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Change management

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Change management and the models Overview of change management: Change management is a structured method to transform individuals, teams, and business working process from the current state to the desired future state (Sacheva, 2009). It is an organizational mechanism designed to enable employees to consider and accept changes in their business world. (Hiatt, 2010). There are hard side and soft side of change management in the context of organizational change. The hard side relates to the methods, systems, policies, strategies, and technology that can help to make improvements. The soft side requires improvements in behavior and attitude for instant (convincing, reassuring and communicating, understanding and resolving emotional responses, influencing and motivating) that will allow the hard changes to succeed (Dias de Lima, 2009). Change management models: Some of the change management models occurred in the late 1970s. The stages of change management models in the late 1970s developed by James Prochaska and Carlo DeClemente University of Rhode Island where change management can happen in six steps bellow will explain all steps. The Mckisey model has seven stages (a strategy, a structure, a system, a style, skills, and staff), for a complete change in an organization, all seven stages are required (Sacheva, 2009). There are some other models which I explain below. To implement change strategies and manage change, to implement change successfully it’s important to avoid irrelevant methods and focus on an action plan. Change management is a time taking process and needs efforts to implement and run it successfully. The involvement of organization people staff is a must in change management and these people will affect by change as well. Before adopting any model or approach for change management organization must figure out why they need change and what will be the benefit of change on the organization. For the implementation of change management following are some of the change models and approaches: Lewin’s model: One of the most common and successful models is the Lewin’s Change Management Model which helps us to understand organizational and standardized change. In the 1950s, Kurt Lewin developed and produced this model, and it still remains valid today. Lewin was a physicist and social scientist who through the changing states of a block of ice, clarified organized or organizational change. His model is made up of three main phases: unfreeze, change, and refreeze. Unfreeze: According to Lewin's method, the first stage of the phase of transition includes the planning for the change. This implies that the company must be prepared for the transition at this point and also for the fact that change is crucial and inevitable. This process is important because most people are trying to resist change around the world, and breaking this status quo is important. The key here is to illustrate to people why it is important to change the current way and how the change will bring profit. Change: This is the stage where the actual change or transformation takes place. As individuals generally spend time welcoming new activities, technologies, and improvements, the process can take time to occur. Good leadership and reassurance are critical at this point because these factors not only contribute to steering in the right direction but also make the process smoother for workers or people interested in the process. Communication and time are thus the keys to successfully taking place at this stage. Refreeze: Now that the people have accepted, welcomed, and implemented the change, the business or organization is starting to stabilize again. This is why refreeze is referred to as the process. This is the time when the workers and procedures begin to refreeze, and things start going back to their usual speed and routine. This move involves people's assistance to ensure that modifications are used all the time and implemented even after the target has been achieved. Employees now feel comfortable and confident about the achieved improvements with a sense of stability. McKinsey 7 S Model: McKinsey 7S model is developed by consultants working for McKinsey & Company in the 1980s following are seven stages of this model:

  • Strategy is the method designed to get through the competition and achieve the goals. According to McKinsey's 7-S model, this is the first stage of transition and includes the creation of a step-by-step process or future plan.
  • Structure in this model is the phase or attribute that relates to the way the organization is divided or the structure that it follows.
  • Systems this stage is related to get a task done, in a way in which the day-to-day activities are performed.
  • Shared values refer to an organization's core or main values in which it runs or works accordingly.
  • Style the manner in which leadership adopts or impalement the change is known as style.
  • Staff is referring to workforce people, groups, and staff and their abilities.
  • Skills are the qualification and other skills possessed by the staff working in the company.

Kotter’s theory: Kotter’s change management method is one of the famous and adopted model in the world. This concept has been devised by John P. Kotter, who is a Harvard Business School Professor and author of lots of other books based on change management. This change management concept is divided into 8 phases and all these phases focus on a key principle that is related to the response of people to change, the 8 phases are the following:

  • Increase urgency this step is to motivate people and forward them towards goals by creating a sense of urgency among them.
  • Build the team this step in this model is to involve and gather the right people with the right knowledge and abilities.
  • Get the vision correct This stage is related to make a vision for the organization not only in terms of strategy but also creativity objectives and emotional connect.
  • Communicate in Kotter model communication with people regarding change and its need is an important part of change management.
  • Get things moving One needs to get support, eliminate the roadblocks and implement reviews in a positive way in order to get stuff moving or empower action.
  • Focus on short term goals this step is to divide the whole goal into small goals and achievement of these small goals is a success without too many efforts.
  • Don’t give up sometimes change management process takes a long time to apply the key to success is to not give up no matter how things may seem.
  • Incorporate change besides effectively managing change, it is important to reinforce it and make it a part of the workplace culture.

Benefits of Kotter’s theory:

  • This model is divided into easy parts which make it easy to follow and incorporate by involving people
  • The idea of Kotter’s theory is to accept the change and prepare for it rather than changing itself.

Disadvantages of this model

  • The Kotter’s theory model is time-consuming and since it is divided into several steps skipping any step could fail the change.

ADKAR model: The ADKAR model or theory of change is a goal-oriented tool or model that allows different change management teams to reflect on certain steps or tasks that are specifically connected to the objectives they want to reach. The goals are cumulative and in a series, as are the outcomes extracted and developed using this model. This means that an individual must get each of the outcomes or results in a certain orderly fashion by using this model in order for the change to be maintained and enforced. The model may be used by change managers to recognize the different holes or weaknesses in the change management process in order to give employees better training. Following are some of the things which this model can be used for:

  • To providing support and help for staff to move on through the process of change or transformation while change management is happening.
  • To diagnose and treat the resistance to change expressed by staff.
  • To come up with a fruitful and meaningful plan for staff members' professional and personal improvements during the transition.

ADKAR Model stands for (A)wareness for the need and requirements for change in the organization. (D)esire to bring in change and be an active participant in it (K)nowledge of how to bring change and the process (A)bility to incorporate the change on a regular basis (R)einforcement to keep it implemented and reinforced later on too.

Advantages of this Model The ADKAR model gives the capability to identify and evolution of the reasons why change or not working and why the desired results are not being achieved. And offers for both business dimension and change as well as people dimension of change. The ADKAR model gives the possibility to divide the changes into different stages and highlights the point where change would not be effective as planned.

[1] [2] [3] [4] </ref>https://www.cleverism.com/major-approaches-models-of-change-management</ref>


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  1. Sacheva, S. (2009). Change Management for e-Governance. I-Ways Journal of E-Government Policy and Regulation 32, IOS Press, 109-117
  2. Hiatt, J. (2010). »The definition and history of change management«.
  3. Dias de Lima, J. (2009). Managing Change: Winning Hearts and Minds. Harvard Business Publishing
  4. Nograsek, Janja. (2012). Change Management as a Critical Success Factor in e-Government Implementation. Business Systems Research. 2. 13-24. 10.2478/v10305-012-0016-y.