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Erie, Pennsylvania

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{{redirect|Erie|other uses|Erie (disambiguation)}}


{{Use mdy dates|date=September 2019}}

{{Infobox settlement

| name = Erie, Pennsylvania

| settlement_type = [[List of cities in Pennsylvania|City]]

| named_for = [[Erie people]]

| image_skyline = {{Photomontage

|photo1a = Erie_bayfront.jpg

|photo3a = Presque Isle Lighthouse.jpg

|photo4b= Boston Store Erie, PA Sept 2013.jpg

|photo3b = Perrymon1.jpg

|photo3c= Bicentennial Tower with Fireworks.jpg

|photo4a =Brig Niagara full sail.jpg



| color_border = white


| imagesize = 300

| image_alt =

| image_caption = From top, left to right: Erie skyline; [[Presque Isle Light]] in [[Presque Isle State Park]], statue of [[Oliver Hazard Perry]], [[Bicentennial Tower]], [[USS Niagara (1813)|US Brig ''Niagara'']], [[Boston Store (Erie, Pennsylvania)|Boston Store]]

| image_flag = Flag of Erie, Pennsylvania.svg

| flag_size =

| flag_alt =

| flag_border =

| image_seal = CityofErie Seal.png

| seal_size =

| seal_alt =

| seal_type = Coat of Arms

| etymology =

| nicknames = {{Nowrap|The Bay City}}, {{Nowrap|The Flagship City}}, {{Nowrap|The Gem City}}, {{Nowrap|The Lake City}}

| motto =

| image_map = Erie County Pennsylvania incorporated and unincorporated areas Erie highlighted.svg

| mapsize = 260px

| map_caption = Location in [[Erie County, Pennsylvania|Erie County]] and the U.S. state of [[Pennsylvania]].

| pushpin_map =

| pushpin_label_position =

| pushpin_map_alt =

| pushpin_map_caption =

| coordinates = {{coord|42|7|46|N|80|5|6|W|type:city_region:US-PA|display=inline,title}}

| coor_pinpoint =

| coordinates_footnotes =

| subdivision_type = [[List of sovereign states|Country]]

| subdivision_name = {{flag|United States|size=23px}}

| subdivision_type1 = [[U.S. state|State]]

| subdivision_name1 = {{Flag|Pennsylvania|size=23px}}

| subdivision_type2 = [[List of counties in Pennsylvania|County]]

| subdivision_name2 = {{Flagicon image||size=23px}} [[Erie County, Pennsylvania|Erie]]

| subdivision_type3 = District

| subdivision_name3 =

| subdivision_type4 =

| subdivision_name4 =

| subdivision_type5 =

| subdivision_name5 =

| established_title = First settled

| established_date = 1753

| established_title1 = Founded

| established_date1 = April 18, 1795<ref>"Chapter MDCCCXLIV", p. 240</ref>

| established_title2 = Incorporated

| established_date2 = April 14, 1851

| established_title3 =

| established_date3 =

| established_title4 =

| established_date4 =

| founder =

| seat_type =

| seat =

| government_type =

| leader_party =

| leader_title = Mayor

| leader_name = [[Joe Schember]] (D)

| leader_title1 = Mayor

| leader_name1 =

| leader_title2 = Leader 1

| leader_name2 =

| leader_title3 = Leader 2

| leader_name3 =

| leader_title4 = Leader 3

| leader_name4 =

| unit_pref = Imperial

| area_footnotes = <ref name="CenPopGazetteer2019">{{cite web|title=2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files|url=https://www2.census.gov/geo/docs/maps-data/data/gazetteer/2019_Gazetteer/2019_gaz_place_42.txt|publisher=United States Census Bureau|access-date=July 28, 2020}}</ref>

| area_total_sq_mi = 19.37

| area_land_sq_mi = 19.14

| area_water_sq_mi = 0.23

| area_water_percent = about 1.04%

| elevation_footnotes =

| elevation_m =

| elevation_ft = 728

| elevation_max_m =

| elevation_max_ft =

| elevation_min_m =

| elevation_min_ft =

| population_footnotes =

| population_total = 101786

| population_as_of = [[2010 United States Census|2010]]

| population_density_sq_mi = 4988.93

| population_metro = 276,207 ([[Erie, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area|Erie Metro]])

| population_urban =

| population_demonym = Erieite(s)

| timezone1 = [[Eastern Time Zone|EST]]

| utc_offset1 = −5

| timezone1_DST = [[Eastern Daylight Time|EDT]]

| utc_offset1_DST = −4

| postal_code_type = [[ZIP Code]]s

| postal_code = 16501−16512, 16514−16515, 16522, 16530−16534, 16538, 16541, 16544, 16546, 16550, 16553−16554, 16563, 16565

| area_code_type =

| area_code = [[Area code 814|814]], ''proposed [[Area code 582|582]]''

| iso_code =

| website = {{URL|www.erie.pa.us}}

| footnotes =

|pop_est_as_of = 2019

|pop_est_footnotes = <ref name="USCensusEst2019CenPopScriptOnlyDirtyFixDoNotUse"/>

|population_est = 95508

|blank_name = [[Federal Information Processing Standards|FIPS code]]

|blank_info = 42-24000

|area_total_km2 = 50.17

|area_land_km2 = 49.58

|area_water_km2 = 0.58

|population_density_km2 = 1926.28


'''Erie''' ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|ɪər|i}}; {{respell|EER|ee}}) is a city on the south shore of [[Lake Erie]] and the [[county seat]] of [[Erie County, Pennsylvania]], [[United States]].

The city was named for the [[Native Americans in the United States|Native American]] [[Erie people]] who lived in the area until the mid-17th century. Erie is the [[List of cities in Pennsylvania|fourth-largest city]] in Pennsylvania, and the largest city in [[Northwestern Pennsylvania]],<ref name="county facts">{{cite web|publisher=Erie County Government|url=http://www.eriecountygov.org/default.aspx?id=rec&HeadlineID=394298488593750&Action=ShowArticle|title=Interesting Facts about Erie County|access-date=May 21, 2007|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927032322/http://www.eriecountygov.org/default.aspx?id=rec&HeadlineID=394298488593750&Action=ShowArticle| archive-date=September 27, 2007}}</ref> with a population of 101,786 at the [[2010 United States Census|2010 census]].<ref name="Census 2010">{{cite web|url=http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_SF1/G001/1600000US4224000|title=Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Erie city, Pennsylvania|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau|work=American Factfinder|access-date=March 14, 2016|archive-url=https://archive.today/20200213065240/http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_SF1/G001/1600000US4224000|archive-date=February 13, 2020|url-status=dead}}</ref> The estimated population in 2019 had decreased to 95,508.<ref name="City of Erie’s population drops again">{{cite web|url=https://www.goerie.com/news/20180608/city-of-eries-population-drops-again|title=City of Erie's population drops again|access-date=March 11, 2019}}</ref> The [[Erie-Meadville, PA Combined Statistical Area|Erie metropolitan area]], equivalent to all of [[Erie County, Pennsylvania|Erie County]], consists of 276,207 residents. The [[Erie-Meadville, PA Combined Statistical Area|Erie-Meadville combined statistical area]] had a population of 369,331, as of the 2010 Census.

Erie is halfway between the cities of [[Buffalo, New York]], and [[Cleveland]], [[Ohio]], and due north of [[Pittsburgh]], [[Pennsylvania]]. Erie's manufacturing sector remains prominent in the local economy, though healthcare, higher education, technology, service industries, and tourism are emerging as significant economic drivers. Over four million people visit Erie each summer for recreation at [[Presque Isle State Park]] and attractions such as [[Waldameer Park]].

Erie is known as the "Flagship City" because of its status as the home port of [[Oliver Hazard Perry]]'s [[flagship]] [[USS Niagara (1813)|''Niagara'']].<ref name="city facts">{{cite web|publisher=The City of Erie|year=2010|url=http://www.erie.pa.us/AboutErie/Facts/tabid/80/Default.aspx|title=About Erie|access-date=February 3, 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130111025729/http://www.erie.pa.us/AboutErie/Facts/tabid/80/Default.aspx|archive-date=January 11, 2013}}</ref> Erie won the [[All-America City Award]] in 1972. In 2012, Erie hosted the Perry 200,<ref name="Perry 200">{{cite news|last1=Speggen|first1=Ben|title=Out of the Mist: The Perry 200 Commemoration Begins|volume=2|url=http://www.eriereader.com/article/out-of-the-mist-the-perry-200-commemoration-begins|access-date=January 1, 2017|work=Erie Reader|issue=9|publisher=Erie Reader|date=May 2, 2012|ref=84}}</ref> a commemoration celebrating 200 years of peace between Britain, America, and Canada following the [[War of 1812]] and [[Battle of Lake Erie]].


{{Main|History of Erie, Pennsylvania}}

Indigenous peoples occupied the shoreline and bluffs in this area for thousands of years, taking advantage of the rich resources. The [[Sommerheim Park Archaeological District]] in [[Millcreek Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania|Millcreek Township, Pennsylvania]] west of the city, includes artifacts from the [[Archaic period in the Americas]], as well as from the Early and Middle [[Woodland Period]], roughly a span from 8,000 BCE to 500 CE.<ref>Citation Needed</ref>

The historic [[Iroquoian languages|Iroquoian]]-speaking [[Erie Nation]] occupied this area before being defeated by the five nations of the [[Iroquois|Iroquois Confederacy]] in the 17th century during the [[Beaver Wars]]. The Iroquois tribes had developed and five nations formed a political league in the 1500s, adding their sixth nation in the early 18th century. The Erie area became controlled by the [[Seneca nation|Seneca]], "keeper of the western door" of the Iroquois, who were largely based in present-day New York.

Europeans first arrived as settlers in the region when the French constructed [[Fort Presque Isle]] near present-day Erie in 1753, as part of their effort to defend [[New France]] against the encroaching British colonists. The name of the fort refers to the peninsula that juts into [[Lake Erie]], now protected as Presque Isle State Park. The French term ''[[presque-isle]]'' means peninsula (from the Latin ''paene'' and ''insula'', both literally, "almost an island"). When the French abandoned the fort in 1760 during the [[French and Indian War]] (Seven Years' War), it was the last post they held west of [[Niagara River|Niagara]]. The British established a garrison at the fort at Presque Isle that same year, three years before the end of the French and Indian War.<ref name="warner-beers 503">''History of Erie County'', p. 503.</ref>

Erie is in what was the disputed [[Erie Triangle]], a tract of land comprising 202,187 acres in the northwest corner of Pennsylvania fronting Lake Erie that was claimed after the [[American Revolutionary War]] by the states of [[New York (state)|New York]], [[Pennsylvania]], [[Connecticut]] (as part of its [[Connecticut Western Reserve|Western Reserve]]), and [[Massachusetts]]. The Iroquois claimed ownership first, so a conference was arranged for on January 9, 1789, wherein representatives from the Iroquois signed a deed relinquishing their ownership of the land.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Miller|first1=John|title=A Twentieth Century History of Erie County, Pennsylvania|url=https://archive.org/details/twentiethcentury01mill_0|date=1909|publisher=Lewis Publishing Company|page=[https://archive.org/details/twentiethcentury01mill_0/page/n81 60]}}</ref> The price for it was $2,000 from Pennsylvania and $1,200 from the federal government. The [[Seneca Nation]] separately settled land claims against Pennsylvania in February 1791 for the sum of $800. It became a part of Pennsylvania on March 3, 1792, after Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York relinquished their rights to the land and sold the land to Pennsylvania for 75 cents per acre or a total of $151,640.25 in continental certificates.<ref name="nelson 103-104">Nelson, pp. 103−104.</ref>

[[File:Battle erie.jpg|thumb|The Battle of Lake Erie played a role in the history of Erie.]]

The General Assembly of Pennsylvania commissioned the surveying of land near Presque Isle through an act passed on April 18, 1795. [[Andrew Ellicott]], who completed [[Pierre Charles L'Enfant]]'s survey of [[Washington, DC]] and helped resolve the boundary between Pennsylvania and New York, arrived to begin the survey and lay out the plan for the city in June 1795. Initial settlement of the area began that year.<ref name="nelson 103-104"/><ref name="warner-beers 505-506">''History of Erie County'', pp 505−506.</ref> Lt. [[Colonel (United States)|Colonel]] [[Seth Reed]] and his family moved to the Erie area from [[Geneva, New York]]; they were Yankees from [[Uxbridge, Massachusetts]]. They became the first European-American settlers of Erie, at what became known as "Presque Isle".

President [[James Madison]] began the construction of a naval fleet during the War of 1812 to gain control of the Great Lakes from the British. Daniel Dobbins of Erie and Noah Brown of Boston were notable shipbuilders who led construction of four schooner−rigged gunboats and two brigs. Commodore [[Oliver Hazard Perry]] arrived from [[Rhode Island]] and led the squadron to success in the historic [[Battle of Lake Erie]].<ref>"History of Erie County", pp. 299, 306.</ref>

[[File:Erie, Pennsylvania 1922.jpg|thumb|right|State and 9th Streets in downtown Erie during the early 1920s]]

Erie was an important shipbuilding, fishing, and railroad hub during the mid-19th century. The city was the site where three sets of [[track gauge]]s met. While the delays engendered cargo troubles for commerce and travel, they provided much-needed local jobs in Erie. When a national [[standard gauge|standardized gauge]] was proposed, those jobs, and the importance of the rail hub itself, were put in jeopardy. In an event known as the [[Erie Gauge War]], the citizens of Erie, led by the mayor, set fire to bridges, ripped up track, and rioted to try to stop the standardization.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Rhodes |first=James Ford |author-link=James Ford Rhodes |title=History of the United States from the compromise of 1850 |year=1900 |publisher=Harper & Brothers |location=New York, New York |url=https://archive.org/details/historyunitedst20rhodgoog |volume=3 |page=[https://archive.org/details/historyunitedst20rhodgoog/page/n41 21]}}</ref>

On August 3, 1915, the Mill Creek (Lake Erie) flooded downtown Erie. A culvert, or a tunnel, was blocked by debris, and collapsed.<ref name="flood">{{cite web|title=Erie's Blackest Day & Other Accounts of Phenomenal Weather |date=October 2008 |publisher=Erie County Historical Society |url=http://www.eriecountyhistory.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/eriesblackestday3.pdf |access-date=August 29, 2010 |page=2 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110724184032/http://www.eriecountyhistory.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/eriesblackestday3.pdf |archive-date=July 24, 2011 }}</ref> A four-block reservoir, caused by torrential downpours, had formed behind it. The resulting deluge destroyed 225 houses and killed 36 people.<ref name="flood"/> After the flood, Mayor Miles Brown Kitts had the Mill Creek directed into another, larger culvert, constructed under more than 2 miles of city, before emptying into [[Presque Isle Bay]] on the city's lower east side.

Downtown Erie continued to grow for most of the 20th century, based on its manufacturing base. It attracted numerous waves of European immigrants for industrial jobs. Erie's economy began to suffer in the latter part of the 20th century as industrial restructuring took place and jobs moved out of the area; it was considered part of the Rust Belt. The importance of American manufacturing, US steel and coal production, and commercial fishing began to gradually decline.<ref name="mary">{{cite web|publisher=City-data.com|url=http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Northeast/Erie-History.html|title=Erie Detailed History|access-date=June 22, 2007}}</ref> before resulting in a major population downturn in the 1970s.<ref name="mary"/>

With the advent of the automobile age after World War II and government subsidies for highway construction, thousands of residents left Erie for suburbs such as [[Millcreek Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania|Millcreek Township]], which now has 55,000 residents.<ref name="mary"/> This caused a decline in retail businesses, some of which followed to the suburbs. Reflecting this perceived decline, Erie is occasionally referred to by residents as "The Mistake on the Lake" or "Dreary Erie".<ref>{{cite web|date=October 1, 2013|title=From the Editors|url=http://www.eriereader.com/article/from-the-editors-37|work=ErieReader.com|publisher=Flagship Multimedia, Inc|access-date=December 17, 2013|quote=We complain about the weather. Or that there's no culture here. Or that Erie's just plain ugly. The mistake on the lake. Dreary Erie.|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131219001205/http://www.eriereader.com/article/from-the-editors-37|archive-date=December 19, 2013}}

  • {{cite web|author=Miller, Jamie Lynn|date=December 2013|title=A Cactus Story|url=http://www.saltmagazinenc.com/?page_id=517|work=SaltMagazine.com|publisher=Salt Magazine|access-date=December 17, 2013|quote=Originally from Erie, Pennsylvania — Dreary Erie, says Ron, the Mistake on the Lake — his nursing career led him to Kentucky&nbsp;...|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131219022722/http://www.saltmagazinenc.com/?page_id=517|archive-date=December 19, 2013}}
  • {{cite web|author=Wheaton, Kristan J.|date=June 21, 2013|title=Erie's top competitor? Answer may surprise you|url=http://www.iismu.org/news-and-events/eries-top-competitor-answer-may-surprise-you|work=IISMU.org|publisher=Institute for Intelligence Studies At [[Mercyhurst University]]|access-date=December 17, 2013|quote=No, for us it is 'dreary Erie' or 'the mistake on the lake.' We don't talk, much less brag, about how we've changed and adapted to a difficult and complex world&nbsp;...|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130710180832/http://www.iismu.org/news-and-events/eries-top-competitor-answer-may-surprise-you|archive-date=July 10, 2013}}</ref>

Erie won the [[All-America City Award]] in 1972, and was a finalist in 1961, 1994, 1995, and 2009.<ref>{{Cite news |last=Frederick |first=Robb |title=Erie falls in award contest |newspaper=Erie Times-News |date=June 20, 2009 |url=http://www.goerie.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090620/NEWS02/306199871 |access-date=November 22, 2009}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Past Winners of the All-America City Award |publisher=[[National Civic League]] |year=2011 |access-date=February 3, 2011 |url=http://www.allamericacityaward.com/past-winners-of-the-all-america-city-award |archive-url=https://archive.today/20120717070153/http://www.allamericacityaward.com/past-winners-of-the-all-america-city-award |url-status=dead |archive-date=July 17, 2012 }}</ref>


| image = File:Erie PA Panorama c1912 LOC 6a14402u.jpg

| height = 300

| caption = [[Panorama]] of downtown Erie in 1912, looking West along the 15th Street tracks. The tallest steeple to the north of the tracks is [[St. Peter Cathedral, Erie|St. Peter Cathedral]]

| alt =



[[File:Erie Zoo train bridge.jpg|thumb|right|upright|[[Mill Creek (Lake Erie)|Mill Creek]] passes through the middle of the [[Erie Zoo]].]]

Erie is situated in northwestern Pennsylvania at {{Coord|42|6|52|N|80|4|34|W|type:city}} (42.114507, -80.076213),<ref name="GR1">{{cite web| url=https://www.census.gov/geographies/reference-files/time-series/geo/gazetteer-files.html| publisher=[[United States Census Bureau]]|access-date=April 23, 2011|date=February 12, 2011|title=US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990}}</ref> on the southern shore of Lake Erie across from the Canadian province of Ontario. It is {{convert|100|mi}} northeast of [[Cleveland, Ohio]], {{Convert|90|mi}} southwest of [[Buffalo, New York]], and {{convert|128|mi}} north of [[Pittsburgh]]. Erie's bedrock is [[Devonian]] [[shale]] and [[siltstone]], overlain by glacial [[till]]s and [[Outwash plain|stratified drift]]. Stream drainage in the city flows northward into Lake Erie, then through Lake Ontario into the [[Saint Lawrence River|St. Lawrence River]], and out to the Atlantic Ocean. South of Erie is a drainage divide, beyond which most of the streams in western Pennsylvania flow south into the [[Allegheny River|Allegheny]] or [[Ohio River]]s.<ref name="Glacial Geology of Northwestern Pennsylvania">{{cite web |url=http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/topogeo/pub/generalgeology/G32/G32.aspx |title=General Geology Report 32 |access-date=November 2, 2007 |publisher=Pennsylvania Geological Survey}}</ref> Lake Erie is about 571 ft above sea level, while the city of Erie is about 728 ft above sea level.

According to the [[United States Census Bureau]], the city has a total area of {{convert|49.9|sqkm|order=flip}}, with {{convert|49.4|sqkm|order=flip}} being land and the remaining {{Convert|0.5|sqkm|order=flip|1}}, or 1.03%, being water.<ref name="Census 2010"/> Presque Isle State Park (known to the locals as "The Peninsula"), juts into Lake Erie just north of the city limits and has {{convert|7|mi|0}} of public beaches, wetlands, and fishing sites.

[[File:Erie, Pennsylvania map.png|thumb|A road map of Erie showing the major routes that travel through it]]

Erie is laid out in a grid surrounding [[Perry Square]] in the downtown area.<ref name="map">{{Cite map|title=City of Erie, Erie County |publisher=Pennsylvania Department of Transportation |date=December 1, 2005 |format=PDF |series=Type 5C |url= http://www.dot7.state.pa.us/BPR_pdf_files/Maps/Type5/25302.pdf }}</ref> The downtown buildings are separated from the waterfront by the Bayfront Parkway.<ref name="map"/> The tallest structure in Erie is [[St. Peter Cathedral (Erie, Pennsylvania)|St. Peter Cathedral]] at {{convert|265|ft|m|0|abbr=on}}, and the tallest building is [[Renaissance Centre (Erie, Pennsylvania)|Renaissance Centre]] at {{convert|198|ft|m|0|abbr=on}}. Erie has generally small ethnic neighborhoods, including a Little Italy. South of 38th Street, the grid gives way to curvilinear roads of post-1970 suburban development. [[Millcreek Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania|Millcreek Township]] and upper [[Peach Street]] in [[Summit Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania|Summit Township]] include the Erie metropolitan area's newer developments.

Most of the cityscape includes renovated and refurbished factory buildings, midrise housing, single-family homes, and office buildings. Erie's waterfront includes the [[List of city parks of Erie, Pennsylvania|Burger King Amphitheater]] and surrounding parkland, which hosts numerous festivals. The [[Bayfront Convention Center]] is on Sassafras Pier next to Dobbins Landing. The [[Bicentennial Tower]] is centrally located in the skyline when viewed from Presque Isle State Park, with the high-rise and midrise buildings flanking the higher ground behind and to the east and west sides. On the east end of the waterfront, the [[Erie Maritime Museum]] and the city's main library, and third-largest in Pennsylvania, host the [[USS Niagara (1813)|USS ''Niagara'']]. Docks and [[marina]]s fill the freshwater shoreline in between.


The climate of Erie is typical of the Great Lakes. It is located in the [[snow belt]] that stretches from Cleveland to [[Syracuse, New York|Syracuse]] and [[Watertown (city), New York|Watertown]]; winters are cold, with heavy [[lake effect snow|lake-effect snow]], but also with occasional stretches of mild weather that cause accumulated snow to melt. Erie lies on the typical [[Humid continental climate|humid continental]] zone ([[Köppen climate classification|Köppen]] ''Dfa'').<ref>{{Cite journal |last1=Kottek |first1=Marcus |last2=Greiser |first2=Jürgen |last3=Beck |first3=Christoph |last4=Rudolf |first4=Bruno |last5=Rubel |first5=Franz |display-authors=2 |title=World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification |date=June 2006 |journal=Meteorologische Zeitschrift |volume=15 |issue=3 |page=261 |doi=10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130|bibcode=2006MetZe..15..259K |url=https://opus.bibliothek.uni-augsburg.de/opus4/files/40083/metz_Vol_15_No_3_p259-263_World_Map_of_the_Koppen_Geiger_climate_classification_updated_55034.pdf }}</ref> The city experiences a full range of weather events, including snow, ice, rain, thunderstorms, and fog. The city's lakeside location helps to temper summer heat, with an average of 4 days of {{convert|90|°F|0}}+ highs annually, and the highest temperature ever recorded was {{convert|100|°F|0}} on June 25, 1988. An average of 3 days have lows of {{convert|0|°F|0}} or colder annually, and the lowest temperature ever recorded was {{convert|−18|°F|0}} on January 19, 1994, and February 16, 2015.<ref name="Erie NOAA"/>

Erie is sixth on ''[[The Daily Beast]]'s'' list of snowiest places in the United States, averaging {{convert|78.7|in|cm}};<ref>

{{cite web |date=December 27, 2010 |work=[[The Daily Beast]] |url=http://www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2010-12-27/americas-20-snowiest-cities-from-denver-to-duluth-buffalo-to-billings |title=America's 20 Snowiest Cities, from Denver to Duluth, Buffalo to Billings |access-date=December 29, 2010}}</ref> however, the 1981–2010 normal seasonal snowfall is {{convert|100.8|in|cm|0}}. The adverse winter conditions caused USAir Flight 499 to overrun the runway at [[Erie International Airport]] on February 21, 1986, and caused [[whiteout (weather)|whiteouts]] that were responsible for a 50-car [[multiple-vehicle collision|pile-up]] on [[Interstate 90]] on January 25, 2007.<ref>{{cite news |agency=Associated Press |date=January 26, 2007 |newspaper=USA Today |url=https://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2007-01-25-penn-pileup_x.htm |title=50-car pileup on snowy Erie highway |access-date=May 29, 2007}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |publisher=[[National Transportation Safety Board]] |url=https://www.ntsb.gov/ntsb/brief.asp?ev_id=20001213X32835&key=1 |title=Accident Report |access-date=May 29, 2007|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070929124133/https://www.ntsb.gov/ntsb/brief.asp?ev_id=20001213X32835&key=1|archive-date=September 29, 2007}}</ref>

On December 24 and 25, 2017, Erie received {{convert|53|in|cm|0}} of snowfall, breaking a record for the largest two-day snowfall anywhere in Pennsylvania.<ref>Craig, Tim (December 26, 2017). "[https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-nation/wp/2017/12/26/record-setting-christmas-storm-buries-pennsylvanias-fourth-largest-under-more-than-4-feet-of-snow/ Record-setting Christmas storm buries Pennsylvania's fourth largest city under more than 4 feet of snow]". ''The Washington Post''.</ref><ref>Fritz, Angela (December 26, 2017). "[https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/capital-weather-gang/wp/2017/12/26/how-this-pennsylvania-city-got-more-than-4-feet-of-snow-in-just-30-hours/ How this Pennsylvania city got more than 4 feet of snow in just 30 hours]". ''The Washington Post''.</ref> By the close of the 2017–2018 snow season, Erie had recorded {{convert|198.5|in|m|abbr=on}} of snow, its snowiest season on record, breaking the previous record of {{convert|149.1|in|m|abbr=on}} inches set in 2000–2001 by a large margin.<ref name="Erie NOAA"/>

{{Erie, Pennsylvania weatherbox}}

==Demographics and religion==

{{Main|Demographics of Erie, Pennsylvania}}

{| class="wikitable" style="float: left; margin-right: 2em; width: 35%; font-size: 90%;"

|+ Demographics of Erie compared on the state and national levels, {{as of|2010|lc=on}} Census



! Erie

! Pennsylvania

! United States


| Total population

| 101,786

| 12,702,379

| 308,745,538


| Population %±, 2000−2010

| −1.9%

| +3.4%

| +9.7%


| Population density

| {{Convert|4,631.7|/sqmi|abbr=on}}

| {{Convert|283.4|/sqmi|abbr=on}}

| {{Convert|87.3|/sqmi|abbr=on}}


| Median household income (1999)

| $28,387

| $34,619

| $41,994


| Bachelor's degree or higher

| 17.4%

| 22.4%

| 24.4%


| Foreign born

| 5.8%

| 5.0%

| 11.0%


| White (non-Hispanic)

| 75.0%

| 81.9%

| 72.4%


| Black

| 19.7%

| 10.8%

| 12.6%


| Hispanic (any race)

| 6.9%

| 5.7%

| 16.3%


| Asian

| 1.5%

| 2.7%

| 4.8%


As of the [[2010 United States Census]], 101,786 people,<ref name="Erie city, Pennsylvania">{{cite web |url=https://www.census.gov |title=Erie city, Pennsylvania |date=November 15, 2016 |website=[[United States Census Bureau]] |access-date=February 18, 2018 }}</ref> 40,913 households, and 22,915 families were residing in the city.<ref>[http://www.usa.com/erie-pa-population-and-races.htm Erie, PA Population and Races] USA.com. Retrieved October 3, 2013</ref> Its 44,790 housing units averaged a vacancy rate of 8%. Erie has long been declining in population due to the departure of factories and dependent businesses.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=City-data.com|url=http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-Northeast/Erie-Population-Profile.html|title=Erie Population Profile|access-date=June 28, 2007}}</ref> The city has lost about 40,000 people since the early 1960s, allowing [[Allentown, Pennsylvania|Allentown]] to claim the position as Pennsylvania's third-largest city behind [[Philadelphia]] and [[Pittsburgh]].

{{US Census population

|1800= 81

|1810= 394

|1820= 635

|1830= 1465

|1840= 3412

|1850= 5858

|1860= 9419

|1870= 19646

|1880= 27737

|1890= 40634

|1900= 52733

|1910= 66525

|1920= 93372

|1930= 115967

|1940= 116955

|1950= 130803

|1960= 138440

|1970= 129231

|1980= 119123

|1990= 108718

|2000= 103717

|2010= 101786



|estref=<ref name="USCensusEst2019CenPopScriptOnlyDirtyFixDoNotUse">{{cite web|url=https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/popest/data/tables.2019.html|date=May 24, 2020|title=Population and Housing Unit Estimates|publisher=United States Census Bureau|access-date=May 27, 2020}}</ref>


|footnote=U.S. Decennial Census<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census.html|title=Census of Population and Housing|author=United States Census Bureau|access-date=August 28, 2013|author-link=United States Census Bureau}}</ref>


Erie's population was spread evenly among all age groups, with the median being 34. About 13% of families and 19% of the population were below the [[poverty line]]. Most of the people who reside in Erie are of European descent.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=helloerie.com|url=http://www.helloerie.com/Social.cfm|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930031648/http://www.helloerie.com/Social.cfm|archive-date=September 30, 2007|title=Erie Social and Demographic Information|access-date=May 21, 2007}}</ref>

Since the mid-1990s, the International Institute of Erie (IIE), founded in 1919, has helped with the resettlement of refugees from [[Bosnia and Herzegovina|Bosnia]], [[Eritrea]], [[Ghana]], [[Iraq]], [[Kosovo]], [[Liberia]], [[Nepal]], [[Somalia]], [[Sudan]], [[Russia]], [[Syria]], and [[Vietnam]]. The inclusion of refugees in Erie's community augments religious diversity and prompts community events such as cultural festivals.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=International Institute of Erie|url=http://www.interinsterie.org|title=International Institute of Erie−Home|access-date=June 15, 2007|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070531184242/http://www.interinsterie.org/|archive-date=May 31, 2007}}</ref>

In the early 20th century, Erie had a significant Russian immigrant community, many members of which worked in the [[shipbuilding]] plants along the bayfront. Unusual for a Great Lakes city, a substantial number of these Russian immigrants were priestless ([[Old Believers#Bespopovtsy|''Bespopovtsy'']]) [[Old Believers]]. In 1983, most of this community united with the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]], and Father Pimen Simon became an [[Edinoverie|Old Ritualist priest]] within the canonical [[Orthodox Church]].<ref>

{{Cite web |url=http://www.churchofthenativity.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=147&Itemid=57 |title=Church of the Nativity: Our Parish, retrieved 6-23-2008 |access-date=June 23, 2008 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081009152511/http://www.churchofthenativity.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=147&Itemid=57 |archive-date=October 9, 2008 |url-status=dead }}

</ref> Even today, the gold-domed Church of the Nativity,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.churchofthenativity.net|title=Church of the Nativity|access-date=May 25, 2007}}</ref> on the bayfront near the former heart of the Russian community, is an Old Ritualist church and home parish to the famed [[iconography|iconographer]] Fr. [[Theodore Jurewicz]].<ref>{{cite web|publisher=Russian Orthodox Outside Russia |url=http://www.russianorthodoxchurch.ws/english/pages/firsttier/diocesesbishops.html |title=Russian Orthodox Bishops |access-date=May 26, 2007 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070518075257/http://www.russianorthodoxchurch.ws/english/pages/firsttier/diocesesbishops.html |archive-date=May 18, 2007 }}</ref>

[[File:Mercyhurst2.jpg|thumb|Catholic influence is felt beyond the parish in Erie, here, at entrance to [[Mercyhurst University]].]]

The Erie [[Jewish]] community is over 150 years old. [[Temple Anshe Hesed]], a member of the [[Union for Reform Judaism]], is served by its spiritual leader, Rabbi John L. Bush.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.taherie.org/ |title=Tah Erie |access-date=May 26, 2007 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080104071705/http://www.taherie.org/ |archive-date=January 4, 2008 }}</ref> Congregation Brith Sholom (Jewish Center) is affiliated with the [[United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism]], and Rabbi Leonard Lifshen has been its spiritual leader since 1989.

Erie is home to the [[Roman Catholic Diocese of Erie]], covering 13 counties—at {{Convert|9936|sqmi|sqkm|0|abbr=on}}, it is the largest in the state in area. Its diocesan seat is [[St. Peter Cathedral, Erie|Saint Peter Cathedral]] in Erie, which has a {{convert|265|ft|m|adj=on|abbr=on}} central tower flanked by two {{convert|150|ft|m|adj=on|abbr=on}} towers. Since October 1, 2012, [[Lawrence T. Persico]] has been the bishop of Erie; [[Donald Walter Trautman|Donald Trautman]] is the [[bishop emeritus]] of the diocese.<ref>{{Cite news |last=Massing |first=Dana |date=August 1, 2012 |title=New Catholic bishop named for Erie |newspaper=Erie Times-News |url=http://goerie.com/article/20120801/NEWS02/307319923/New-Catholic-bishop-named-for-Erie |access-date=August 1, 2012}}</ref>

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives,<ref>{{cite web|url = http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/counties/42049_2000.asp|title = County Membership Report: Erie County, Pennsylvania|website = The Association of Religion Data Archives|date = 2000|access-date = May 17, 2006|archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20070310212127/http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/counties/42049_2000.asp|archive-date = March 10, 2007|url-status=dead}}</ref> Erie County had a total population of 280,843 people in 2000, of which 103,333 claimed affiliation with the Catholic Church, 40,301 with mainline Protestant houses of worship, and 12,980 with evangelical Protestant churches.


{{Main|Economy of Erie, Pennsylvania}}

[[File:Eriefactory01.jpg|thumb|right|Erie Forge and Steel factory in Erie at 16th and Greengarden Streets]]

Erie is the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's primary access point to Lake Erie, the Great Lakes, and the [[Saint Lawrence Seaway]]. The city emerged as a maritime center after the American Revolution, then as a railroad hub during the great American westward expansion. Erie became an important city for iron and steel manufacturing during the [[Industrial Revolution]] and thrived well into the 20th century with firms such as [[Griswold Manufacturing]], once the leader in cast-iron cookware.

Since the decline of the large manufacturers in the later 20th century, a more diverse mix of midsized industries has emerged. This broader economic base includes not only smaller and more agile steel and plastic plants (with about 10% of tooling and molding located in the tristate area), but also vigorous service sectors: health, insurance, and tourism.

Erie is the corporate headquarters of the [[Erie Insurance Group]] and [[Marquette Savings Bank]]. [[Lord Corporation]] was founded and has major operations in Erie.<ref>{{cite web|last=McNeel |first=Rick |url=http://www.lord.com/our-company/history.xml |publisher=Lord Corporation |title=Lord History |access-date=May 25, 2007 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20101227083231/http://www.lord.com/Our-Company/History.xml |archive-date=December 27, 2010 }}</ref> Along with GE and Erie Insurance, major employers in the county include the county, [[Government of Pennsylvania|state]], and [[Federal government of the United States|federal]] governments, as well as the [[Erie City School District]].<ref name="employers">{{cite web |title=Erie County, Top 50 Employers |date=September 24, 2010 |publisher=[[Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry]] |location=[[Harrisburg, Pennsylvania]] |url=http://www.paworkstats.state.pa.us/admin/gsipub/htmlarea/uploads/erie_t50.pdf |archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/5wGM4bpjQ?url=http://www.paworkstats.state.pa.us/admin/gsipub/htmlarea/uploads/erie_t50.pdf |url-status=dead |archive-date=February 5, 2011 |access-date=February 2, 2011 }}</ref>

[[File:Preque Isle Sunset.jpg|thumb|Sunset at Presque Isle State Park; the peninsula is a major tourist attraction]]

Over 10% of the USA's plastics are manufactured or finished in Erie-based plastics plants.<ref name="city facts"/> Erie is an emerging center for [[biofuels]] and environmental research, producing over 45 million U.S. gallons of biofuel a year.<ref>{{cite news |last=Carroll |first=Jim |newspaper=Erie Times-News |date=July 6, 2006| title=Biodiesel could fuel economy| url=http://www.goerie.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060706/NEWS02/607060400&SearchID=73286058459115 |access-date=July 2, 2007}}</ref> Tourism plays an increasingly important role in the local economy with over 4 million people visiting Presque Isle State Park and other attractions. Shoppers from Ohio, New York, and the Canadian province of Ontario frequent the [[Millcreek Mall]] and [[Peach Street]] stores and attractions as a result of Pennsylvania's [[tax exemption]] on clothing.

Both [[UPMC Hamot]] and [[Saint Vincent Health System]] are also major employers in Erie.<ref name="employers"/> Although both of these hospitals had been stand-alone Erie entities, Hamot merged with the [[University of Pittsburgh Medical Center]] in 2011<ref>{{Cite news |last=Bruce |first=David |title=Erie hospital now officially UPMC Hamot |date=February 2, 2011 |newspaper=Erie Times-News |url=http://www.goerie.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2011302019912 |access-date=February 2, 2011}}</ref> and Saint Vincent, which affiliated with the [[Cleveland Clinic]] in 2012,<ref>{{Cite news |last=Bruce |first=David |title=Saint Vincent to affiliate with Cleveland Clinic|date=Oct 23, 2012|newspaper=Erie Times-News |url=http://www.goerie.com/article/20121023/NEWS02/310229883/Saint-Vincent-to-affiliate-with-Cleveland-Clinic |access-date=January 17, 2014}}</ref> merged with [[Highmark]]'s Allegheny Health Network in 2013.<ref>{{Cite news |last=Bruce |first=David |title=Highmark, Saint Vincent formally announce deal|date=July 10, 2013|newspaper=Erie Times-News |url=http://www.goerie.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20130710/NEWS02/307109954/-1/NEWSSITEMAP |access-date=January 17, 2014}}</ref> The [[United States Department of Veterans Affairs]] operates the Erie Veterans Affairs Medical Center on East 38th Street. The [[Shriners International]] has operated [[Shriners Hospital for Children]] in Erie since 1927.<ref>{{cite web|title=Imagine America Foundation|url=http://www.imagine-america.org/photo-gallery/erie-business-center|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130829081229/http://www.imagine-america.org/photo-gallery/erie-business-center|archive-date=August 29, 2013}}</ref>

Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine (LECOM) is a fast-growing educator and provider of quality healthcare in the city. LECOM provides stakeholders and assets to the community as part of its mission. LECOM is located both in the city and adjacent Millcreek Township.


The [[Erie Water Works]], which was incorporated in 1865 as the Erie Water and Gas Company, includes a reservoir, two water-treatment plants, and an elaborate water works and pipe network that provides water for most of the city and suburbs. Penelec, a subsidiary of [[FirstEnergy]], supplies electricity to the region, as well as the [[Touchstone Energy|Northwestern Pennsylvania Rural Electric Cooperative]]. [[National Fuel Gas|National Fuel Gas Company]] provides residents with natural gas. [[Time Warner Cable]] became the region's [[cable television]] provider, after taking over [[Adelphia Communications Corporation|Adelphia]], and also provides digital phone and high-speed internet to the region. Local telephone and high-speed internet service is also provided by [[Verizon]].

Sewage service in Erie is provided by the Erie Sewer Authority, and many outlying townships have partnerships with the Sewer Authority for service. The authority cleans about 30 {{convert|40|e6USgal|m3|abbr=on}} of wastewater every day.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=The City of Erie |url=http://www.ci.erie.pa.us/Departments/SewerDepartment/tabid/74/Default.aspx |title=Erie Sewer Department |access-date=May 21, 2007 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070706212429/http://www.ci.erie.pa.us/Departments/SewerDepartment/tabid/74/Default.aspx |archive-date=July 6, 2007 }}</ref>

The [[time and temperature]] number in Erie is 452-6311 and was originally discontinued by Verizon in October 2008 before being restarted by a private individual two years later.<ref>{{Cite news |last=Leonardi |first=Ron |date=December 27, 2010 |newspaper=Erie Times-News |title=Q & A with Patrick Jones, who resurrected time and temperature phone line |url=http://www.goerie.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2010312279973 |access-date=July 22, 2011}}</ref> The city of Erie and northwest Pennsylvania is located in [[area code 814]]. On December 16, 2010, the [[Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission]] (PUC) voted to split the area code, which was to take effect February 1, 2012.<ref>{{Cite press release |title=PUC: 582 Named as New Area Code for Portions of 814 Changing in 2012 |date=December 21, 2010 |publisher=[[Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission]] |url=http://www.puc.state.pa.us/General/press_releases/Press_Releases.aspx?ShowPR=2685 |access-date=February 1, 2011}}</ref> The [[North American Numbering Plan]] decided that northwest Pennsylvania would receive the new code of [[area code 582|582]]. A local grassroots coalition began organizing an opposition to the plan, and generated numerous petitions for reconsideration. The PUC immediately voted to review their decision and ordered additional public-input hearings and technical conferences as a response to the strong public outcry.<ref>{{Cite press release |title=PUC Agrees to Further Review Decision in 814 Area Code Relief Case, Plans Additional Public Hearings, Technical Conferences |date=January 13, 2011 |publisher=Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission |url=http://www.puc.state.pa.us/General/press_releases/Press_Releases.aspx?ShowPR=2696 |access-date=February 1, 2011}}</ref> In January 2011, the PUC announced that it was placing the entire area code split plan on hold as NEUSTAR pushed the projected exhaustion date back two years to 2015.<ref>{{Cite news|title =PUC Puts Hold on 814 Split |url=http://wduqnews.blogspot.com/2011/01/puc-puts-hold-on-814-split.html|work = WDUQNews|first = Mark|last = Nootbaar|date =January 13, 2011}}</ref>

==Arts and culture==

[[File:Bostonstore, top.jpg|thumb|The iconic [[Boston Store (Erie, Pennsylvania)|Boston Store]] in downtown Erie]]

Erie is home to several professional and amateur performing-arts groups. The most significant is the [[Erie Philharmonic]], in continuous existence since 1913 (with the exception of an [[interregnum]] during [[World War II]]). This group of professional musicians also has a full [[Choir|chorus]] and a junior philharmonic division that tours the area. The Lake Erie Ballet is a professional company that performs well-known programs throughout the year.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.lakeerieballet.org|title=Lake Erie Ballet|access-date=May 25, 2007}}</ref> The Erie Civic Music Association attracts, sponsors, and books performances by professional musicians, singers, entertainers, and ensembles from around the world.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.eriecivicmusic.com/|title=Erie Civic Music Association|access-date=May 25, 2007}}</ref>

The [[Erie Art Museum]] is the city's main [[art gallery]], located in the [[Old Customshouse (Erie, Pennsylvania)|Old Customshouse]] on State Street. Its collection has an emphasis on [[folk art]] and [[modern art]] and it hosts a popular blues and jazz concert series. The Erie Art Museum also works on public art projects in an effort to revitalize and improve the city. In 2000, the Erie Art Museum created a project entitled GoFish, similar to [[CowParade]]; 95 fiberglass fish were decorated by Erie artists and placed throughout the city. Patrons paid $3,000 for a fish and the proceeds went to [[Gannon University]]'s scholarship fund and the Erie Public Art endowment fund.<ref name=EBSCOhost>{{cite web|last=Hubert|first=Tom|title=Baked Fish|url=http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/6037130/baked-fish|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130304174410/http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/6037130/baked-fish|url-status=dead|archive-date=March 4, 2013|publisher=Ceramics Monthly|access-date=September 27, 2012}}</ref> The Erie Art Museum created a similar public art project in 2004 that involved frogs rather than fish.<ref>{{cite book|last=Paris|first=Vanessa W.|title=LeapFrog! the Ribbitting Tale: 2004 Lake Erie Art Project|year=2004|publisher=Erie Art Museum|location=Erie, Pennsylvania|isbn=978-0-9709282-8-3}}</ref> In 2012, the Erie Art Museum began a project to create 40 artistic and functional bike racks, designed and created by local artists.<ref>{{cite news|last=Erwin|first=Erica|title=Erie Art Museum unveils latest public art project|url=http://www.goerie.com/article/20120914/NEWS02/309139868/Erie-Art-Museum-unveils-latest-public-art-project|access-date=September 28, 2012|newspaper=Erie Times-News|date=September 14, 2012}}</ref> The museum's intentions are to add color and interest to downtown Erie and to promote bicycling, encourage healthy lifestyles, and provide environmental awareness.<ref>{{cite web|title=Bike Rack Public Art |url=http://www.erieartmuseum.org/exhibits/public_art/BikeRack_PublicArt/BikeRackPublicArt.html |publisher=Erie Art Museum |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130727102620/http://www.erieartmuseum.org/exhibits/public_art/BikeRack_PublicArt/BikeRackPublicArt.html |archive-date=July 27, 2013 }}</ref>

Downtown Erie's historic and ornate [[Warner Theatre (Erie, Pennsylvania)|Warner Theatre]] hosts a range of performances. Renovated in the 1980s and again in 2007,<ref>{{cite web|publisher=[[WSEE-TV]]|url=http://www.goerie.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070323/WSEE01/70322036&SearchID=73279381497185|title=Warner Renovations Unveiled|date=March 23, 2007 |access-date=May 21, 2007}}</ref> the Warner is the hub of Erie's [[Louis J. Tullio Arena|Civic Center]]. The downtown area is the home of the [[Erie Playhouse]], one of the leading community theaters in the country, and the third-oldest community theater in the U.S.<ref name="gene">{{Cite book | author=Erie Area Convention and Visitors Bureau| title = ERIE 2007–2008 All Seasons Visitors Guide| place = Erie| year = 2007}}</ref> Erie is also home to several other community theatres, including Dramashop, PACA, and All an Act Theatre. In addition to regular performances, Erie has many festivals including motorcycle rallies. Since 2007, the annual [[Roar on the Shore]] [[motorcycle rally]] has taken place in Erie, although in 2019, it moved to the Lake Erie Speedway.

[[File:Flagship-Niagara-Dobbins-Landing-Erie-July4-2009.jpg|thumb|The Bicentennial Tower and the ''Niagara'']]

Along West 6th Street is Millionaires Row, a collection of 19th-century [[Victorian architecture|Victorian]] mansions. The [[John Hill House]] is one of the notable residences. [[First Presbyterian Church of the Covenant (Erie, Pennsylvania)|First Presbyterian Church of the Covenant]], a well-known landmark, is also located here. The Watson-Curtze Mansion, one of the most notable residences on this street, is also home to the [https://www.eriehistory.org/ Erie County Historical Society]. Permanent and rotating exhibits showcase the life of some of Erie's influential founders and the development of Erie.

The [[Erie Land Light]] stands at the foot of Lighthouse Street.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=The National Park Service |url=http://www.cr.nps.gov/maritime/light/erieland.htm |title=Inventory of Historic Light Stations Pennsylvania Lighthouses−Erie Land Lighthouse |access-date=May 30, 2007 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130901221638/http://www.cr.nps.gov/maritime/light/erieland.htm |archive-date=September 1, 2013 }}</ref> The lighthouse was built in 1818 and replaced in 1867.

The [[Bicentennial Tower]], on Dobbins Landing at the foot of State Street, was built in 1995−96 to celebrate the city's bicentennial. It is {{convert|187|ft|m|abbr=on}} tall and gives a panoramic view of Lake Erie and downtown. The Blasco Library and Erie Maritime Museum are its neighbors to the east. [[Presque Isle Downs]] opened on February 28, 2007, and was the fourth slots parlor in the state and the first in Western Pennsylvania.<ref>{{Cite news|last1=Miller |first1=George |last2=Thompson |first2=Lisa |title=$8.9&nbsp;million take |date=March 2, 2007 |newspaper=Erie Times-News |url=http://www.goerie.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070302/NEWS02/703020365 |access-date=February 3, 2011}}</ref> [[Table game]]s opened at the casino on July 8, 2010.<ref>{{Cite news |last=Guerriero |first=John |title=Table games and equipment arrives at Presque Isle Downs |date=June 22, 2011 |newspaper=Erie Times-News |url=http://www.goerie.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20100622/NEWS02/306219928/-1/ETN |access-date=February 3, 2011}}</ref>

Erie has also been the location for many movies, including the hometown for fictional band The Wonders in ''[[That Thing You Do!]]'' featuring [[Tom Hanks]]. It is also mentioned in the film ''[[Wall Street (1987 film)|Wall Street]]'' as the location of the fictional company Anacott Steel. Erie is the hometown of [[Train (band)|Train]] lead singer, [[Patrick Monahan]]. Erie is also the hometown of [[Marc Brown (author)|Marc Brown]], the author and illustrator of [[Arthur (TV series)|''Arthur'']] books and TV series.


[[File:Erietimes2.jpg|thumb|right|The ''Erie Times-News'' main office]]

{{Main|Media in Erie, Pennsylvania}}

Erie is served by ''[[Erie Times-News]]'', the city's daily newspaper as well as ''[[Erie Reader]]'', an alternative weekly newspaper. The [[Nielsen Company]] ranks Erie as 151 out of the 210 largest television markets in the United States, as of the 2018−2019 report.<ref>{{cite web |title=Local Television Market Universe Estimates |year=2018 |publisher=[[Nielsen Company]] |url=https://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/corporate/us/en/public%20factsheets/tv/2018-19-dma-ranker.pdf |access-date=February 15, 2019 |page=5}}</ref> The market is served by stations affiliated with major American networks, including [[WICU-TV]] 12 (NBC), [[WJET-TV]] 24 (ABC), [[WFXP]] 66 (FOX), [[WSEE-TV]] 35 (CBS), and [[WSEE-DT2]] 35.2 ([[The CW Television Network|CW]]). [[WQLN (TV)|WQLN]] 54 is a member station of [[PBS]] and also broadcasts in [[London, Ontario]]. Cable companies available for Erie include Charter Spectrum, DirecTV, and Dish Network. Erie is also served by several AM and FM radio stations based in the city and dozens of other nearby station broadcasts can be heard.

In August, 2019, Erie was the subject to a new television show, ''[[Undercover Billionaire]]'', from the Discovery Channel. In this show, a wealthy businessman, Glenn Sterns, travels to Erie under a fake name, Glenn Bryant. He starts with $100, a cell phone, and an old pickup truck. He is then asked to make a business worth over $1 million in 90 days, and if he fails, he has to put $1 million of his own money into the business. Glenn makes the now prosperous business of UnderDog BBQ. Although he only gets the company valuation around $750,000, it is still a successful business to date. He gave everyone who helped him big roles in the company's future and also invested the $1 million he owed.


[[File:ErieUht.jpg|thumb|right|UPMC Park from the first-base side, overlooking downtown Erie]]

{{Main|Sports in Erie, Pennsylvania}}

Erie plays host to a number of semiprofessional and professional sports teams. The [[Erie SeaWolves]] play AA baseball in the [[Eastern League (baseball)|Eastern League]] as an affiliate of the [[Detroit Tigers]]. The [[Erie Otters]] play hockey in the [[Ontario Hockey League]]. The [[Erie BayHawks (2017–)|Erie BayHawks]] are a member of the [[NBA G League]]. Hockey and basketball games are played at [[Erie Insurance Arena]], while [[Minor League Baseball]] games are held at [[UPMC Park]].

[[Gannon University]], [[Mercyhurst University]], [[Edinboro University]], and [[Penn State Erie, The Behrend College|Penn State Behrend]] have active NCAA collegiate sports programs. The local high schools compete in PIAA District 10 sporting events. Additionally, [[Cathedral Preparatory School]] hosts the annual high-school basketball tournament featuring top national teams, called the [[Burger King Classic]] since 2010. Scholastic and intramural sports are held at school and [[List of city parks of Erie, Pennsylvania|park]] facilities around the city. The [[Mercyhurst Ice Center]], JMC Ice Arena, Family First Sports Park, and Erie Veterans Memorial Stadium are many sports arenas and stadiums available in and around the city.

[[Lake Erie Speedway]], a {{Convert|3/8|mi|km|1|adj=on|abbr=on}} [[NASCAR]]-sanctioned [[race track]], is located in [[Greenfield Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania|Greenfield Township]]. [[Horse racing]] is found at the [[Presque Isle Downs & Casino]] located near [[Summit Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania|Summit Township]].

Notable athletes: [[Connor McDavid]] is a former first-round pick of the Erie Otters.

{| class="wikitable sortable"


! Club

! League

! Sport

! Venue

! Established

! Championships


! [[Erie SeaWolves]]

| [[Eastern League (baseball)|EL]]

| [[Baseball]]

| [[UPMC Park]]

| 1995

| 0


! [[Erie BayHawks (2019–)|Erie BayHawks]]

| [[NBA G League]]

| [[Basketball]]

| [[Erie Insurance Arena]]

| 2008{{efn|The first BayHawks franchise was established in 2008. A new franchise replaced the relocated team that became the [[Lakeland Magic]] in 2017.}}

| 0

|-Erie Explosion

-[[Continental Indoor Football League]]

[[Indoor American football|Indoor football]]

[[Erie Insurance Arena]]

! [[Erie Otters]]

| [[Ontario Hockey League|OHL]]

| [[Ice hockey]]

| Erie Insurance Arena

| 1996

| 2


! [[Erie Commodores FC]]

| [[National Premier Soccer League|NPSL]]

| [[Association football|Soccer]]

| McConnell Family Stadium

| 2009

| 0


! Erie Express

| [[Gridiron Developmental Football League|GDFL]]

| [[American football]]

| [[Cathedral Prep Events Center|Dollinger Field]]


| 1




{{See also|List of city parks of Erie, Pennsylvania}}

Erie's location along the shores of [[Lake Erie]] provides several outdoor activities throughout the year. The region's largest attraction is Presque Isle State Park, drawing over four million visitors a year.<ref name="dcnr">{{cite web |publisher=[[Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources]] |url=http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/STATEPARKS/parks/presqueisle.aspx |title=Presque Isle State Park |access-date=May 21, 2007}}</ref> The region grows grapes and produces the third-largest amount of wine in the United States.<ref name="county facts"/>

[[File:Presque Isle Pennsylvania aerial view.jpg|thumb|Aerial view of Presque Isle State Park, view is to the east-northeast]]

Downtown Erie is surrounded by Presque Isle State Park, a [[National Natural Landmark]].<ref name="dcnr"/> The [[Seaway Trail]] runs through downtown Erie along the lakefront. The [[Tom Ridge Environmental Center]], at the foot of Presque Isle, features {{Convert|7000|sqft|abbr=on}} of exhibit space.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=Tom Ridge Environmental Center|url=http://www.trecpi.org/features.html|title=TREC Features|access-date=May 25, 2007}}</ref>

Other tourist destinations include the [[Bayfront Convention Center]]; the [[Bicentennial Tower]] that overlooks Lake Erie; [[Dobbins Landing]], a pier in downtown Erie; the Erie Land Light, and the Erie Maritime Museum, the home port of the ''Niagara''. The {{Convert|2600000|sqft|adj=on|abbr=on}} Millcreek Mall, one of the [[List of largest shopping malls in the United States|largest shopping malls in the United States]], is located on Peach Street in nearby Millcreek Township.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=[[Eastern Connecticut State University]] |url=http://nutmeg.easternct.edu/~pocock/MallsLarge.htm |title=Largest Shopping Malls in the United States |access-date=February 3, 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110623233811/http://nutmeg.easternct.edu/~pocock/MallsLarge.htm |archive-date=June 23, 2011 }}</ref> The indoor waterpark [[Splash Lagoon]], in Summit Township, is the largest indoor waterpark on the East Coast and third-largest in the United States.<ref name="gene"/> [[Waldameer Park]], located at the base of Presque Isle, is the fourth-oldest amusement park in Pennsylvania, and the 10th-oldest in the US.<ref>

{{cite web|author=National Scenic Byways Program|title=Waldameer Park and WaterWorld|publisher=[[Federal Highway Administration]]|url=http://www.byways.org/explore/byways/2488/places/59531|access-date=February 4, 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110609111449/http://www.byways.org/explore/byways/2488/places/59531/|archive-date=June 9, 2011|url-status=dead}}



{{See also|List of mayors of Erie, Pennsylvania}}

[[File:Erie City Hall.jpg|thumb|The Erie Municipal Building on State Street]]

The city of Erie is incorporated as a [[Local government in Pennsylvania#Municipalities|third-class city]] under Pennsylvania law.<ref name="PA manual 6-5">''The Pennsylvania Manual'', p. 6–5.</ref> Incorporated under an "optional charter", the city is governed by a [[mayor–council government]]. The government consists of a mayor, [[treasurer]], and [[comptroller|controller]], and a seven-member [[city council]]. They are elected to four-year terms, with the terms of the council designed to be overlapping.<ref name="PA manual 6-5"/> The mayor is [[chief executive]] and the city council prepares legislation and conducts oversight. The city council meets in Mario S. Bagnoni Council Chambers at City Hall. [[Joseph Schember]] ([[Democratic Party (United States)|D]]) is the mayor of the city of Erie and was first elected in 2017. {{As of|August 2019}}, the Erie City Council consists of:<ref>{{Cite web|title=City Council Members|url=https://cityof.erie.pa.us/government/city-council/city-council-members/|website=Erie, PA|language=en|access-date=2020-05-17}}</ref><ref>

{{cite web|title=Erie City Council Members|url=http://www.erie.pa.us/citycouncil/citycouncilmembers.aspx|work=City of Erie Government|access-date=July 26, 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160727074031/http://www.erie.pa.us/citycouncil/citycouncilmembers.aspx|archive-date=July 27, 2016|url-status=dead}}


* Sonya M. Arrington

* Liz Allen

* Kathleen A. Schaaf

* Casimir Kwitowski

* James Winarski

* Melvin Witherspoon

* Curtis Jones

In exchange for tax revenue, the city of Erie provides its residents with police and fire protection. For separate quarterly payments, the city provides garbage, recycling, and water and sewer services. The [[Erie Police Department]] provides law enforcement in the city and has a complement of 173 sworn personnel under the direct supervision of Chief of Police Daniel Spizarny. The [[Erie Fire Department|City of Erie Fire Department]] is a full-time career fire department and employs around 150 uniformed personnel. These employees are under the direct supervision of Chief Guy Santone. The city currently operates out of six [[fire station|fire houses]] and protects about {{Convert|20|sqmi|abbr=on}}. The city has five [[Fire_engine#Conventional_fire_engine|engine companies]], one [[Fire_engine#Platform_truck|tower company]], and one water-rescue unit. The city provides mutual aid to fire departments of Millcreek Township, Summit Township, and East County.

Erie is the largest city in [[Pennsylvania's 16th congressional district]] and is currently represented in Congress by [[Republican Party (United States)|Republican]] [[Mike Kelly (Pennsylvania)|Mike Kelly]], who was elected in [[United States House of Representatives elections in Pennsylvania, 2010|2010]]. Republican [[Dan Laughlin]] of the [[Pennsylvania Senate, District 49|49th District]] represents Erie in the [[Pennsylvania State Senate]]. The city of Erie is split by the [[Pennsylvania House of Representatives, District 1|1st]] and [[Pennsylvania House of Representatives, District 2|2nd]] Districts of the [[Pennsylvania House of Representatives]] and is represented by [[Democratic Party (United States)|Democrats]] [[Patrick Harkins]] and [[Florindo Fabrizio]], respectively.<ref>''The Pennsylvania Manual'', p. 3-162.<!--Page number refers to a subpage, not a page range--></ref>


{{See also|Higher education in Erie, Pennsylvania}}

[[Erie City School District|Erie Public Schools]] enroll 12,527 students in primary and secondary grades.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=GreatSchools.com|url=http://www.greatschools.net/cgi-bin/pa/district_profile/188/|title=Erie City School District Profile|access-date=May 21, 2007}}</ref> The district has 23 public schools including elementary, middle, and high schools, with one charter school. Other than public schools, the city is home to more than 40 private schools and academies. Erie public schools are under frequent criticism for education quality, school rankings, and abnormally high teacher salary.

The City of Erie is served by two public high schools, [[Erie High School (Pennsylvania)|Erie High School]] and [[Northwest Pennsylvania Collegiate Academy]], plus three Catholic high schools: [[Cathedral Preparatory School]], [[Mercyhurst Preparatory School]], and [[Villa Maria Academy (Erie, Pennsylvania)|Villa Maria Academy]].

[[File:LECOM Erie campus.jpg|thumb|[[Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine|LECOM]]'s main campus]]

Erie is home to several colleges and universities, including Gannon University located in downtown Erie, and Mercyhurst University in the southeast part of the city. Other notable colleges in the Erie area include [[Penn State Erie, The Behrend College]], [[Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine]] (LECOM, a large medical school), and [[Edinboro University of Pennsylvania]].

Erie is also home of the [[Barber National Institute]] and its Elizabeth Lee Black School, which provides services and education for children and adults with mental disabilities. Erie is home to its main campus, and it provides services in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.<ref>Barber National Institute http://www.barberinstitute.org</ref> The Achievement Center also serves the needs of children from birth to age 21 with physical and mental health disabilities.


[[File:Brig Niagara behind museum.jpg|thumb|The Erie Maritime Museum, the brig ''Niagara'', and the Blasco Library]]

The public library in Erie is part of the Erie County library system. The Raymond M. Blasco, M. D. Memorial Library, named for its benefactor, opened in 1996.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=Erie's Libraries|url=http://www.erielibrary.org/library-info-2/history-of-the-library/|title=History of the Library|access-date=February 16, 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120224225929/http://www.erielibrary.org/library-info-2/history-of-the-library/|archive-date=February 24, 2012|url-status=dead}}</ref> It is the third-largest library in Pennsylvania.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=City of Erie |url=http://www.ci.erie.pa.us/AboutErie/Facts/tabid/80/Default.aspx |title=Raymond M. Blasco Library |access-date=May 21, 2007 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070808225109/http://www.ci.erie.pa.us/AboutErie/Facts/tabid/80/Default.aspx |archive-date=August 8, 2007 }}</ref> It is connected to the Erie Maritime Museum, both of which are part of a bayfront improvement project that includes the Bayfront Convention Center and the Bicentennial Tower on Dobbins Landing.

===Community College===

After years of advocacy on the issue, Erie County Council approved sponsorship of an Erie County Community College on June 28, 2017. Council Chairman Jay Breneman and colleagues Andre Horton, Kathy Fatica, and Fiore Leone voted in favor of sponsoring the community college, which was later signed by County Executive Kathy Dahlkemper. The county executive's administration took the lead in presenting the proposal to the Pennsylvania State Board of Education for approval, supported by a cross-section of business, civic, labor, and community leaders.<ref>[https://www.goerie.com/news/20170628/erie-county-council-approves-community-college-sponsorship Erie County Council approves community college sponsorship]</ref><ref>[https://www.eriecountypa.gov/community-college.aspx Community College Proposal]</ref>


{{Main|Transportation in Erie, Pennsylvania}}

[[File:Bayfrontconnecterie.jpg|thumb|The [[Bayfront Connector]] connects Interstate 90 with the bayfront.]]

[[File:Lastdc9ERI.jpg|thumb|The last [[McDonnell Douglas DC-9]] to fly for [[US Air]] arriving at [[Erie International Airport]]]]

Erie is well connected to the [[Interstate Highway System]]. Six "Erie exits" are along [[Interstate 90]], a major cross-country thoroughfare running from [[Boston]] to [[Seattle]]. Erie is the northern terminus of [[Interstate 79]], which travels south to Pittsburgh and, ultimately, [[West Virginia]]. The western terminus for [[Interstate 86 (east)|Interstate 86]], also called the "Southern Tier Expressway", is at Interstate 90 near [[Harborcreek Township, Pennsylvania|Harborcreek]], between Erie and [[North East, Pennsylvania|North East]]. Interstate 86 continues east through New York to [[Binghamton, New York|Binghamton]]. The [[Bayfront Connector]] runs from Interstate 90 in Harborcreek to the [[Bayfront Parkway]] and downtown Erie, along the east side of the city, then connects to Interstate 79 on the west side of the city. Major [[thoroughfare]]s in the city include [[12th Street (Erie, Pennsylvania)|12th Street]], [[26th Street (Erie, Pennsylvania)|26th Street]], 38th Street, and Peach Street. Peach is also a part of [[U.S. Route 19]], whose northern terminus is in Erie and continues south, eventually reaching the [[Gulf of Mexico]]. Other major routes running through Erie are [[Pennsylvania Route 5]], known as the [[Seaway Trail]] and is made up of parts of 6th Street, 8th Street, 12th Street, and East Lake Road in the city, [[U.S. Route 20]], which is 26th Street in the city. The city is divided between east and west by State Street.

[[File:EMTA.jpg|thumb|[[Erie Metropolitan Transit Authority]]]]

The [[Erie Metropolitan Transit Authority]] operates the city's [[transit bus]] system, known as the 'e'. Buses run seven days a week in the city, with trips out to other parts of the county occurring a few times a week. [[Intercity bus]]es providing transportation between Buffalo, Cleveland and Pittsburgh are operated by [[Greyhound Lines]]. Service between Buffalo and Cleveland is also provided by [[Lakefront Lines]]. Both companies operate out of the Intermodal Transportation Center, which opened in 2002 at the foot of Holland Street.

The former "Water Level Route" of the [[New York Central Railroad]] travels directly through Erie. It is now the mainline for [[CSX Transportation|CSX]] [[freight train]]s. The mainline of the [[Norfolk Southern Railway]], originally built by the [[New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad|Nickel Plate Railroad]], also travels through Erie. At one time, Norfolk Southern trains [[street running|ran down the middle]] of 19th Street, but were removed in 2002.<ref>{{Cite news |last1=Hofius |first1=Sarah |last2=Piet |first2=Elizabeth |date=June 8, 2005 |newspaper=Erie Times-News |url=http://www.goerie.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050608/FRONTPAGE/506080368&SearchID=73285370706681 |title=Residents track changes along old railroad line |access-date=February 2, 2011}}</ref> Passenger rail service is provided by [[Amtrak]]'s ''[[Lake Shore Limited]]'' out of [[Union Station (Erie, Pennsylvania)|Union Station]] at 14th and State Streets. The ''Lake Shore Limited'' stops twice daily—one eastbound towards New York City or Boston, and one westbound towards Chicago.

[[Erie International Airport|Erie International Airport and Tom Ridge Field]] ([[International Air Transport Association|IATA]] code: ERI; [[International Civil Aviation Organization|ICAO]] code: KERI) are located {{Convert|5|mi}} west of the city and host [[general aviation]], charter, and [[airline]] service. Destinations with nonstop flights out of Erie include [[Chicago O'Hare International Airport]] via [[United Airlines]], [[Charlotte Douglas International Airport]] via [[American Airlines]], and [[Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport]] via [[Delta Air Lines]] (Currently suspended). Erie International is in the midst of an $80.5 million runway extension. The extension is slated to increase the runway's length by {{Convert|1920|ft|m|-1|abbr=on}}, for a total runway length of {{Convert|8420|ft|m|-2|abbr=on}}, "to meet safety requirements" and allow the airport to accommodate larger aircraft.<ref>{{Cite news |last=Myers |first=Valerie |title=Bidding to begin on next phase of Erie runway extension |date=January 29, 2011 |newspaper=Erie Times-News |url=http://www.goerie.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2011301299944 |access-date=February 2, 2011}}</ref>

The Port of Erie is located on Presque Isle Bay, a natural harbor formed by Presque Isle. It offers some of the finest port facilities for cargo shipping on the Great Lakes, with direct rail access. The Erie−Western Pennsylvania Port Authority provides [[Presque Isle Water Taxi|water taxi]] service in the summer between Dobbins Landing and Liberty Park in downtown Erie, and the Waterworks ferry landing on Presque Isle.<ref>{{cite web|publisher=The Port of Erie|url=http://www.porterie.org/transit_map_lg.gif|title=Erie Bayfront Transportation System|access-date=May 21, 2007| archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20041106065444/http://www.porterie.org/transit_map_lg.gif| archive-date = November 6, 2004}}</ref>

==Sister cities==

Erie has four official [[Sister city|sister cities]] as designated by [[Sister Cities International]]:

  • {{flagdeco|IRE}} [[Dungarvan]], Ireland (2007)<ref>{{cite news |last=Miller |first=George |date=March 24, 2007 |url=http://www.goerie.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070324/NEWS02/703240354&SearchID=73277773742235 |work=Erie Times-News |title=Erie adds Irish Sister City |access-date=May 21, 2007}}</ref>
  • {{flagdeco|POL}} [[Lublin]], Poland (1999)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.lublin.eu/Erie-4-233.html |title=Erie |access-date=August 7, 2013 |publisher=City of Lublin |language=pl |work=Miasta partnerskie Lublina [Sister cities of Lublin] |year=2008 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130207034320/http://lublin.eu/Erie-4-233.html |archive-date=February 7, 2013 }}</ref>
  • {{flagdeco|MEX}} [[Mérida, Yucatán|Mérida]], [[Yucatán (state)|Yucatán]], Mexico (1973)
  • {{flagdeco|PRC}} [[Zibo]], [[Shandong]], China (1985)

==See also==


* [[List of people from Erie, Pennsylvania]]




==Further reading==

  • {{Cite book |chapter=Chapter MDCCCXLIV: An Act to provide for laying out an establishing towns and outlots within several tracts of land heretofore reserved for public uses, situated respectively at {{Sic|nolink=y|Presqu'|-Isle}}, on Lake Erie, at the mouth of French creek, at the mouth of the Conewango creek, and at Fort le Bœuf |title=Laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania |volume=3 |year=1810 |publisher=John Bioren |location=Philadelphia |pages=233−240 |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=AP9BAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA233 |access-date=August 28, 2010}}
  • {{cite web|title=Erie County Elected Officials |publisher=Government of Erie County |url=http://www.eriecountygov.org/dept/voter/pdf/electedofficials.pdf |access-date=February 2, 2011 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110721225346/http://www.eriecountygov.org/dept/voter/pdf/electedofficials.pdf |archive-date=July 21, 2011 }}
  • {{Cite book |title=History of Erie County, Pennsylvania |year=1884 |publisher=Warner, Beers and Company |location=[[Chicago]] |url=https://archive.org/details/cu31924096783489}}
  • {{Cite book |last=Nelson |first=S.B. |title=Nelson's Biographical Dictionary and Historical Reference Book of Erie County, Pennsylvania |year=1896 |publisher=S.B. Nelson |location=Erie, Pennsylvania |url=https://archive.org/details/nelsonsbiog00whit}}
  • {{Cite book |editor-last=Trostle |editor-first=Sharon |title=The Pennsylvania Manual |year=2009 |publisher=[[Pennsylvania Department of General Services]] |location=[[Harrisburg, Pennsylvania]] |volume=119 |isbn=978-0-8182-0334-3|title-link=The Pennsylvania Manual }}

==External links==

{{Sister project links|voy=Erie}}

{{AmCyc Poster|Erie (city)|Erie, Pennsylvania}}

* [http://www.erie.pa.us/ City of Erie] – Official Site

* [http://www.eriepa.com/ Erie Regional Chamber and Growth Partnership]

* [http://www.visiteriepa.com/ Erie Area Convention and Visitors Bureau]

{{Geographic location

| Centre = Erie

| North = [[File:PA-832.svg|25px]] [[Presque Isle State Park]]

| Northeast = [[File:I-90.svg|20px]] [[Buffalo, New York|Buffalo]], [[Niagara Falls, New York|Niagara Falls]]

| East = [[File:I-86.svg|20px]] [[Jamestown, New York|Jamestown]]

| Southeast = [[File:PA-8.svg|20px]] [[Union City, Pennsylvania|Union City]]

| South = [[File:I-79.svg|20px]] [[Millcreek Township, Erie County, Pennsylvania|Millcreek]], [[Edinboro, Pennsylvania|Edinboro]], [[Pittsburgh]]

| Southwest = [[File:I-90.svg|20px]] [[Cleveland]]

| West = [[File:PA-5.svg|20px]] [[Erie International Airport]]

| Northwest = [[Lake Erie]]



| title = Articles Relating to Erie, Pennsylvania

| list =

{{Erie, PA}}

{{Erie County, Pennsylvania}}

{{County Seats of Pennsylvania}}


{{Northeast US}}


{{Authority control}}

[[Category:Erie, Pennsylvania| ]]

[[Category:Cities in Erie County, Pennsylvania]]

[[Category:Cities in Pennsylvania]]

[[Category:County seats in Pennsylvania]]

[[Category:Inland port cities and towns of Pennsylvania]]

[[Category:Populated places established in 1795]]

[[Category:Populated places on Lake Erie in the United States]]

[[Category:Old Believer communities in the United States]]

[[Category:Ukrainian communities in the United States]]