This article needs attention from an expert in United States/Hispanic and Latino Americans task force/Mexican-American task force. The specific problem is: Anthro terms and perspectives here instead of indigenous ones. Need Indigenous perspectives..April 2017)(
In Chile, among the Mapuche in La Araucanía, in addition to heterosexual female "machi" shamanesses, there are homosexual male "machi weye" shamans, who wear female clothing. These machi weye were first described in Spanish in a chronicle of 1673 A.D. Among the Mapuche, "the spirits are interested in machi's gendered discourses and performances, not in the sex under the machi's clothes." In attracting the filew (possessing-spirit), "Both male and female machi become spiritual brides who seduce and call their filew -- at once husband and master -- to possess their heads ... . ... The ritual transvestism of male machi ... draws attention to the relational gender categories of spirit husband and machi wife as a couple (kurewen)." As concerning "co-gendered identities" of "machi as co-gender specialists", it has been speculated that "female berdaches" may have formerly existed among the Mapuche.
Among the Saʼadan (eastern Toraja) in the island of Sulawesi (Celebes), Indonesia, there are homosexual male toburake tambolang shamans; although among their neighbors the Mamasa (western Toraja) there are instead only heterosexual female toburake shamanesses. Among the Iban of Sarawak (in the island of Borneo, Indonesia), there are homosexual male shamans.
- Mariko Namba Walter; Eva Jane Neumann Fridman, eds. (2004). Shamanism. ABC-CLIO, Inc. Retrieved 2018-03-02 – via Google Books. Search this book on
- Bacigalupo, 2007. pp. 111-114
- Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella. "The Struggle for Mapuche Shamans' Masculinity: Colonial Politics of Gender,Sexuality, and Power in Southern Chile (Book)." Ethnohistory, vol. 51, no. 3, Summer 2004, pp. 489-533. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=13945408&site=ehost-live.
- Vilaça, Aparecida. "The Re-Invention of Mapuche Male Shamans as Catholic Priests: Legitimizing Indigenous Co-Gender Identities in Modern Chile" in Native Christians : Modes and Effects of Christianity among Indigenous Peoples of the Americas, edited by Robin M. Wright, Taylor and Francis, 2009, pp 89-108. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/cunygc/detail.action?docID=438515.
- Francisco Núñez de Pineda y Bascuñán : Cautiverio felíz y razón de las guerras dilatadas de Chile. Santiago : Imprenta el Ferrocarril, 1863.
- Bacigalupo, 2007. p. 87
- Bacigalupo, 2007. pp. 131-133
- Bacigalupo, 2007. p. 268, n. 5:18
- VERHANDLINGEN VAN HET KONINKLIJK INSTITUUT VOOR TAAL-, LAND- EN VOLKENKUNDE, 229 = Kees Buijs : Powers of Blessing from the Wilderness and from Heaven. KITLV Pr, Leiden, 2006. p. 140
- Walter, Mariko Namba; Fridman, Eva Jane Neumann (2004). Shamanism : an Encyclopedia of World Beliefs, Practices, and Culture. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-645-8. Search this book on
- Bacigalupo, Ana Mariella (2007). Shamans of the Foye Tree. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-8240-9306-2. Search this book on
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