Paul Dagum (born 1963) is a computer scientist, physician and entrepreneur living in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Early life[edit | edit source]
Dagum is the son of Camilo Dagum., an economist best known for his work on income inequality, and Estelle Bee Dagum, a statistician and past Director of Time-Series Research and Analysis at Statistics Canada, best known for her X-11 ARIMA work.
Education and training[edit | edit source]
Dagum received his undergraduate degree in Chemical Physics in 1984 from Queen’s University in Ontario, Canada where he graduated Gold Medalist with Highest Honors in chemistry and chemical physics. He went on to pursue a masters of science degree in theoretical physics and a doctorate in theoretical computer science from the University of Toronto supported by a prestigious Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Graduate Scholarship. Dagum further completed a medical degree at Stanford University School of Medicine in 1994  and several years of surgical residency training at Stanford Hospital. Concurrent with his education and training, Dagum was a Visiting Scholar at the International Computer Science Institute, a Research Fellow at Stanford Department of Bioinformatics and Medicine where he led National Science Foundation (NSF) funded research, and a Stanford Cardiovascular Surgical Research Fellow where he was awarded a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Individual Research Service Award.
Academic research[edit | edit source]
During his academic career, Dagum published 75 peer-reviewed articles in computer science and medicine. As a doctoral student he developed a set-theoretic characterization of hard computational problems that enabled accurate approximation using Markov-Chain Monte Carlo Methods. He further developed the best constructive lower-bound for a well-known Ramsey number improving on Paul Erdös' bound.
While leading NSF funded research and completing medical school and residency at Stanford, Dagum made several significant contributions to AI. He developed Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBN) that extend ARIMA, Kalman filter and hidden Markov models into a general probabilistic representation and reasoning framework for arbitrary nonlinear and non-normal time-dependent domains. DBNs proved to be powerful solutions for a wide range of applications including speech recognition, digital forensics, protein sequencing and robotics. During this same period, Dagum proved several foundational results in probabilistic reasoning on Bayesian networks, the representational models used in Bayesian deep learning approaches today.
Dagum’s contributions to medical research include animal models of dilated cardiomyopathy, xenotransplantation of porcine mitral valve, quantifying the pathophysiological mechanism of mitral valve disease, and elucidating the dynamics of the aortic root to inform surgical planning decisions on valve repair or replacement.
In 2008, Dagum developed and patented the first high-performance distributed relational data system on a map-reduce architecture and led its release as an open source project named Cloudbase . Similar approaches were later commercialized by major big-data infrastructure vendors to serve the growing data needs of corporations.
In 2013, Dagum developed and patented algorithms to transform human-computer interaction patterns captured passively from a smartphone and other digital devices into continuous digital biomarkers of central-nervous system function. He led two large multiyear clinical studies that validated these digital biomarkers against neurocognitive gold-standard tests . Subsequent NIH funded research by Stanford University further demonstrated that Dagum’s digital biomarkers were reliable measures of neural circuit function as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging 
Entrepreneurship and leadership[edit | edit source]
In 2000, Dagum left surgical residency to serve as Chief Science Officer of Rapt , a technology company that he had cofounded in 1998 with two Stanford colleagues. Rapt offered media monetization solutions as well as technology and strategic advisory services to media companies. The company was acquired by Microsoft in 2008 . He went on to serve from 2006 to 2009 as the Chief Scientist and Strategy Officer of business.com, a leading B2B search engine and pay-per-click advertising network that served over 40 million monthly business users . Dagum oversaw the successful acquisition of business.com in 2007.
For the next several years, Dagum was employed as the Chief Technology Officer of MarkMonitor., a counterfeit, piracy, and fraud protection company using advanced technology and expertise to protect the revenues and reputations of some of the world’s largest brands . Dagum oversaw the acquisition of the company by Thompson Reuters in 2012  before founding Mindstrong in 2014 . Mindstrong Health was built on patented science and technology developed by Dagum  . The technology uses smartphone input to paint a picture of a patient’s mental and cognitive health, and is based on four years of extensive clinical studies  applying machine intelligence to human-computer interactions patterns. Dr. Dagum's work creates, for the first time, a way to objectively and continuously measure brain function day-to-day providing new insight not previously possible with traditional neuropsychological and neuroimaging techniques . From October 2015, Dagum concurrently served as the Head of Technology at Elementum , a software provider, answering industry’s supply chain problems with solutions powered by the world's first graph for end-to-end supply chain management . Dagum left Elementum in April of 2017  to serve full-time as the CEO of Mindstrong Health 
Patents and publications[edit | edit source]
Over the years, Dagum has published over 75 peer-reviewed papers including:
- Dynamic network models for forecasting
- A Bayesian Analysis of Simulation Algorithms
- Optimal Monte Carlo Estimation of Belief Network Inference
- Additive Belief-Network Models
- Reformulating Inference Problems Through Selective Conditioning
- Uncertain Reasoning and Forecasting
- Dynamic Network Models for Forecasting
- Approximating Probabilistic Inference in Bayesian Belief Networks
- Exploiting case-based independence for approximating marginal probabilities
- Approximating the permanent of graphs with large factors
- Uncertain reasoning and forecasting
- On the magnification of exchange graphs with applications to enumeration problems
- A constructive (t,) lower bound for the Ramsey number R(3;t
- Polytypes, permanents and graphs with large factors 
- Method and System for Assessment of Cognitive Function Based on Electronic Device Usage
- Method and System for Assessment of Cognitive Function Based on Mobile Device Usage
- System and method for data warehousing and analytics on a distributed file system
- Method and business process for the estimation of erosion costs in assemble-to-order manufacturing operation
References[edit | edit source]
- "Camilo Dagum". Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre (in español). 2017-04-29.
- "Paul Dagum - Founder and CEO @ Mindstrong Health". Crunchbase. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- "On the Magnification of Exchange Graphs with Applications to Enumeration Problems (Thesis) | ICSI". www.icsi.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- "A Constructive Omega(t(superscript 1.26)) Lower Bound for the Ramsey Number R (3,t) | ICSI". www.icsi.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- Chung, F.R.K.; Cleve, R.; Dagum, P. (1993). "A Note on Constructive Lower Bounds for the Ramsey Numbers R(3, t)". Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series B. 57 (1): 150–155. doi:10.1006/jctb.1993.1013.
- "Bayesian Deep Learning Workshop | NIPS 2017". bayesiandeeplearning.org. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- A Timek, Tomasz; T Lai, David; Dagum, Paul; Liang, David; T Daughters, George; B Ingels, Neil; Craig Miller, D (2006-08-01). "Mitral leaflet remodeling in dilated cardiomyopathy". Circulation. 114 (1 Suppl): I518–23. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.000554. PMID 16820630.
- Tibayan, Frederick; T.M. Lai, David; A Timek, Tomasz; Dagum, Paul; Liang, David; T Daughters, George; B Ingels, Neil; Craig Miller, D (2002-08-01). "Alterations in left ventricular torsion in tachycardia-induced dilated cardiomyopathy". The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 124 (1): 43–9. doi:10.1067/mtc.2002.121299. PMID 12091807.
- Tibayan, Frederick A.; Lai, David T.M.; Timek, Tomasz A.; Dagum, Paul; Liang, David; Daughters, George T.; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D.Craig (2002). "Alterations in left ventricular torsion in tachycardia-induced dilated cardiomyopathy". The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 124 (1): 43–49. doi:10.1067/mtc.2002.121299.
- Dagum, Paul; R Green, G; A Timek, T; T Daughters, G; E Foppiano, L; L Tye, T; F Bolger, A; B Ingels, N; C Miller, D (1999-11-01). "Functional Evaluation of the Medtronic Stentless Porcine Xenograft Mitral Valve in Sheep". Circulation. 100 (19 Suppl): II70–7. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.100.suppl_2.II-70. PMID 10567281.
- Green, G.R.; Dagum, Paul; Daughters, G.T.; Ingels, N.B.; Yun, K.L.; Miler, D.C. (1998-12-31). "Chordal preservation does not influence left ventricular diastolic function immediately following mitral valve replacement". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 31: 151. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(98)81301-6.
- Dagum, Paul; Green, G.Randall; R. Glasson, Julie; T. Daughters, George; F. Bolger, Ann; E. Foppiano, Linda; B. Ingels, Neil; Miller, D.Craig (1999-04-01). "Potential mechanism of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction after mitral ring annuloplasty". The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 117 (3): 472–80. doi:10.1016/S0022-5223(99)70326-0. PMID 10047649.
- Green, G.Randall; Dagum, Paul; Glasson, Julie R; Nistal, J.Francisco; Daughters, George T; Ingels, Neil B; Miller, D.Craig (1999). "Restricted posterior leaflet motion after mitral ring annuloplasty". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 68 (6): 2100–2106. doi:10.1016/s0003-4975(99)01175-3.
- Dagum, Paul; Timek, Tomasz; Green, G.Randall; Daughters, George T.; Liang, David; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D.Craig (2001). "Three-dimensional geometric comparison of partial and complete flexible mitral annuloplasty rings". The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 122 (4): 665–673. doi:10.1067/mtc.2001.116313.
- Dagum, P.; Green, G. R.; Nistal, F. J.; Daughters, G. T.; Timek, T. A.; Foppiano, L. E.; Bolger, A. F.; Ingels, N. B.; Miller, D. C. (1999-11-09). "Deformational dynamics of the aortic root: modes and physiologic determinants". Circulation. 100 (19 Suppl): II54–62. ISSN 0009-7322. PMID 10567279.
- Cheng, Allen; Dagum, Paul; Craig Miller, D (2007-09-01). Aortic root dynamics and surgery: from craft to science. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 362.
- "CloudBase- Data Warehouse System For Terabyte And Petabyte Scale Analytics". cloudbase.sourceforge.net. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- "US7917463.pdf" (PDF). docs.google.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- Dagum, Paul, ed. (August 23, 2016), United States Patent: 9420970 - Method and system for assessment of cognitive function based on mobile device usage (9420970), retrieved 2018-01-11
- Dagum, Paul, ed. (October 25, 2016), United States Patent: 9474481 - Method and system for assessment of cognitive function based on electronic device usage (9474481), retrieved 2018-01-11
- Kerchner, Geoffrey A.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Dagum, Paul (2015-07-01). "Unobtrusive neuropsychological monitoring from smart phone use behavior". Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association. 11 (7): P272–P273. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2015.07.358. ISSN 1552-5260.
- Williams, Leanne M.; Pines, Adam; Goldstein-Piekarski, Andrea N.; Rosas, Lisa G.; Kullar, Monica; Sacchet, Matthew D.; Gevaert, Olivier; Bailenson, Jeremy; Lavori, Philip W. (2018). "The ENGAGE study: Integrating neuroimaging, virtual reality and smartphone sensing to understand self-regulation for managing depression and obesity in a precision medicine model". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 101: 58–70. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.012. PMID 29074231.
- "Rapt - Recent News & Activity | Crunchbase". Crunchbase. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- Schonfeld, Erick. "Microsoft Picks Up Another Ad Startup: Rapt". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- "Paul Dagum Joins Business.com as VP, Chief Scientist, Strategy Oficer". PRWeb. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- "MarkMonitor Names Paul Dagum as CTO". sip-trunking.tmcnet.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- "MarkMonitor | Crunchbase". Crunchbase. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- Reuters, Thomson. "Thomson Reuters to Acquire MarkMonitor". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- "Mindstrong Health". www.crunchbase.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- Dagum, Paul, ed. (January 10, 2017), United States Patent: 9538948 - Method and system for assessment of cognitive function based on mobile device usage (9538948), retrieved 2018-01-11
- Dagum, Paul, ed. (June 27, 2017), United States Patent: 9687187 - Method and system for assessment of cognitive function based on mobile device usage (9687187), retrieved 2018-01-11
- Dagum, Paul, ed. (July 4, 2017), United States Patent: 9693724 - Method and system for assessment of cognitive function based on electronic device usage (9693724), retrieved 2018-01-11
- "Clinical Trials | Mindstrong Health". Mindstrong Health. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- "Home | Mindstrong Health". Mindstrong Health. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- Elementum. "Elementum Names Paul Dagum as New Head of Technology". www.prnewswire.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- Elementum. "Elementum I Make. Things. Better". www.elementum.com. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
- Dagum, Paul. "Paul Dagum Linkedin". LinkedIn.
- Dagum, Paul; Horvitz, Eric; On Medical Informatics, Section (2003-09-07). "A Bayesian Analysis of Simulation Algorithms".
- Pradhan, Malcolm; Dagum, Paul (2013-02-13). "Optimal Monte Carlo Estimation of Belief Network Inference". Twelfth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence.
- Dagum, Paul; Galper, Adam (2013-03-06). "Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence": 91. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4832-1451-1.50015-9. ISBN 9781483214511.
- Dagum, Paul; Horvitz, Eric (1992-12-31). "Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence": 49–54. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4832-8287-9.50011-6. ISBN 9781483282879.
- Dagum, Paul; Galper, A; Horvitz, Eric; Seiver, Adam (1999-03-25). "Uncertain reasoning and forecasting". International Journal of Forecasting. 11: 73–87. doi:10.1016/0169-2070(94)02009-E.
- Dagum, Paul; Galper, Adam; Horvitz, Eric (1992-12-31). "Dynamic Network Models for Forecasting". Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence: 41–48. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4832-8287-9.50010-4. ISBN 9781483282879.
- Dagum, Paul; Chavez, R.Martin (1993-04-01). "Approximating probabilistic inference in Bayesian belief networks". IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 15 (3): 246–255. doi:10.1109/34.204906.
- Shimony, Solomon Eyal; Santos, Eugene (1996-01-01). "Exploiting case-based independence for approximating marginal probabilities". International Journal of Approximate Reasoning. 14 (1): 25–54. doi:10.1016/0888-613X(95)00112-T. ISSN 0888-613X.
- Dagum, Paul; Luby, Michael (1992-08-10). "Approximating the permanent of graphs with large factors". Theoretical Computer Science. 102 (2): 283–305. doi:10.1016/0304-3975(92)90234-7. ISSN 0304-3975.
- Dagum, Paul (2018-01-11). "On the magnification of exchange graphs with applications to enumeration problems [microform]".
- Cleve, Richard; Dagum, Paul (2018-01-11). "A constructive (t,) lower bound for the Ramsey number R(3; t".
- Dagum, Paul; Luby, Michael; Mihail, Milena; Vazirani, Umesh (1988-11-24). "Polytopes, permanents and graphs with large factors". Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (Proceedings): 412–421. doi:10.1109/SFCS.1988.21957. ISBN 0818608773.
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