You can edit almost every page by Creating an account. Otherwise, see the FAQ.

Conquest of Western Yan by Later Yan

From EverybodyWiki Bios & Wiki

Script error: No such module "AfC submission catcheck".

Conquest of Western Yan by Later Yan
Jinyang (present-day Taiyuan, Shanxi), Taibi, Zhangzi
Later Yan Western Yan
Commanders and leaders
Murong Chui Murong Yong
unknown 50,000+
Casualties and losses
unknown 8,000+

The Conquest of Western Yan by Later Yan was a military campaign that took place in the era of China's Sixteen Kingdoms. The war began in 393 when Houyan took the initiative to attack Western Yan and ended in 394 when the eldest son of the capital city fell and Western Yan fell.


The rulers of Western Yan and Houyan were both Murong Xianbei, who rebelled against Qin Jianguo because of the defeat in the Battle of Feishui in the former Qin Dynasty,[1]and Xiyan was the Murong family's children in the Guanzhong area.[2]In 386, Murong Chui proclaimed himself emperor, and he became Emperor Wu of Later Yan. At that time, Xi Yan had captured Chang'an, but the leader Murong Chong was afraid of Murong Chui and did not dare to return to the east. The crowd disagreed, and finally Murong Chong was killed. After a series of coups, Murong Hong's son Murong Zhong was established as the Emperor of Western Yan, and he left Chang'an and returned east. However, when the Western Yan people heard about the joy, they knew that Murong Chui had proclaimed himself emperor, and Western Yan, who had also established the title of emperor, dared not move forward and built Yanxi City to live in. Murong Zhong was killed in the same year, and Murong Yong was elected as the King of Hedong, and he became a vassal to Houyan. But soon Murong Yong moved the capital to the eldest son and became emperor. More than a year later, Murong Jun and Murong Chui's descendants in Western Yan were executed.

The Northern Wei Dynasty established by Tuoba Gui was originally closely related to Hou Yan, and they both dealt with Liu Xian's forces and helped the Northern Wei Dynasty resolve civil strife. However, after Houyan forced Tuobagu to stay in 391 for horses, the relationship between the two countries broke down, and the Northern Wei Dynasty turned to Western Yan to make friends.

In fact, Murong Chui also had the intention of annexing Western Yan, but at that time he was troubled by the Zhai Wei established by Ding Lingren and had no time to look around. It was not until 392 that Zhai Zhao, the last leader of Zhai Wei, was defeated and made him go to Western Yan, before he planned to attack Yan. When Murong Chui talked about the attack on Yan, the generals expressed their opposition because Murong never provoked, and after years of conquests by Later Yan, the soldiers were exhausted. But Murong De said: "Since Murong Yong is a descendant of the Yan Kingdom, but has usurped the throne and confuses the people, he should be removed first to unify the hearts of the people. Although the soldiers are tired, how can they give up because of this!" Murong Chui agrees very much with Murong Chui What De said, he ordered martial law and decided to attack.[3][4]


Pre-war Situation

In November 393, Murong Chui sent 70,000 troops from Zhongshan (now Dingzhou City, Hebei Province), and sent Murong Zan and Zhang Chong to lead the army to attack Jinyang (now Taiyuan, Shanxi) via Jingxing. Duan Ping, General of the East, Xiyan Town, Shating in the southwest of the city (now southeast of Linzhang, Hebei). Murong Yong then sent Shang Shuling Diao Yun and Chariot General Murong Zhong to lead 50,000 troops to guard Luchuan. Murong Chui arrived in Yecheng in December of the same year, and in February of the following year sent soldiers from Si, Ji, and Yanzhou in Ye, and ordered Murong Kai to attack Fukou (now northwest of Ci County, Hebei), and Murong Nong to attack Huguan (now Shanxi). Huguan County, Changzhi City), while attacking Shating by themselves, dividing troops into three groups to attack. When Murong Yong heard the news, he dispatched heavy troops to defend the positions that Houyan's armies wanted to attack.

Main article: Battle of the Wall At the same time, Murong Yong gathered grain at Taibi in the north of Zhangbei (now north of Lucheng, Shanxi), and sent Xiao Yidougui, Wang Ciduo, and Le Maju to defend with more than 10,000 people. However, after more than a month, Murong Chui was still stationed in the southwest of Yecheng, and had not advanced. Murong Yong suspected that Murong Chui was deceitful, guessing that he was actually looking for an opportunity to take the wide Taihang Mountain Pass, so he gathered all the troops to concentrate on guarding the Zhiguan Pass and block it. At the Taihang crossing, only one army on the wall was left to defend. Murong Chui attacked Taibi in May, defeated the defending generals and besieged the city. Diao Yun and Murong Zhong surrendered to Houyan out of fear upon hearing the news. Murong Yong himself led 50,000 elite troops to block the river and refused to defend, and fought against Murong Chui who had gathered in the south of Taibi. Murong Chui pretended to be defeated and retreated. The Jinyang defender abandoned the city and fled after Zhitaibi was defeated, so Murong Zan entered Jinyang.

Murong Chui took advantage of the victory to besiege the eldest son in June. At that time, Murong Yong once planned to flee to the Hou Qin, but his servant Lan Ying advised him with the past of the former Yan Murong Hao who stood firm in Longcheng (now Chaoyang City, Liaoning) to resist Zhao's army,[5]Murong Yong then decided to stick to it. In August, Murong Yong's army was in critical condition, so he asked for help from Xi Hui, governor of Yongzhou in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, and sent people to the Northern Wei Dynasty for help. Although the two countries both decided to send troops there, before reinforcements arrived, Taiwei Dayidou of Xiyan returned to the army and General Faqin and others opened the city gate to welcome the army of Later Yan into the city. Murong Yong fled to the north gate and was arrested and killed. Gui and more than 30 generals and ministers were all executed, and Xiyan died.


Houyan destroyed Xiyan in this battle, unified the country established by its clan Murong, also received Xiyan and merged the state, expanded Houyan's land, and basically occupied the entire eastern part of northern China. Later Qin in Guanzhong also sent envoys to Houyan knot. However, due to the rise of the Northern Wei Dynasty in the north and their hostility, Houyan invaded and attached various tribes. Therefore, the following year, Houyan took advantage of the victory of Xiyan and raised troops to attack Wei, that is, participated in the battle of Hebei, which greatly affected the situation in the north.


  1. 《晉書·載記·慕容垂傳》:「垂至河內,殺飛龍,悉誅氐兵,召募遠近,衆至三萬,濟河焚橋,令曰:『吾本外假秦聲,內規興復。亂法者軍有常刑,奉命者賞不踰日。天下既定,封爵有差,不相負也。』」
  2. 《晉書·載記·苻堅傳下》:「慕容暐弟燕故濟北王泓先為北地長史,聞垂攻鄴,亡命奔關東,收諸馬牧鮮卑,衆至數千,還屯華陰。」又「平陽太守慕容沖起兵河東,有衆二萬,進攻蒲阪……竇衝擊慕容沖於河東,大破之,沖率騎八千奔於泓軍。泓衆至十餘萬,……泓於是進向長安,改年曰燕興。」
  3. 《資治通鑑·卷一百零八》太元十八年:「范陽王德曰:『永既國之枝葉,又僭舉位號,惑民視聽,宜先除之,以壹民心。士卒雖疲,庸得已乎!』
  4. 《晉書·載記·慕容垂傳》:「於是議征長子。諸將咸諫,以慕容永未有釁,連歲征役,士卒疲怠,請俟他年。垂將從之,及聞慕容德之策,笑曰:『吾計決矣。且吾投老,扣囊底智,足以克之,不復留逆賊以累子孫也。』」
  5. 《資治通鑑·卷一百零八》太元十九年:「西燕主永欲奔後秦,侍中蘭英曰:『昔石虎伐龍都,太祖堅守不去,卒成大燕之基。今垂七十老翁,厭苦兵革,終不能頓兵連歲以攻我也;但當城守以疲之。』永從之。」


  1. Zizhi Tongjian·卷一百零八》
  2. 《晉書·載記·慕容垂傳》


This article "Conquest of Western Yan by Later Yan" is from Wikipedia. The list of its authors can be seen in its historical and/or the page Edithistory:Conquest of Western Yan by Later Yan. Articles copied from Draft Namespace on Wikipedia could be seen on the Draft Namespace of Wikipedia and not main one.