

(1275 AD - 123 - J. 614.), is a receipt of Don Garcia Almoravid, of the sum of 10 livre tournois for the holding of the Castle of Maya and of 35 Livre tournois for that of the castle of Aussa during the preceding year.

(Ibid. 1276 AD – 296 – J. 614.), A certificate in favor of the claim of Juan Martinez de Medrano, who had occupied, in the time of King Henry I of Navarre, the fortress of Viana, since ceded by the queen of Navarre to the municipality of this city, and who had made bets to defend this one against the Castillians at the time of the war. This Juan Martinez de Medrano was a considerable man. One sees him still appearing in 1286 in the accounts of Navarre.”[8]

Juan Martinez de Medrano was elected by the courts in union with D. Corbaran de Lehet for regent of the kingdom in 1328, while queen Juana II was in Paris. His wife was called Maria de Aibar, and she begot several children and among them, including his heir Don Juan Velaz de Medrano.

Don Juan Martinez de Medrano was regent of Navarre during the dynastic union of France and Navarre. Many others benefited from the succulent distribution of power. Gentlemen by the names of Gil García de Yániz and Pedro Íñiguez de Lérruz were present at the Puente la Reina assembly and received the position of merinos from the Mountains and Tierra Estella, respectively. On the other hand, the promotion of Juan Vélaz de Medrano and Corbarán de Lehet to the head of the merindades of Tierra Estella and la Ribera must have been orchestrated by his relatives and mentors, the rulers themselves.[9]

The coup d’état of the 13th of March 1328 heralded eleven months of “popular government” in Navarra. During the regency, the exercise of public power clearly manifested its “popular” nature in two ways: through people and through symbols. The change of regime took place via the almost total replacement of those holding public posts, posts which went to a group of individuals unrelated to the monarchy and directly committed to the cause of the uprising.

Meanwhile, the new government led by Medrano and Lehet adapted the royal symbols to the new political situation to reflect the strange, unprecedented situation of a kingdom without a king through such vehicles as language and seals. This political upheaval and its administrative and symbolic consequences were finally brought to an end with the restoration of the monarchy in the form of its legitimate successors less than one year later, on the 5th of March 1329.

When Charles IV died without a male heir, the senior line of the House of Capet, descended from Philip IV, became extinct. He was succeeded in Navarre by his niece Joan II and in France by his paternal first cousin Philip VI of Valois. However, the dispute on the succession to the French throne between the Valois monarchs descended in male line from Charles's grandfather Philip III of France, and the English monarchs descended from Charles's sister Isabella, was a factor of the Hundred Years' War.

In 1330 Juan Martínez de Medrano accompanied the Viceroy of Navarra, Ponce de Morentana, in the raid he made in Guipúzcoa, with sixty thousand men. Juan Martínez de Medrano and Alvar Díaz de Medrano were commissioned to make the jurisdiction by King Philip III of Navarra, husband of Queen Joan II.

Joan and Philip left Navarre in September 1331. Historian Elena Woodacre notes, the "royal couple had to balance the needs of their French territories alongside the rule of Navarre", which forced them to split their time between all of their domains. Joan and Philip could hardly get accustomed to the "tastes and customs of the Navarrese, and were alien to their language", according to historian José María Lacarra, for which they were often absent from the kingdom. During the monarchs' absence, French governors administered Navarre on their behalf.

Juan Velaz de Medrano III (14th century)[edit]

Don Juan Velaz de Medrano, Third of the name, he was warden of Viana. He married Dona Bona de Almoravid, and was the father of Don Alvar Diaz de Medrano, Lord of Iguzquiza, rich man from Navarra.

Alvar Velaz de Medrano (14th century)[edit]

Alvar was the Mayor of the Monjardin castle In 1380, and for the next two years, he was among the King's innkeepers. Carlos III married Eleanor, daughter of Henry II of Castile, in 1375, putting an end to the conflict between Castile and Navarre. 11 years later Álvar Díaz de Medrano attended the Cortes held in Pamplona by Carlos III of Navarra, in 1386. The system of Cortes arose in The Middle Ages as part of feudalism. A "Corte" was an advisory council made up of the most powerful feudal lords closest to the king.

Don Juan Velaz de Medrano IV (14th-15th century)[edit]

Don Juan Velaz de Medrano, Fourth of the name, lord of Iguzquiza, warden of the castle of Monjardin and chamberlain of the king of Navarra. The office dates from the middle Ages when the King's Chamberlain often acted as the King's spokesperson in Council and Parliament. He accompanied D. Carlos III to France in the year 1397. He remained in the army of the King of France, to whom he rendered great services in the Languedoc war (year 1412). Don Juan Velaz de Medrano also accompanied the Infanta D. Eleanor de Bourbon, daughter of Jacques de Borbon, King of Sicily, Hungary and Jerusalem (and granddaughter of Charles III of Naharra, through her mother the Infanta D. Beatriz) on his trip to Paris in 1420. In 1429, we see him defend Viana from the Castilian army that besieged her, and which he made them withdraw. In 1432, the king made him his chamberlain.

Don Ferran Velaz de Medrano (15th century)[edit]

Don Ferran Velaz de Medrano was the son of Juan Velaz de Medrano (IV), Lord of Learza and Iguzquiza, rich man of Navarra. He was the warden of the Monjardin castle. In 1455 the king gave him the Pechas de Muez, Mendoza and Legaria so that he would compensate for the two thousand florins he had spent in the conquest of Geneville, and in 1471 those of the valleys of allin and santeesteban de la solana. He rebuilt the Palace of Iguzquiza, which was famous for the splendor of the festivities held by Don Ferran Velaz de Medrano and his children and grandchildren, which were often attended by the kings themselves.

Don Juan Velaz de Medrano V (15th century)[edit]

Don Juan Velaz de Medrano, fifth of the name, Lord of Learza, Iguzquiza, Agost and Aguinano, warden of the castle of Monjardin. He married D. Elvira de Echauz, daughter of Carlos, viscount of Baigner. He was the son and heir of Ferran Velaz de Medrano. He figured in the reign of D. Juan and D. Catalina.

Don Juan Velaz de Medrano VI (15th century)[edit]

Don Juan Vaz de Medrano, sixth of the same name, Lord of learza, Iguzquiza and Agost, warden of the castle of Monjardin and major knight of King Don Juan de Albret, who gave him in 1496 the property that belonged to Langarot de Yaniz, who was declared a traitor. Juan Velaz de Medrano fought bravely against the Castilian invasion, and when the conquest of Navarra by Don Fernando el Catolico was consumed, he followed his legitimate king to France. The memory of these martyrs of Navarra freedom, models of fidelity and of knights, as well as that of the Marsical D. Pedro de Navarra, must be revered and held for one of the purest glories of that nobility. Don Juan Velaz de Medrano married with Dona Ana de Mauleon and Navarra. He was the brother of the heroic knight Jaimie Velaz de Medrano, the alcaide of the castle of Maya.

Luisa de Medrano Bravo de Lagunas Cienfuegos (1484-1527)[edit]

Luisa de Medrano belonged to an illustrious family of the high Castilian nobility (Medrano, Barnuevo, Salvadores and Chanciller, members of the Twelve Lineages of Soria) and Navarre (Medrano and Almoravid, regents of the kingdom of Navarra during the dynastic union with the kingdom of Francia in 1328)[10] who lived in the city of Soria and in the castle of San Gregorio. Her intellectual abilities and solid formation enabled her to teach Latin at the University of Salamanca. Her brother was the director of Salamanca Univsersity during her time. An illustrious woman, she dedicated her short life to study and enjoyed fame and erudition.

Nevertheless, all her written work has been lost, and she would have disappeared from history had it not been for the written admiration of contemporaries such as Lucio Marineo Sículo (Sicilian poet, humanist, historian and important figure in the Spanish Renaissance), and the rector of Salamanca, Pedro de Torres. It was Sículo, who misspelled her name, using Lucia, instead of Luisa.

Both men highly praised her intellectual qualities and knowledge. Their precious testimony rescued her memory from oblivion. These sources confirm that in 1508 she occupied a chair at the University of Salamanca, one of the most prestigious and celebrated institutions of the Modern Age. At the time, she would have been only 24 years old. She received the chair left by Antonio de Nebrija (Antonio Martínez de Cala) in 1508 (Poetry and Grammar), although it is not known how long she maintained the post. Paintings of her have not been identified but it is thought that she is the First Sibyl, Samia, in Juan Soreda's "The Sibyls", painted sometime between 1527 and 1532. Exhibited in the Museum of Religious Art of San Gil, in Atienza.

The Catholic Monarchs frequently visited the University of Salamanca and the protection of Isabel la Católica made it possible for Luisa de Medrano to teach publicly in the chairs of Law and Grammar of the University of Salamanca from the age of 24 from the academic year 1508-1509 during the absences of Elio Antonio de Nebrija, professor of Grammar transferred to the University of Alcalá by Cardinal Cisneros, and Jerónimo Álvarez de la Carrera, professor of Canons. His brother Luis de Medrano was rector of the University of Salamanca in 1511 and 1512. The testimony of the handwritten annotation of Pedro de Torres in his work Cronicón, says that "on November 16, 1508, Medrano's daughter reads in the chair of Canons".

The testimony of Lucio Marineo Siculo, an Italian humanist who was a professor at the University of Salamanca for thirteen years and who knew her personally (calling her Lucia in her works by mistake), affirms that Luisa de Medrano was a young woman who was ahead of all wise men of Spain in the knowledge and mastery of Latin and classical culture, speaking and writing the Latin language brilliantly:

"Now I finally know that nature has not denied women talent, which is proven in our time, above all, thanks to you (Luisa de Medrano), who in words and eloquence put your head above men, you, the only girl and tender young woman in Spain who attends diligently and eagerly not to wool but to books, not to the spindle but to the quill, not to the needle but to the pen." (Year 1514)

"In Salamanca we met Lucía de Medrano, a very eloquent young woman. To whom we hear not only speaking as an orator, but also reading and declaring Latin books publicly at the University of Salamanca." (Year 1530)

Isabel I kept her promise to the Medrano family and saw to the schooling of the children. Luisa Medrano not only received a privileged and nurtured education with the royal daughters, Isabel and Juana, she undoubtedly benefited from living in the climate of tolerance and advancement for women that Isabel I actively cultivated in her court, and which, sadly, disappeared after her death. Luisa belonged to the group of Renaissance women who were famous for their knowledge and called by their contemporaries "puellae doctae" (learned girls). Isabella I was Queen of Castile from 1474 until she died in 1504, reigning over a dynastically unified Spain jointly with her husband, King Ferdinand II of Aragon. She was Queen of Aragon after Ferdinand ascended in 1479. At the end of the Reconquista, only Granada was left for Isabella and Ferdinand to conquer. The Emirate of Granada had been held by the Moslem Nasrid dynasty since the mid-13th century. Protected by natural barriers and fortified towns, it had withstood the long process of the reconquista. On 1 February 1482, the king and queen reached Medina del Campo and this is generally considered the beginning of the war for Granada. While Isabella and Ferdinand's involvement in the war was apparent from the start, Granada's leadership was divided and never able to present a united front. It still took ten years to conquer Granada, however, culminating in 1492.

Isabel I's grandson, Carlos I of Spain, Karl V of Germany, tried to rid the world of the memory of his mother Juana I and of other women as well, including Luisa de Medrano. He had one of Lucio Marineo Sículo's books censured, "De Rebus Hispaniae Memorabilibus" which was published in Castilian also, as “Cosas memorables de España”, or "Memorable Things in Spain", a kind of encyclopedia that covered different subjects. There are very few copies of the first edition from 1530 because the Emperor ordered it to be removed, but it contained a chapter that mentions and praises Luisa.

In 1943, the Ministry of National Education granted, at the proposal of the Cloister of the National Institute of Secondary Education of Salamanca, female, that this Institute be called "Lucía de Medrano". On October 12, 2015, the Rectorate and the University of Salamanca agreed that the Hall of Cloisters of the Higher Schools of the University be named "Lucía de Medrano" as a dedication to the first female professor in Spain and Europe. In the same year 2015, the Castilla-La Mancha Community Board created the Castilla-La Mancha International Award for Gender Equality "Luisa de Medrano", which has been awarded annually since 2016 by the Castilla-La Woman Institute in La Mancha with the aim of distinguishing those people, groups, entities or institutions that have stood out or stand out in the defense of equality between women and men. Luisa de Medrano is a woman who will be forever remembered for her intellect, bravery and nobility, that eloquent young woman, the first woman to hold a seat in a male dominated institution.

Luisa's father Don Diego Lopez de Medrano y Medrano[edit]

Her father, the knight Don Diego López de Medrano y de Medrano, lord of San Gregorio and progenitor of the counts of Torrubia (united in marriages with the Dukes of Villahermosa, Marquises of Villamayor, Marquis of Salamanca, Dukes of Sotomayor and Dukes of Alba).[citation needed]

The county of Torrubia is a Spanish noble title created on August 29 , 1694 by King Carlos II in favor of García de Medrano y Mendizabal, 1st Count of Torrubia , son of García Medrano and María Ignacia de Mendizábal.[11]

Duke of Villahermosa (Spanish: Duque de Villahermosa) is a hereditary title in the peerage of Spain, accompanied by the dignity of Grandee and granted in 1476 by John II to Alfonso de Aragón, a step-brother of Ferdinand II.[12] The ducal family's fortunes grew in the mid-15th century, after Pedrola became the Aragonese capital at the time when the Azlor de Aragón family estates and Villahermosa were controlled by Alfonso de Aragón y de Escobar, illegitimate son of King John II of Aragon. This noble family owned the Palace of Villahermosa in Madrid, a neo-classical building on the corner of Paseo del Prado and Calle de San Jerónimo, from the 18th century until the 20th century. Refurbished by Rafael Moneo in the late 1980s, the former ducal townhouse now houses Madrid's Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum. [13]

Alfonso de Aragón y de Escobar (1417–1495), created Count of Cortes in 1462 by Queen Bianca of Navarre and later Count of Ribagorza in 1469, was advanced as 1st Duke of Villahermosa in 1476; married in 1477, Leonor de Sotomayor; in addition to illegitimate offspring, he had two sons and one daughter (Fernando (died 1483), Alfonso and Mariana), and was succeeded by his younger son:

  • Alfonso de Aragón y Sotomayor (1479–1513), 2nd Duke of Villahermosa: one illegitimate daughter, Leonor; succeeded by his sister.
  • Ferdinando Sanseverino y de Aragón (18 January 1507 – 1572), 4th Prince of Salerno (s. 1508) and 3rd Duke of Villahermosa (s. 1513). Was exiled in France from 1554 because King Charles I attainted him, forfeiting his titles and lands in Spain and Italy because of his services to the French Crown. The 4th Duke's sister was Laura Sanseverino de Aragón who married the Italo-Spanish condottiero, Ignacio de Avalos, 1st Marquess del Vasto.
  • Martín de Aragón y de Sarmiento (Pedrola, 1525–Zaragoza, 1581), 3rd Duke of Luna, 4th Duke of Villahermosa succeeded his cousin Ferdinando Sanseverino y de Aragón in 1554 by Royal Decree of King Charles I; he married at Medina Sidonia, in 1541, Luisa de Borja, (Gandía, 1529 - Zaragoza, 1560).[14]

Duke of Alba de Tormes (Spanish: Duque de Alba de Tormes), commonly known as Duke of Alba, is a title of Spanish nobility that is accompanied by the dignity of Grandee of Spain.[15] In 1472, the title of Count of Alba de Tormes, inherited by García Álvarez de Toledo, was elevated to the title of Duke of Alba de Tormes by King Henry IV of Castile.[16]

Luisa's mother Dona Magdalena Bravo de Lagunas[edit]

Luisa de Medrano’s mother Mrs. Magdalena Bravo de Lagunas was the daughter of the governor of the Atienza fortresses and Sigüenza and first cousin of the commune captain of Segovia, Don Juan Bravo de Lagunas y de Mendoza (nephew of the commune politics Mrs. María Pacheco y de Mendoza). Juan Bravo de Lagunas y de Mendoza (c. 1483, Atienza 24 April 1521, Villalar de los Comuneros) was a leader of the rebel Comuneros in the Castilian Revolt of the Comuneros.

Luisa de Medrano’s mother Mrs. Magdalena Bravo de Lagunas, was the great-great-granddaughter of Mr. Alonso Pérez de Guzmán el Bueno (progenitor of the Dukes of Medina-Sidonia) and came from Berlanga de Duero (Soria) and Atienza, she was the daughter of the governor of the fortresses of Atienza and Sigüenza and first cousin of the commune captain of Segovia, don Juan Bravo de Lagunas y de Mendoza (nephew of the commune politics Mrs. María Pacheco y de Mendoza). Luisa de Medrano's parents had nine children, Luisa being the seventh of them, born in either Soria or Atienza in 1484.

According to Spanish tradition, Guzmán was born in Morocco.[17] Historians have since speculated that he was a Moslem.[18] In a permit to export wheat signed in 1288, Guzmán was given permission to export the crop to where "he is from," very likely in Morocco. A document from 1297 signed by the Spanish king refers to Guzmán as "a vassal," i.e. a non-Spaniard…[19]

The late Luisa Isabel Álvarez de Toledo, 21st Duchess of Medina Sidonia, owned the document. A direct descendant of Guzmán, she said that she believed his history might have been "cleaned up" in the sixteenth century to alter his origins. She thought that would have made the hero more palatable to Spain's Christian society.[20]

a descendant of Alonso, Gaspar Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán y Sandoval was the IX Duke of Medina Sidonia, was the head of the house of Medina Sidonia, depositary of the oldest duchy of the nobility of the Castilian crown, possessor of vast lordships in the kingdom of Seville and small ones in that of Granada, the greatest fortune in Andalusia and one of the greatest in the Kingdom of Spain. On the death of his father in 1636, Gaspar became Duke of Medina Sidonia at the age of thirty-three and being married to his aunt Ana de Guzmán. (Such was the relations of Spain in favor of purity) Upon assuming the head of the house, Gaspar became the General Captaincy of the Ocean Sea and the Coasts of Andalusia, which made him the military man in charge of a wide geographical area that ran from the mouth of the Guadiana to the Strait of Gibraltar. His sister Luisa de Guzmán had married the Duke of Braganza, John IV, first king of Portugal from the house of Braganza in 1632.

The dukes of Medina Sidonia, meanwhile, whose seigneurial power since around 1300 had been based in Andalusia, in the sixteenth century had managed to add what we might call an imperial aspect to their influence. In part this was the result of the Indies trade, a highly favorable historical circumstance for them being that the maritime and commercial routes tying Castile with its vast American possessions literally crossed the Medina Sidonia seigneurial lands (señorío). If one crossed the Atlantic and wanted to reach Seville —the theoretically exclusive seat of the commercial route — one had to sail up the Guadalquivir River, whose mouth was situated at the capital town of the Medina Sidonia señorío, Sanlúcar de Barrameda. As a result, the dukes constructed their own complex fiscal structure to take advantage of the trade, the benefits of which they largely invested in service to the monarchs through military protection of the ships as they crossed the ocean.[21]

Their positions at the apex of their respective social pyramids meant the dukes of Braganza and Medina Sidonia had to accept commitments and responsibilities to maintain order in accordance with their privileges. These obligations went beyond rhetoric; they were what was expected of such powerful lords. Not only were they expected to exercise power; it was assumed they also could influence how the court’s dictates would be implemented in regions over which they had direct seigneurial authority. In this regard, both Medina Sidonia’s and Braganza’s relationship with the Olivares regime was smooth, at least on paper, until 1637-1638. At that point, a revolt in southern Portugal, which extended to the regions of Alentejo and the Algarve, forced Olivares to ask the two dukes for their assistance in putting down the protest movement, which threatened to quickly turn into a more general challenge to Philip IV’s authority in Portugal. Both men, on either side of the Guadiana border, firmly supported the king.[22]

Don Jaime Velaz de Medrano (15th-16th century)[edit]

That heroic captain who led the defense of the last royal castle of that independent Navarre, Jaime Vélaz de Medrano. Born in 1475, a member of the royal guard of Enrique II and present in the battles of the conquest of Navarre in 1512 and Noáin, it is not even known where he is buried.

Because of their location, status, role and nature, royal guards have frequently been able to play a political role beyond their intended military and social ones. In times of revolution, the continued loyalty or defection of such units has often played a key part in the outcome of wider unrest.

Alcaide: commander of a castle or fortress (Moorish) borrowed from Arabic al-qāʼid, from al "the" + qāʼid "leader, commander," noun derivative from active participle of qāda "to lead"

The Alcaide named D. Jaime Velaz de Medrano, who defended himself in the castle of Maya with 200 other knights and 8 or 9 other nobles, among whom was the father of Saint Francis Javier, to the last extreme, defended it, from the Castilian chief from the fortress of Pampalona. In it he died poisoned, as well as his children, prisoners like him in this last act of resistance to the power of Carlos V.[23]

In a facsimile edition published by Mintzoa, the correspondence of the Alcaide who defended the castle to the end in 1522 comes to light. Exciting texts that "give voice to the voiceless", changing the story of History. The voice of the voiceless. This is how Aritz Otazu defines the letters from the last of the Amaiur-Maya castle, which his editorial, Mintzoa, has just published in a facsimile edition. "Exciting" texts, he assures, full of emotion and pride for having brought to light these unknown texts for the general public and which are, he says, "of supreme importance" because "they change the story of History.

The letters of Amaiur-Maya in 1521-22. The personal correspondence of the governor of Amaiur-Maya and Navarrese captain Jaime Vélaz de Medrano is the original title of this document, which has been published in a facsimile, numbered and notarized edition, a print run of one hundred copies containing the letters, their translation into current Castilian and in Basque –they are originally written in Old Castilian, Occitan, Bearnese and Old French–, and an analysis made of the letters and their historical context by the historian and archivist Peio Montean.

In the words of Peio Monteano, these letters "constitute exceptional documents because we never hear the voice of those who defended the independence of the kingdom and dynastic legitimacy, the voice of those who were defeated…What little we know about them, their behavior and their reasons come from their enemies or from statements in judicial processes for treason in which they were involved. And here the story is forced, partial and interested.”

Instead, the historian points out,

"Amaiur-maya's letters show us how the Navarrese who fought the conquest until the end. Although it is not fair to judge people out of their time, It is inevitable to feel admiration and respect for some young people and others not so young who sacrificed everything - position, property, family and, some, their own life - by remaining faithful to the ideal in which they believed," concludes Monteano

"It is a correspondence that arises at a time when Navarre had just passed the battle of Noáin in June 1521 and, except for two letters that are between 1500, 1512, all the others are from November 1521 to seven days before the fall of the Amaiur-Maya castle. The importance is supine because they are talking to us about war plans, how the enemy's positions are, what the resistance feels, where they are; they are exciting," says Aritz Otaz.

After the defeat at the battle of Noáin (June 1521), the Navarrese faithful to King Henry II of Navarre took refuge in the Albret domains on the other side of the Pyrenees (in Bearne and Lower Navarre). In September 1521, they made another incursion into the Baztán - Bidasoa valley and conquered the castle, respecting the life of the warden and the castle's Castilian garrison. A garrison of about 200 Navarrese stayed there, under the command of Jaime Vélaz de Medrano.

"We found a letter from Sancho de Yesa, who was the Treasurer of Navarre, speaking that they are from Navarre nation, it literally says nation in the last letter, of July 1522, and that he writes to the brother of San Francisco Javier. This is important because we have always talked about the nationalisms of the nineteenth century, and always that here they defended a king, they defended their estates ... and we see that they did not. We see that they had a clear sense of nation and there were not a few who stayed there, as they say, lying in that castle. There is another letter in which Xavier says that they, knowing what was coming to them, will lock themselves in the castle. They knew what was coming, and even so they defended that strategic place," emphasizes the editor of Mintzoa. After the siege of Amaiur-Maya, the letters were seized by the Spanish army and used to arrest and punish their signers, as shown by the annotations found in the correspondence.

"Over time, these documents were entrusted to Juan Rena, payer of the army and future bishop of Pamplona. He was appointed depositary of the assets that were confiscated from all those who had opposed the Spanish conquest. When Rena died, these papers passed by order of the emperor, to the archive of the Chamber of Comptos. There, mixed among the voluminous administrative documentation of the Venetian, the letters would be forgotten for almost four centuries," writes Peio Monteano in the analysis that is published together with the correspondence.

Maya's so-called letters reveal that Jaime Vélaz Medrano and the other heroes of Amaiur-Maya, some one hundred men who resisted 9 days of bombardment in front of five thousand soldiers, were moved by "love for Navarra.”

The entire stamp of this correspondence is sent from different places, because one writes from Bayona, another from Po, from Elizondo, from Ziga, it speaks to us of the feeling of Navarra as a nation.”

They are stories that come from different parts, from the one made by a French lieutenant, Bonnivent, who tells them "don't worry, we're going to give you help, send crossbows, soldiers, hold on", even Mr. de Xavier, who goes to France to ask permission to lock himself in the castle, passing through letters sent by the Enrique II, King of Navarre saying the same, "hold on because there will be reinforcements and we are going to defend you, there will be no problem"; There are also letters from the notaries of Etxalar and Elizondo telling them about the enemy's positions, in this case the Spanish army, where they were from, what they came with, how they came. information that cost them their lives.

Some of the signatories of the letters: The Lord of Xavier, Juan de Aguerre (Notary of Etxalar), Juan de Elizondo (Notary of Elizondo), Enrique II (King of Navarra), the Abbot of Urdax, Sancho de Yesa, (Treasurer of Navarra), Antonio de Peralta (son of the Marquis de Falces), Pedro de Navarra (son of the Marshal of Navarra) or Bonnivent (lieutenant of the King of France). Combatants: Most remain anonymous (the names of a score are known).

The fierceness of the Navarrese: They resisted 9 days of bombardment with stones, crossbows, perhaps a harquebus, tar and little else. In front of them, they had the power of five thousand fighters with an artillery train of 16 guns and 300 ladders to take the castle, which were going with unusual violence. They entered because a Gipuzkoan, Mendizabal, put a load in one of the castle's buckets, and a breach was opened. If not, they would not have gotten in. Faced with the surprise of the Spanish viceroy by the great fierceness of Amaiur-Maya's resistance, the Count of Lerín, from Beamontés, told him: "Those, my lord, are Navarrese."

In 1533 the Franco-Ottoman alliance was an alliance established in 1536 between the King of France Francis I and the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Suleiman I. The strategic and sometimes tactical alliance was one of the most important foreign alliances of France, and was particularly influential during the Italian Wars. The Franco-Ottoman military alliance reached its peak around 1553 during the reign Henry II of France. It lasted intermittently for more than two and a half centuries, until the Napoleonic campaign in Ottoman Egypt, in 1798–1801.

The alliance was an opportunity for both rulers to fight against the hegemony of the House of Habsburg. The objective for Francis I was to find an ally against the Habsburgs, although the policy of courting a Muslim power was in reversal of that of his predecessors. The pretext used by Francis I was the protection of the Christians in Ottoman lands, through agreements called "Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire".

Tomás Fernández de Medrano (16th-17th century)[edit]

Tomas Fernandez de Medrano was Secretary of State and War and of the Council of the Duke of Savoy, writer of political subjects. Secretary of State of the Duke of Savoy, he was the author of the Mixed Republic, as recorded in the censorship of the work, and also confirmed by his son Juan Fernández de Medrano y Sandoval in the dedication. The work, according to his son's testimony, was found in handwritten "among his father's papers." For this reason, this work is often cited under the name of Juan Fernández. Nicolás Antonio does not hesitate to attribute the authorship of the Mixed Republic to Tomás Fernández de Medrano: "verus istius operis autor". This paternal-filial duo is repeated in the Orazion consotoria to the lord Carlo Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, the author being Thomas and the one who gives it to the press is his son Juan. Likewise, the funeral oration to the gifts of Felipe Segundo is the work of Tomás Fernández de Medrano. The Mixed Republic published, according to the author himself, corresponds "to the first treaty of seven that has written", a relatively frequent occurrence at this time, of the publication of a first installment, "to see how it is received", of a draft of claims broader, which were never consummated. The text focuses on the constitutive role of the political order played by religion and is integrated into the context of the anti-Machiavellian current to the extent that it tries to refute the Florentine's thesis that they attribute to religion a merely strategic role, in no case constitutive of the political order.

Don Pedro Velaz de Medrano (1603 - 1659)[edit]

Don Pedro Velaz de Medrano (Santo Domingo de la Calzada, July 28, 1603- Coimbra, c. 1659) In 1638 he came to the aid of Fuenterrabía commanding his third and in 1639 he participated in the battle of the Dunes commanding the ship Orfeo. On 21 October, the Dutch entered the Downs and attacked the Spanish fleet with fireships. Unable to manoeuvre in the cramped waters and with the wind against them, the Spanish lost around ten ships captured or destroyed, while another twelve deliberately ran themselves ashore to avoid capture. Orfeo fought for the Kingdom of Naples at: Battle of the Downs: The 44-gun ship was lost on the Goodwin Sands, Kent, on 31 October, 1639. Combined with the repulse of a similar-sized expedition against Dutch Brazil in January 1640, this marked the end of attempts to challenge Dutch maritime supremacy and an acceptance by the Spanish court that the war could not be won. The Dutch, English, and French were quick to take advantage by seizing some small Spanish island possessions in the Caribbean.

Prisoner of the French in Paris after running his ship aground on the Gallic shores, Don Pedro Velaz de Medrano was freed in 1640. in 1644 he was appointed Captain General of the Barlovento Navy and was in charge of the custody of the New Spain Fleet that successfully entered the port of Veracruz on July 17, 1644. Upon his return to the Peninsula, in 1645, he requested the monarch to grant a marquisate and other grants as a reward for his services. However, the crisis in which the monarchy was plunged after the uprising of Catalonia and Portugal prevented large expenditures and did not obtain satisfaction to his demands. He received several refusals in his requests for grants and appointments from the Spanish Monarch.

Pedro decided to go to Portugal in 1648, practically at the same time as the discovery of the Duke of Híjar's conspiracy In Lisbon, he offered his services to the rebels, ensuring that he could take over the New Spain Fleet, or with the city of Cartagena de Indias. The news aroused deep concern in Madrid. It was feared that he would try to raise the kingdom of Navarre or that he would travel to America to conquer Santo Domingo or even Peru with the help of the Portuguese and English.

He is famous for having captained a French corsair flotilla in the Caribbean with the intention of capturing the Spanish treasure fleet. His parents resided there at that time: Antonio Velaz de Medrano y Mendoza and María Manso de Zúñiga. Pedro had served as a soldier in Naples and Sicily and would later become magistrate in the towns of Malaga (1609-12) and Cuenca-Huete (1612-14). He was also a knight of the order of Santiago. Pedro’s wife, meanwhile, was a member of the powerful Manso de Zúñiga clan, a Riojan family originally from the town of Canillas de Río Tuerto to which the then bishop of Calahorra-La Calzada, Pedro, and his other nephews belonged: Pedro Manso, President of the Council of Castile and Patriarch of the Indies, Martín Manso de Zúñiga, bishop of Oviedo and Osma, and Francisco Manso de Zúñiga y Solá, judge of the Council of the Indies and future first count of Hervías.

Don Pedro Velaz de Medrano y Manso de Zúñiga became a prominent sailor during the reign of Felipe IV. In 1648, he betrayed the Spanish crown and went over to the French side.

A remarkable letter still exists from Philip IV of Spain. It reads:

Madrid, I8th March 1651 A.D. PHILIP IV. OF SPAIN. Letter Signed, with the Royal Sign Manual (in Spanish), to the Viceroy of New Spain, notifying him of the departure of Don Pedro Velaz de Medrano with five warships (from France) to waylay the Spanish ships travelling from Vera Cruz to Havana; and instructing the Viceroy to take the necessary precautions.

The King sends another letter:

Madrid, 20th June, I651. ~6 68 HERALDIC ERRORS IN MEXICO CATHEDRAL. 1651 A.D. [1793e] PHILIP IV. OF SPAIN. Letter Signed, with the Royal Sign Manual (in Spanish), to the Vicercoy of New Spain, referring to the removal of certain Coats-of-Arms belonging to the ancient Kings of Navarre with which the Cathedral of Puebla de los Angeles had been ornamented, on the instructions of Palafox y Mendoza and the Dean and Chapter, and the substitution of the King's own Coat-of-Arms by the Real Audiencia of Mexico.

The King then sends another letter from Madrid, on the I7th of August, I65I. The letter contains some interesting details of heraldry, and expresses the King's displeasure at the action of the Audiencia without having consulted him. The Viceroy is ordered to fine these officials, and then to close the subject, "maintaining silence and admitting no further correspondence on the matter."

Don Giovanni Antonio Medrano (1703-1760)[edit]

Don Giovanni Antonio Medrano (1703–1760) was an Italian architect. Born in Sciacca, Sicily, he became a brigadier in the army of Charles of Bourbon, while he was king of the Two Sicily’s. Following the Battle of Bitonto in 1734, Charles had Medrano construct a commemorative obelisk in Bitonto.[24] The Obelisk Carolino in Bitonto, Apulia, commemorates HRH King Charles of Bourbon’s victory over the Austrian Habsburgs at the Battle of Bitonto in the Kingdom of Naples on May 25, 1734. King Philip V of Spain had always aimed to reconquer Naples and Sicily, which Spain lost to the Habsburgs as a consequence of the War of the Spanish Succession. The return of the Two Sicilies to Spain was confirmed by the Treaty of Vienna in 1738, which ended the war. Charles named Montemar Duke of Bitonto and commissioned Giovanni Antonio Medrano to erect an obelisk on the battlefield to commemorate the battle.

In 1737, Charles III commissioned Giovanni Medrano to design the new San Carlo opera house in Naples. The Teatro Reale di San Carlo, as originally named by the Bourbon monarchy but today known simply as the Teatro di San Carlo, is an opera house in Naples, Italy, connected to the Royal Palace and adjacent to the Piazza del Plebiscito. It is the oldest continuously active venue for opera in the world. It opened in 1737, decades before either Milan's La Scala or Venice's La Fenice. The opera season runs from late January to May, with the ballet season taking place from April to early June.

The house once had a seating capacity of 3,285, but has now been reduced to 1,386 seats. Given its size, structure and antiquity, it was the model for theatres that were later built in Europe. Charles wanted to endow Naples with a new and larger theatre to replace the old, dilapidated, and too-small Teatro San Bartolomeo of 1621, which had served the city well, especially after Scarlatti had moved there in 1682 and had begun to create an important opera centre, which existed well into the 1700s.

Thus, the San Carlo was inaugurated on 4 November 1737, the king's name day, with the performance of the opera Domenico Sarro's Achille in Sciro, which was based on the 1736 libretto by Metastasio, which had been set to music that year by Antonio Caldara. As was customary, the role of Achilles was played by a woman, Vittoria Tesi, called "Moretta"; the opera also featured soprano Anna Peruzzi, called "the Parrucchierina" and tenor Angelo Amorevoli. Sarro also conducted the orchestra in two ballets as intermezzi, created by Gaetano Grossatesta, with scenes designed by Pietro Righini.

It was built at a cost of 75,000 ducats. The hall was 28.6 meters long and 22.5 meters wide, with 184 boxes, including those of proscenium, arranged in six orders, plus a royal box capable of accommodating ten people, for a total of 1,379 seats. Including standing room, the theatre could hold over 3,000 people. The fastidious composer and violinist Louis Spohr reviewed the size and acoustic properties of this opera house very thoroughly on 15 February 1817 and concluded that: there is no better place for ballet and pantomime. Military movements of infantry and cavalry, battles, and storms at sea can be represented here without falling into the ludicrous. However, for opera, unfortunately the house is too large. Although the singers, Signora Isabella Colbran, [Prima Donna of the Teatro San Carlo opera company and Rossini's future wife], and the Signori Nozzari, Benedetti, etc., have very strong voices, only their highest and most stentorian tones could be heard. Any kind of tender utterance was lost.

Much admired for its architecture, its gold decorations, and the sumptuous blue upholstery (blue and gold being the official colours of the Bourbons). The San Carlo was now the biggest opera house in the world. In relation to the power of the existing Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Beauvert notes that the design of the house, with its 184 boxes lacking any curtains was so that "no one could avoid the scrutiny by the sovereign" who had his private access from the Royal Palace.

Naples became the capital of European music and even foreign composers considered the performance of their compositions at the San Carlo theatre as the goal of their career. These composers included Hasse (who later settled in Naples) Haydn, Johann Christian Bach and Gluck. Similarly, the most prominent singers performed and consolidated their fame at the San Carlo. The Neapolitan school of opera composers included Feo, Porpora, Traetta, Piccinni, Vinci, Anfossi, Durante, Jommelli, Cimarosa, Paisiello, Zingarelli, and Gazzaniga. These included Lucrezia Anguiari, called "La Cocchetta", the renowned castrati Giovanni Manzuoli, Caffarelli (Gaetano Majorano), Farinelli (Carlo Broschi), Gizziello (Gioacchino Conti) and Gian Battista Velluti, the last castrato. Caffarelli, Farinelli, and Gizziello were products of the local conservatories of Naples.

Giovanni Medrano then went on to design the Museo di Capodimonte, Charles's new palace and museum in Naples. Medrano started work on this, with others, in 1738, but the building was not finally completed until 1840. The vast collection at the museum traces its origins back to 1738. During that year King Charles VII of Naples and Sicily (later Charles III, king of Spain) decided to build a hunting lodge on the Capodimonte hill, but then decided that he would instead build a grand palace, partly because his existing residence, the Palace of Portici, was too small to accommodate his court, and partly because he needed somewhere to house the fabulous Farnese art collection which he had inherited from his mother, Elisabetta Farnese, last descendant of the sovereign ducal family of Parma. Over the years, the palace was enlarged and filled with more art. In 1787, on the advice of Jacob Philipp Hackert, a laboratory for the restoration of paintings was created.

Don Pedro de Mena y Medrano[edit]

Pedro de Mena y Medrano (Born in Adra in Almeria in 1628 - Died in Malaga in 1688) - Pedro de Mena was a Spanish sculptor, the son of Alonso de Mena. He studied his art with his father and Alonso Cano, who was his more influential teacher. He became successful with his first works, which were the statues of St. Joseph, St. Anthony de Padua, St. Diego, and Santa Clara in the Church of El Angel in Granada. After that he worked on the choir stalls of the Cathedral of Malaga for four years. The choir has stalls with carved wooden statues of saints and other figures, which number 42. The statues are of such beauty and individuality that they are considered among the most important works of all sculpture. His art is classified as late Baroque. He created an outstanding collection of life-size sculptures in wood that are in major cathedrals and museums in Spain. He made effigies of royalty, saints, and madonnas that were highly realistic and vividly emotional. His technical skill was unsurpassed in Spain. In 1658 Mena moved to Malaga permanently. He made a trip to Madrid in 1662 where he met many influential patrons who gave him plenty of work to last him a lifetime. Mena made the polychrome marble figures of Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella at prayer for the Granada Cathedral in 1677. Other famous sculptures were La Magdalena, La Dolorosa and Ecce Homo.

Medrano in Historical Books[edit]

Medrano is a very ancient house of noble origin. It is found in different times and in different places. Many are the principles that the researchers and authors gave of this family. The house for its antiquity, its splendor, for the military and virtue and for every other value of chivalry prospered in the past in great numbers, magnificent and generous. This family is registered in the "General Armorial", which proves that in the past it was distinguished for its indisputable value, a nobility that is also demonstrated by documents passed down through the generations. To this name, a distinctive sign of nobility is attributed, represented by the coat of arms, which also confirms, from a historical and heraldic point of view, the certainty of a remarkable value. The progenitor of the Medrano surname is a Moorish Prince from the Umayyad Caliphate in the year 979 AD. Tutored by the patriarch of the lineage, a lineage comprised the head of the lineage, his wife, children, sons-in-law / daughters-in-law, etc. then logically most of them would not have the same surname, but every one of those surnames would be part of the same Trunk Lineage. Medrano is a surname established in the region of Navarra and La Rioja. The family name Medrano has a coat of arms certified by the Chronicler and King of Arms Don Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent. Persons with the name Medrano proved their nobility in Real Chancilleria of Valladolid, as recorded in the archives of this institution. A list of bibliographies that collects the history and the coat of arms for the family Medrano:

  1. Repertorio de Blasones de la Comunidad Hispanica, by the Spanish King of Arms Don Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent.
  2. Apendice al Repertorio de Blasones de la Comunidad Hispanica, by the Spanish King of Arms Don Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent.
  3. Armorial General de Johan Baptiste Rietstap. Contains blazons, descriptions and drawings of coats of arms, crests, origins of family names and nobility
  4. Heraldica de los apellidos canarios, by Lino Chaparro D`Acosta.
  5. Heraldario Hispanoamericano y Europeo, by Ampelio Alonso de Cadenas y Lopez and the Spanish King of Arms don Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent.
  6. Nobiliario Espanol, by Julio de Atienza. Studied by Jaime de Querejeta or other writers in names of Basque and Navarre origin.
  7. El Solar Catalan, valenciano y balear, by Garcia Carraffa.
  8. El Solar Vasco Navarro, by Arturo and Alberto Garcia Carraffa.
  9. Enciclopedia Hispanoamericana de Heraldica, Genealogia y Onomastica, by Arturo and Alberto Garcia Carraffa.
  10. Nobiliario de Extremadura, by Adolfo Barredo de Valenzuela y Arrojo, and Ampelio Alonso de Cadenas y Lopez.
  11. Diccionario de Heraldica Aragonesa, by Bizen Do Rio Martinez.
  12. Los Apellidos en Canarias, by Carlos Platero Fernandez.
  13. Armorial Lusitano, by Antonio Sergio.
  14. Blasonario de la Consanguinidad iberica.

The origin of badges and emblems, are traced to the earliest times, although, Heraldry, in fact, cannot be traced later than the 12th century, or at furthest the 11th century. At first armorial bearings were probably like surnames and assumed by each warrior at his free will and pleasure, his object being to distinguish himself from others. It has long been a matter of doubt when bearing Coats of Arms first became hereditary. It is known that in the reign of Henry V (1413-1422), a proclamation was issued, prohibiting the use of heraldic ensigns to all who could not show an original and valid right, except those 'who had borne arms at Agincourt'.

The history and heraldry of the family name Medrano appears in the "Armorial Lusitano" by Antonio Sergio, so that, the Medrano are linked to Portuguese nobility or with branches in Portugal. We must bear in mind that the Portuguese nobles are linked to the Castilian-Leonese and Galician nobility, in addition to Portugal was once united to Spain, something to keep in mind for the study of the family name Medrano. The Blasonario of the Iberian Consanguinity, where apper the heraldry of Medrano, consists of seven volumes, starting the first in the year 1979 and the last in the year 1997, being its authors Ampelio Alonso de Cadenas, the King of Arms Don Vicente de Cadenas y Vicent (maximum authority of Spanish heraldry) and Liliana Ruiz Carrasco. It compiles a set of coats of arms and crests from different Spanish archives, others from armor stones, many from military passports and more from nobility, such as the name Medrano corresponding to a line whose origin or location is indicated, but without specific attribution to a specific family. It includes family names as Medrano of an extensive universal geography but that were part of the Iberian Community. Many blazons of Aragon, among which are those of the family name Medrano, that presents the great work of this author "Dictionary of Aragonese Heraldry", which in many cases, have also been proven in churches, hermitages and cemeteries. All have been carefully recorded and above all, with its proven provenance. Centuries of history have shaped these blazons, among which are those of the family name Medrano and throughout the Aragonese geography we can admire mansions and facades that still conserve the armeros stones that emblazon the lineage of the ancient infanzons, in most cases today inhabited by descendants, such as the name Medrano.

Our infanzons, as surely the Medrano, conscious of their duty and displaying the nobility of their race, they often promoted their troops at their expense and, leaving their homes and estates, set out to reconquer, enlarging the Aragonese kingdom and conforming with his effort and sacrifice what would later be the Crown of Aragon. Here we also have the heraldry and history of the name Medrano. The family crest and coat of arms of Medrano appears in Rietstap Armorial General that is a multi-volume work on the coats-of-arms of the world; it is both monumental and without equal, and is the most exhaustive undertaking of its kind. The Armorial General is the most authoritative work on the coats-of-arms in the world. The descriptions of the arms cover those of more than 100,000 families, included Medrano alphabetically arranged and accurately described. In addition to a full description of the arms for Medrano, most entries identify the nationality of the arms bearer, titles of Medrano, and the date his title was conferred.

See also[edit]


Other articles of the topic Islam : Abraham, War against Islam conspiracy theory, Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani, Uthman ibn Affan, Ahmed Deedat, Juan Jose Galvan, Mahdi

Other articles of the topic Spain : Mozambique–Spain relations, Eswatini–Spain relations, Saint Lucia–Spain relations, Burundi–Spain relations, Colegio Español (Bata), Papua New Guinea–Spain relations, Spain–Uganda relations

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Al-Hakam II
Succeeded by
Hisham II


Category:10th-century caliphs of Córdoba Category:915 births Category:976 deaths Category:Umayyad caliphs of Córdoba Category:10th-century Arabs Category:10th-century Muslims


This article "Medrano (surname)" is from Wikipedia. The list of its authors can be seen in its historical and/or the page Edithistory:Medrano (surname). Articles copied from Draft Namespace on Wikipedia could be seen on the Draft Namespace of Wikipedia and not main one.

  1. "A new dictionary, Spanish and English" by Peter Pineda, author of Spanish grammar, and teacher of the spanish langauage in London.
  2. Ruggles, D. Fairchild (2004). "Mothers of a hybrid dynasty: Race, genealogy, and acculturation in al-Andalus". Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies. 34 (1): 73. doi:10.1215/10829636-34-1-65. S2CID 170890527.
  3. Christys, Ann Rosemary (2013-01-11). Christians in Al-Andalus 711-1000. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 978-1-136-12730-4.
  4. https://listarojapatrimonio.org/lista-roja-patrimonio/wp-content/uploads/Las-casas-se%C3%B1oriales-de-Olloqui-y-Belaz-de-Medrano.pdf
  5. DON PEDRO EMILIANO ZORRILLA. Estella. February of 1923. https://listarojapatrimonio.org/lista-roja-patrimonio/wp-content/uploads/Las-casas-se%C3%B1oriales-de-Olloqui-y-Belaz-de-Medrano.pdf»
  6. Picina,-Moret: Anales de Navarra, Escolios y Adiciones al Reinado de Teobaldo II.
  7. Archivo de los Bajos Pirineos - Leire.
  8. the History of the Navarre War in 1276 and 1277 publication with a translation by Francisque Michel: Volume 1; Volume 8
  9. Juan Vélaz de Medrano, son of the regent Juan Martínez de Medrano, despite not appearing at Puente la Reina he was represented at the assembly, J. M. LACARRA, El juramento…, no. 13. On kinship, cf. F. SEGURA URRA, “Martínez de Medrano, Juan, ‘el Mayor’”, Spanish Biographical Dictionary (in press).
  10. Juan Vélaz de Medrano, son of the regent Juan Martínez de Medrano, despite not appearing at Puente la Reina he was represented at the assembly, J. M. LACARRA, El juramento…, no. 13. On kinship, cf. F. SEGURA URRA, “Martínez de Medrano, Juan, ‘el Mayor’”, Spanish Biographical Dictionary (in press).
  11. Fayard , Janine (1981). "The ministers of the Royal Council of Castile . " Hidalguía Magazine (165): 62.
  12. Hidalgos de España (2018). p. 991
  13. www.palaciodevillahermosa.com
  14. Hidalgos de España, Real Asociación de (2018). Elenco de Grandezas y Títulos Nobiliarios Españoles. Ediciones Hidalguía
  15. Boletín Oficial del Estado: no. 143, p. 50250, 16 June 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2015 (in Spanish).
  16. Hidalgos de España (2018). p. 36
  17. Antonio Gil y Zárate, Guzmán el Bueno. Drama en Cuatro Actos, 1901/1916 revised edition by Ginn and Company, annotated and edited by Sylvester Primer, with introduction in English, available online at Internet Archive of the Library of Congress
  18. p9"When the Moors Ruled Europe". BBC. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  19. The Ancient World with Bettany Hughes – When the Moors Ruled in Europe, 2005, Channel Four.
  20. "When the Moors Ruled Europe". BBC. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015
  21. Luis Salas Almela, Medina Sidonia: El poder de la aristocracia, 1580-1670 (Madrid: Marcial Pons, 2008), 143-150; Luis Salas Almela, The Conspiracy of the Ninth Duke of Medina Sidonia (1641). An Aristocrat in the Crisis of the Spanish Empire (Boston-Leiden: Brill, 2013), 11-26.
  22. Elliott, El conde-duque, op.cit, 508-519; Rafael Valladares, Epistolario de Olivares y el conde de Basto (Badajoz: Diputación de Badajoz, 1998), 67-90.
  23. lines transcribed from quad. 1st, p. 221 of the Nobility and General Armory of Navarra, by Mr. Joaquín Argamasilla de la Cerda, Marquis of Santacara.
  24. Entre Sevilla y Nápoles: Juan Antonio Medrano, Ferdinanto Sanfelice y los Borboñes de Espana de Felipe V a Carlos III Fernando Marías, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Atrio 10/11 (in Spanish)