Hindutva History and Anthropology February 27, 2020
� Chapter 1: Introduction & Background Introduction The core concept of Hinduism is to let people live a meaningful life. The text inscribed by the Hindu philosophers is very rich and deep. It is being used all over the world. The text written in Ramayan and Maha Bharata is considered to be the oldest philosophical text found. But, even with all these strong attributes, it is wrong to compel people to follow it. There is a huge difference between Hinduism and Hindutva. Hinduism is a classic religion. The religion has its roots deep down to centuries-old period. There are history and anthropology of everything present in the world. To understand the idea properly, one has to go through all the facts and historical issues associated with the respective problem. Hindutva is associated with Hinduism and the political hegemony of the Hindu religion. It is a movement to combine politics and religion. The Indian ideology, as well as the religion, is against it but the organization is doing so to get some political power. Background and Historical Aspects In 1923, VD Savarkar published a book titled Hindutva after which the concept and word of Hindutva took birth. Before this book, there was no concept of Hindutva anywhere. However, the Hindutva written by Savarkar got significant importance and had declared Holy Book of Hindu Sangathan or can say Hindu organization. M.S. Golwalkar headed the ideology of RSS (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh) after the K. B. Hedgewar. He also regarded Savarkar's Hindutva as one of the significant books because to him, this book fulfilled the required text on Hindu nationalism. According to the existing biography of the founder of RSS, the Savakar's Hindutva has proven as inspiring and an exceptional exposition to understand this concept and has marked by incontrovertible logic and clarity. These statements show the importance of Hindutva text because to them, it is one of the priceless contributions to defend the Hindu nationalism. Contrary to this, many of the content of this book had not attracted several Hindu leaders as well as remained away from the comprehension of the majority common Hindus. Also, it has observed that the title of the book had proven as post-script because first, the title was Hinduism and then a separate paper was being pasted written Hindutva. Since the term Hindutva remained unknown to many of the Savarkarites and when the 4th edition of this book had published the title remained Who Is A Hindu? However, in 1963, Maharashtra Provincial Hindusabha had done a publication in which they consider it as part of Savarkar's collection of work entitled Essentials of Hindutva. One of the notable factors about this book is that it was published under the pen name A Maratha that showed the regional identity of the author but the book only focused on Hindu identity and nationalism. In the beginning, Savarkar admitted that the term Hindutva has a clear distinction from this Hindutva theory and Hinduism religion. However, in his book, just after a few pages it has cleared that Hindutva was nothing different but the political Hinduism. According to the definition of Hindu given by Savarkar, Hindu is: "He who looks upon the land that extends from Sindhu to Sindhu, from the Indus to the Seas, as the land of his forefathers—his pitribhu, who inherits the blood of that race whose first discernible source could be traced to the Vedic Saptasindhs [seven holy rivers] and which on its onward march, assimilating much that was incorporated and ennobling much that was assimilated, has come to be known as the Hindu people, who has inherited and claims as his own the culture of that race as expressed chiefly in their common classical language Sanskrit and represented by a common history, a common literature, art and architecture, law and jurisprudence, rites and rituals, ceremonies and sacraments, fairs and festivals…These are the essentials of Hindutva—a common Rashtra [nation] a common Jati [race] and a common Sanskriti [culture, though in later editions it is translated as civilization]." It shows that according to the writer, these were the Hindus with the blood of Aryans who established the Hindu nation. "When the Horse of Victory returned to Ayodhya unchallenged and unchallengeable, the great white Umbrella of Sovereignty was unfurled over that, Imperial throne of Ramchandra the brave, Ramchandra the good, and a loving allegiance to him was sworn, not only by the Princes of the Aryan blood but Hanuman—Sugriva—Bibhishana from the south— that day was the real birth-day of our Hindu people.” However, the content written in Hindutva was chaotic, confused, contradictory, dull, repetitive, and incoherent when compared with the other writing and works of the Savarkar. Also, a major part of the book had repetitive and chaotic discussions over the origin of classification and arrangement such as folk literature, Hindusthan, evils present in Buddhism as well as the transformation of Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains as Hindus. In 2002, the Home Minister named L. K. Advani had declared that "Hindutva propounded by Savarkar was an all-encompassing ideology with its roots in the country's heritage". Also, on February 26, 2003, a portrait of Savarkar was unveiled at Parliament that shows the glorification of the father of Hindutva. However, Savarkar also came to the Central Hall of Parliament to share the distinction accorded to Gandhi as well as all other leaders struggling for freedom. When Hindu nationalist organization termed as Sangh Parivar in India came to power at the national level in 1998. The first thing they did was to establish a National Curriculum Framework (NCF) to change textbook content and curriculum. The 2000 NCF curriculum debate reflected the intense issues in the competing visions of national identity that had dominated India's public and political discourse over the previous 30 years. In a significant departure from earlier curriculum frameworks of 1972 and 1986, it was stressed democratic values. Along with that social justice, and national integration through appreciation of the commonalities of different subcultures, the principal focus of the NCF was "value education and education methodology." The chief end of history, as of education as a whole was influenced the most and presented as the development of a "national spirit" and "national consciousness" through generating pride in the younger generation regarding India's past and partition. It was the method with the help of which most nation's educate their youth and move them towards nationalism and patriotism. The influence was shown the unique Indian "religio-philosophical ethos, which was presented as primarily Hindu." These actions were vociferously challenged by academics and progressive, secular, liberal, or left groups. It was done to draw a new wave of nationalism in the students and youth of the country and the succeeded in it but got only extremism in return. Hindutva as a Political Religion Hindutva is a campaign to convert the religion of moksa into the religion of power and political hold. It is said by a re-known philosopher that "religion is an opium of masses." when there are lesser people educated in a country, media and political systems have to educate them. But in those nations, it is very easy to mock people on the name of religion because religion is the backbone of these nations. So, this campaign was emerged and prolonged to get some power benefits, out of religion. Orientalism, Modernity and Hindutva fascism in India: It is the era of modernity and development but India is moving towards religious extremism and they want to convert the religion into religious politics to get the power. It is the game of power and prestige. It has nothing to with religious sentiments and feelings. Hindustan, Hinduism, and Hindutva Hinduism, like all the other religions, portrays and demonstrate peace and harmony. It is the religion of peace, submission, and love. The old Hindu gurus and followers were peacemaking and peace-loving people. They were the people who're life was dependent on sociological sharing. They were the people living in the Asian sub-continent and if one would search for the history of the region. One would come to know that all the races from all the regions of the world have tried to conquer the area and they even did. But Hindu Arians were the people who were anti fight and anti-war. So, they let them take the throne. That's why one can see that all the races have come to the sub-continent and tried to ruin it. This is the basic ideology of Hinduism. But, If one would talk about the ideology of Hindutva, it is different than the ideology of Hinduism. Hindutva is a Hindu radical ideology which demonstrates the nationalistic concept of the masses. Nationalism, itself is a concept that is based on the ideology of division. The people who remain, nationalists, are the people who think that only their ideology is right else one is wrong, so is one's ideology. Adolf Hitler used to say that it is better to be a nationalist than to be a patriot. Patriotism is the feeling of emotional attachment with one's country. It cannot be demonstrated as an ideology. But it can be demonstrated as an emotion-based on ideology and human nature but it cannot be recognized as an ideology itself. The relationship between patriotism and nationalism is very deep and mature. But, even then patriotism is cannot be assigned as an ideology. Whereas nationalism is an ideology the same as racism is an ideology. An ideology is said to an ideology without the discrimination of wrong and right. Now, if one would make a deep analysis of the ideology of nationalism, one may find it a cruel and discriminatory ideology. The ideology says that one nation is right and the people of that nation will ruin the other people in case if they would feel any threat from them. Hindutva is an organization that has faith in the sociological and ideological hegemony in the region. Even in the case of the implementation of this ideology, it is very difficult to cut short the differences and contradictions within the religion. Even in the case of implementation of Hindutva and acquisition of Akhand Bharat, even then some sections of the society would remain unhappy because of the religious and ideological differences. Hinduism is an old religion. And as old a religion is, there comes many differences and contradictions in the followers of that religion. This may happen because of different interpretations of the same religious texts. Different groups rise every day and show their different interpretations. So, according to this organization, the followers simply wants the hegemony of religion. As per the rule of human rights follows by the United Nations Organization and Security Council, it is unethical and illegal to force a person to follow any ideology or any religion. There should be freedom of expression and freedom of choice, so one can choose the thing, one finds right. There should be no pressure and no force in doing so. Neo-Hindutva, it evolving the forms, space, and expression of the Hindu Nationalism Hinduism and India have always been interesting phenomena for people around the globe. People got fascinated by the culture, norms, values, and traditions of India. Even the questionable tradition of the Hindu Samaj is portrayed as Incredible traditions around the world. A program is being shown on the international channel name as, "National Geographic," they have developed a separate segment in the prime time and named it as "Incredible India". As the Indian culture got to know all around the world, Hindu nationalism has risen too. In the last century, the nationalism of Hindu followers has come on the peak. It is very difficult to escape from it now. It is because after the emergence of Hindutva it has become a dangerous ideology now. They have developed a radical and political ideology and they have associated it with the religion. Ideological and social psychology behind Hindutva There are psychological and ideological concepts behind every aspect which is being practiced in the world. It is impossible to negate the importance and the role of psychology and ideology behind a practical approach. The Hindu has led the life of misery and submission, under many lords for centuries. The Darvadians, in the initial days, were ruled by the Aryans. After that many nations of the world tried to capture the region and extract as many economic benefits as they can. After then, they were ruled by Muslims and the British Lord. The centuries of submission have taught them to be independent and to rule. Political empowerment was never been a concept of Hinduism. Hinduism demonstrates the ideology of Moksha (freedom from the circle of life) whereas the Hindutva wants the political empowerment and governmental representation Hindutva is an organization that has faith in the sociological and ideological hegemony in the region. But, now this organization is using the religion for the political benefits. They are trying to grasp as much power as they can. It is a distinctive aspect and an attribute of India, that they were living a secular life but now the political structure of India has taken over by Hindutva. Hindu religion and Hindu ideology are very rich and worth reading ideology. It has developed an urge in human beings to live a meaningful life. Hindutva is different from the core concept of Hinduism. It is an organization that works to create idealistic hegemony in the region. It is not anything Holy neither it is behind the betterment and growth of the followers. It is the usage of the religion to make it a political ideology. So, the followers are using religion to make them politically empowered. It is the game of power and politics, it has nothing to do with any religious ethics and harmony. There is no compulsion in any religion, the followers, always follow a religion with utter liberty and freedom of choice. They encapsulate the people within a single ideology. Hinduism demonstrates the ideology of Moksha (freedom from the circle of life) whereas the Hindutva wants the political empowerment and governmental representation Hindutva is an organization that has faith in the sociological and ideological hegemony in the region. Even in the case of the implementation of this ideology, it is very difficult to cut short the differences and contradictions within the religion. Even in the case of implementation of Hindutva and acquisition of Akhand Bharat, even then some sections of the society would remain unhappy because of the religious and ideological differences. Hinduism is an old religion. And as old a religion is, there comes many differences and contradictions in the followers of that religion. This may happen because of different interpretations of the same religious texts. Different groups rise every day and show their different interpretations. So, according to this organization, the followers simply want the hegemony of religion.
� Chapter 2: Hindutva Policies and Strategies Since the birth of Hindutva ideology, the centre of its attention has always been the establishment of Hindus hegemony. All of its policies and strategies are diverted to protect the Hinduism identity and impose its greatness and culture on the rest of the World. The ideology of Hindutva originated from the fear of Muslims dominance in the subcontinent and a threat to the religion of Hindus in India. Therefore, the founding fathers and their successors have always attempted to promote Hindu culture and religion, and establish the dominance of Hindus supremacy over the rest of the religions. All the policies and strategies of Hindutva are designed to accomplish the very basic goal of Hindu dominance. It should be noted that the policies are not only religion centred but they also have a territorial aspect that implies the expansion of India and ultimately creating the united India, that will comprise South Asia and some areas of central Asia. Policies of Hindutva The major policies of Hindutva are aligning the founding objectives of the ideology. The major policies of Hindutva are as following. Representation of Hindu Nationalism This is the major policy of Hindutva to represent the Hindu nationalism through politics and state policies. The Hindutva is determined to work for the exclusive interest of Hindus and their culture. This policy has nourished the political mindset of Hindus. Hindutva make efforts to ensure the superiority of Hindu culture and provide Hindus with exclusive rights and privileges. Muslims and Christian Proselytization From the start of Hindutva, the founders of this ideology have attempted several times to convert Muslims and Christians into Hindus. The proselytization of other religions is an integral policy as it is seen to accomplish the goal of complete dominance of Hindu culture and religion. Several proselytization movements were initiated in the past century to accomplish the doctrine of Hindutva. Kashmir Inseparable from India The Kashmir issue became a part of the policy after the independence as Pakistan attempted to claim it for themselves. The Hindutva has made long-term policies to make the whole territory of Jammu and Kashmir as integral and indivisible part of the India. This policy further includes the religious conversion of Muslim majority populations in those areas to Hindu majority populations. Also, Hindutva wants to impose the Hindu culture and traditions in these territories and have complete political and social control in Jammu and Kashmir. Implement Hindutva Model of Social Justice The policy is to merge the ideology and values of Hindutva with social justice. According to this policy, the concept of social justice in the community will be redefined according to the Hindu interests and reservations. Hindus will be considered as the elite and superior social class. The social equality will be based only on Hindu religion and its followers. The people of other religions will be excluded from the social justice and will be placed at the lowest priorities. Revising History according Hindutva Version The policy is to create a new and revised version of the history that supports and provide evidence for the claims of Hindutva and its ideology. For this purpose, the text books will be revised accordingly to teach and educate the people of India, the history Hindutva wants.The Hindutva version will glorify Hindu culture and religion and at the same time will degrade other cultures and religions. Thus, the policy is to prepare a mindset that will believe in the roots of Hindutva and will reject the narratives of other cultures and religions. Taking Control of Ayodhya and Other DisputedReligious Sites The Hindutva has aimed to take control and proclaim all the religious sites that are disputed. Ayodhya, Babri Mosque and hundreds of other religious sites are disputed for ownership between Muslims and Hindus. The main policy here is to discard the claims of other religions over these sites and proclaim them as only Hindu religious sites. This policy will result in declaring the cultural and social domination of Hindus over the other religions and will align with the policy of Hindutva social justice. Strategies of Hindutva Hindutva have designed several strategies to achieve its core objectives and implement its policies. The major strategies of Hindutva are discussed below. Cultural Nationalism Through RSS The proponents of Hindutva ideology created an organization, RSS, whose sole purpose was to promote and implement cultural nationalism of Hindutva. RSS works for implementation of traditions, customs, worshipping and values of Hindus through different strategic programs. The major objective of RSS is to continuously work towards the bigger goal of “Akhand Bharat” that will be a symbol of Hindu nationalism and dominance. RSS has defined Hinduism as a cultural concept and way of living a life which is superior to other cultures. RSS is a wide spread organization with hundreds and thousands of members that are trained to propagate and reflect the Hindutva in all parts of India. RSS also plans and executes proselytization movements through mobilizing pro-Hindutva people and members of RSS. RSS also has duties to proclaim disputed religious sites and suppress any uprising from other cultures. Using the Power of State Institutions and Law Utilizing the power of state and law to achieve the objectives of Hindutva ideology has been the core strategy from the start. However, this strategy became more effective after the independence as it granted a complete control of the country to Hindu leaders who believe in Hindutva. Over the years, the leaders representing Hindutva has used the power of state to enforce their ideology and retaliate against those who disagree with it. The massacre of Gujrat and the destruction of Babri Mosque are examples of state backed actions. Hindutva has used the state to forcefully control Kashmir and implement is ideology there. Furthermore, over the years, Hindutva leaders have proposed laws that specifically protects the Hindus while discriminates the other religions. The Uniform Civil Code is one such example that is created to apply the same laws on all people of all religions. The law violates several religious aspects of Muslims as they have different religious laws for marriage and related matters. The BJP led government (comprised of majority Hindutva leaders) recently introduced a citizenship act that is discriminating against the minorities and will leave them with no citizenship. The Hindutva has utilized state institutions like supreme court, army and police to implement and support its goals and objectives through various means. � Chapter 3: Hindutva Resurgence in India Background The Hindutva ideology suffered number of ups and downs in India. In the early 1900, the ideology began to rise and was getting popularity among masses and political leaders. Immediately after the independence in 1947, there was bloodshed in every part of India. The situation was very much welcomed by the proponents of Hindutva. Hindus were the only majority in India and thus violence and conflicts began at a massive scale between Muslims and Hindus. Hindutva took advantage of this and blamed it on Muslims while propagating the Hindu nationalism. However, this up surge didn't last much time and saw a downfall after the Government of Jawaharlal Nehru declared India as a secular democratic country. Jawaharlal Nehru wanted to implement Hindu traditions but he was against the discrimination against the other religions and their cultures. The first government completely banned Hindutva and its organization RSS. More than 200,000 members of RSS were put behind bars to put a stop to their Hindutva movement.This was the time Hindutva was heavily marginalized. Later on, the first prime minister was assassinated and opened a door of new era for RSS. The Hindutva leaders regained control and forced the courts and other institutions to release all the arrested members of RSS.However, the release didn't helped RSS to dominate the political structure and enforce Hindutva openly. Hindu Mahasabha further added to the marginalization of Hindutva through their extremist position. The undermined political position of Hindutva and RSS continued for the next two decades. The Hindu nationalist were side-lined and their mobility was made limited. The Hindutva leaders didn't have a face to face conflict with the communist governments of Congress Party except for a few instances. The Hindutva leaders assumed that with the passage of time and increasing education, the people will realize the importance of Hindu nationalism and will move away from the communism. During the two decades after independence of India, Hindutva was not in the headlines, nor it was actively mobilized. However, the Hindutva-based organization RSS expanded its roots deep in the people of India. The members of RSS increased exponentially in these times. However, the political position of Hindutva was almost non-existent. Jan Sangh, a Hindutva-based political party emerged in these decades their political success and popularity was very limited and didn't appealed quite good to the Hindu masses of India. The poor performance of this political party couldn't help with mobilizing the masses across India. Their failure was attributed to the poor leadership and organization of the party.Furthermore, the Hindutva slogan and theme it presented to people was ineffective. This was also aided by the leaders of the congress party who kept some part of the Hindutva ideology in their politics and thus prevented the masses to get attracted towards absolute Hindu nationalism. Resurgence of Hindutva In true sense, the resurgence of Hindutva started in the late 1970s when the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared and imposed the Emergency in the country with force. The government imposed a strict censorship on press and arrested many leaders of the opposition parties. The Emergency also suspended several fundamental rights of the people. As a result of Emergency, a huge resistance was born among the masses against the congress government. This was the point where Hindutva began to resurge after decades of living in the shadows. Hindutva ideology got a massive political and social support from the people. Alongside, RSS also grew exponentially in this era of chaos and violence. Congress party along with Indira Gandhi lost election to Hindutva-based party in 1977. The Jan Sangh party, Hindutva based, got popular. The prominent leaders of Hindutva like Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Lal Krishan, Brij Lal Varma and Morarji Desai gained much popularity across India. A coalition government was formed which broke out in 1980 and gave birth to a new Hindutva ideology-based party, Bharatia Janata Party. Bharatia Janata Party (BJP) was based on the organizations that were built by RSS and had grown enormously in the past few years. Although BJP was based on the ideologies of Hindutva from the start but it officially associated itself with Hindutva in 1989 through a resolution. Thus, the political resurgence of Hindutva started through the rising of BJP with the support of RSS. The Emergency which was imposed to suppress the opposition instead resulted in giving birth to a new era of Hindutva. BJP capitalized on the golden opportunity and mobilized the masses in the name of Hindu nationalism. During the late 80s, BJP was able to successfully create a mindset of Hindu nationalism. Furthermore, BJP degraded the concept of secular India and propagated that the secular state is protecting the Muslims and the Hindus are exploited in the secular India. RSS used the Shah Bano case to gather support for a larger community of Hindus for Hindu nationalism. RSS created the impression that the government was appeasing Muslims and the Hindus are treated unfairly. This created an uproar in the masses and the government was pressurized to appease the Hindus. The government granted access to Hindu nationalists to the religious disputed site of Ayodhya. BJP and RSS started mass campaigns for mobilizing the Hindus and gather support for destroying Ayodhya mosque and promised to build a Hindu temple in place of the mosque. The demolition of mosque in 1992 by Hindus made Hindutva an all-time popular ideology in India. Furthermore, this act was not considered as a religious act but was considered as a great service to Hindu nationalism. This event lead to declaring the Hindutva a national cause of India and those who oppose it were considered traitors and anti-nationals. Thus, the main objective of Hindutva was to proclaim Hindu nationalism in India. Since then, the Hindu nationalism has gained popular which is still increasing till today. The Hindutva ideology was the main reason behind the massacre of Gujrat and many other riots. According to Thomas Hansen, “Hindutva in the post-Independence era, has emerged as a political ideology and a populist form of Hindu nationalism.” In short, the Hindutva has changed from a religious concept to a political ideology. Chapter 4: Hindutva and Fascism and Nazism Fascism is type of authoritarian form of government that is known for using dictatorship as a power in all the matters. All the matters are sort out through the use of absolute power and suppressing the resistance through force. The idea got popularity after the first World war in Italy and then subsequently in Germany. On the other hand, Nazism is a special kind of fascism that disobeys the usual democracy and system. Nazism includes a flavour of racism in its ideology which makes its followers believe that they are superior to others. Nazism can be considered as an extreme ideology of nationalism that excludes every other race and religion. The Fascism and Nazism ideologies have been compared several times by several authors with the Hindutva ideology. Although the Hindutva ideology didn't officially proclaim fascism but all of its policies and strategies points that RSS is a fascist organization. And the comparison of Hindutva with fascism is not new, it has existed even at the times of independence. For instance, in 1948, the National Herald published an editorial that reported that “RSS seems to embody Hinduism in a Nazi form”. The editorial also suggested that the Hindutva ideology should be crushed and demolished and if it thrives, it will spread like a cancer in the India and will endanger he secular and democratic status of the country. The comparison of Hindutva with fascism and Nazism was not only made by foreigners but some of the Indian leaders also declared it fascist ideology. A congress leader in 1956 compared Nazis of Germany with the ideology and leadership of Hindutva-based party Jana Sangh. Beside this, in 1950s, a lot of historians and social scientists considered Hindutva as another form of fascism. Another Historian, Marzia Casolari has associated Hindutva ideology with Nazi ideology by stating the German ideology of Nazism is borrowed from Hindutva ideologies. Oxford Concise dictionary has also reported that Hindutva has deep roots of fascism. Prabhat Patnaik, a renowned name in Marxism, economy and politics, has considered Hindutva as a fascist ideology by stating, “Hindutva is almost fascist in the classical sense”. Patnaik has further stated that “Hindutva movement is based on class support, methods and programme”. Patnaik has further regarded Hindutva as a struggle establish Hindu supremacy and Hindu identity only by stating that “an attempt to create a unified homogeneous majority under the concept of the Hindus; a sense of grievance against past injustice; a sense of cultural superiority; an interpretation of history according to this grievance and superiority; a rejection of rational arguments against this interpretation; and an appeal to the majority based on race and masculinity”. Thus, Patnaik has referred it to as a complete fascist ideology. Jeffrelot has regarded Hindutva as a representation of Nazism and fascism but has some differences with these ideologies. According to him, the ideology of Hindutva was created with a vision of ethnic nationalism. Hindutva differs from fascism and Nazism in a way that Hindutva is not associated with a single leader but rather with an ideology. Secondly the state is considered as a primary source in fascism while in Hindutva, the ideology of Hindu nationalism is considered above the state. The importance of state is prioritized in fascism ideologies but in Hindutva, the state is not prioritized against the Hindu nationalism. Another difference between Hindutva and Nazism is that in Nazism the race is also given a primary importance while in Hindutva, the primary focus is on the supremacy of Hindu society and culture. Mark Juergensmever has suggested that India has become a victim of native fascism and fundamentalism in the form of Hindutva. Several writers, historians and social researchers have regarded India as a fascist and fundamentalist state. However, some have disregarded the comparison with fascist ideology. According to Juergensmever, the understanding of Hindutva requires to understand its perspective and context first. The Indians have a background perspective of their issues with the Muslims rule in the past. However, Europeans considers it in a global perspective and similarities with fascism. However, contrary to the common perspective of Hindutva Ideology, social researchers Parita Mukta and Chetan Bhatt has declined to identify Hindutva as a fascist ideology. According to them, Hindutva is not about acquiring power or controlling a state. Hindutva is the ideology of Hindu culture instead of racial and fascist ideology. They have stated that “the RSS’s disavowal of the seizure of state power in preference for long-term cultural labour in civil society”. They have further described Hindutva as a form of revolution that that will establish an absolute Hindu nationalism and culture. Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations Summary Chapter 1 Hinduism itself is a complete and distinctive religion. Hindutva on the other hand is an ideology. Hindutva is the ideology to establish Hindu supremacy and Hindu Culture. Hindutva is associated with Hinduism and the political hegemony of the Hindu religion. It is a movement to combine politics and religion. The Hindutva ideology was born in 1923 after the book of VD Savarkar published by the title Hindutva. From here on the word got famous and became known to people. Hindutva is declared a holy book of Hindus. M.S. Golwalkar founded the RSS which is an organization to protect the Hindutva ideology and impose Hindu nationalism narrative. In the beginning, Savarkar admitted that the term Hindutva has a clear distinction from this Hindutva theory and Hinduism religion. However, in his book, just after a few pages it has cleared that Hindutva was nothing different but the political Hinduism. Hindutva is a campaign to convert the religion of Hinduism into the religion of power and political hold. Hindutva is an organization that has faith in the sociological and ideological hegemony in the region. Even in the case of the implementation of this ideology, it is very difficult to cut short the differences and contradictions within the religion. Hinduism, like all the other religions, portrays and demonstrate peace and harmony. It is the religion of peace, submission, and love. However, Hindutva has transformed it into a fundamental and radical ideology. Chapter 2 In this chapter the primary policies and strategies of Hindutva were discussed. Since the birth of Hindutva ideology, the centre of its attention has always been the establishment of Hindus hegemony. All of its policies and strategies are diverted to protect the Hinduism identity and impose its greatness and culture on the rest of the World. The policies are not only religion centred but they also have a territorial aspect that implies the expansion of India and ultimately creating the “Akhand Bharat”. The major policies of Hindutva include representation the Hindu nationalism through politics and state policies, to work for the exclusive interest of Hindus and their culture, Muslims and Christian proselytization, making Jammu and Kashmir as integral and indivisible part of the India, implement Hindutva model of social justice, revising history according Hindutva version, and taking control of Ayodhya and other disputed religious sites. Hindutva have designed several strategies to achieve its core objectives and implement its policies. The core strategy is the nourishment of cultural nationalism through RSS. RSS works for implementation of traditions, customs, worshipping and values of Hindus through different strategic programs and movements. Another major strategy of Hindutva is utilizing the power of state and law to achieve the objectives of Hindutva ideology. Over the years, the leaders representing Hindutva has used the power of state to enforce their ideology and retaliate against those who disagree with it. The Uniform Civil Code is one such example of Hindutva strategy. Chapter 3 In this chapter, the resurgence of Hindutva in India was discussed. The Hindutva ideology suffered number of ups and downs in India. In the early 1900, the ideology began to rise and was getting popularity among masses and political leaders. Jawahar Lal Nehru banned Hindutva and its organization RSS and arrested most of its members. In true sense, the resurgence of Hindutva started in the late 1970s when the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared and imposed the Emergency. This was the point where Hindutva got a massive political and social support from the people. In 1980, Bharatia Janata Party was established based on the ideology of Hindutva. Although BJP was based on the ideologies of Hindutva from the start but it officially associated itself with Hindutva in 1989 through a resolution. Thus, the political resurgence of Hindutva started through the rising of BJP with the support of RSS. The Hindutva ideology was the main reason behind the massacre of Gujrat and the demolition of Babri Mosque. These acts were associated with nationalism instead of religion and thus Hindutva has changed from a religious concept to a political ideology. Chapter 4 In this chapter, Hindutva and its comparison with fascism and Nazism ideologies was compared. The Fascism and Nazism ideologies have been compared several times by several authors with the Hindutva ideology. Although the Hindutva ideology didn't officially proclaim fascism but all of its policies and strategies points that RSS is a fascist organization. A congress leader in 1956 compared Nazis of Germany with the ideology and leadership of Hindutva-based party Jana Sangh. Prabhat Patnaik also regarded Hindutva as a fascist ideology. Jeffrelot has regarded Hindutva as a representation of Nazism and fascism but has some differences with these ideologies. However, some have also has declined to identify Hindutva as a fascist ideology. Conclusion
Hinduism and Hindutva are two different concepts as Hinduism is classic religion having its deep roots down to the centuries whereas the concept of Hindutva is associated with Hinduism and its political hegemony. It can be said that Hindutva is a movement that had combined both politics and religion. Since the birth of the ideology of Hindutva, the main focus remained on the insurance of Hindus hegemony. However, one of the major reasons behind the emergence of this ideology was the threat to the Hindus that Muslims might achieve dominance and become hegemonic power. To counter this threat, they proposed their Hindutva ideology and all its strategies and policies are for the protection of the identity of Hinduism. This is one of the major reasons that the founding fathers as well as the successors prioritize the promotion of Hindu culture and to ensure the dominance and supremacy of the Hindu culture and religion. Besides, all its strategies and policies have made in accordance to guarantee Hindu dominance. The major policies of Hindutva include the representation of Hindu nationalism, Muslims and Christian proselytization, Kashmir inseparable from India, implement the Hindutva model of social justice, revising history according to Hindutva version, and taking control of Ayodhya and other disputed religious sites. However, the strategies of Hindutva include cultural nationalism through RSS and using the power of state institutions and law. Besides, the Hindutva ideology has experienced ups and downs in India due to changing government setups & several riots. After independence in 1947, bloodshed has experienced in every part of India and this situation was in favor of Hindutva proponents because they were in majority at that time. Due to their dominance, the conflicts began massive and at higher and intense scale between Muslims and Hindus because this ideology wanted to get domination over Muslims. The Hindutva followers had done propaganda against the Muslims at that time that higher the level of violence but with the first government of India headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, Hindutva faced downfall because the government banned RSS and promotion of this ideology. Around two decades after independence Hindutva had faced complete downfall and was not present in headlines as well. However, the resurgence period of the Hindutva date back in the 1970s when Indra Gandhi declared the emergency in-country and the reason it was a resurgence of Hindutva because this emergency was imposed by force and because of this forced emergency, extreme resistance had observed against the congress government by the masses. However, the time when Hindutva ideology came back in headlines was because of the BJP (Bharatiya Janata Party) and it was based on the organization established by RSS. RSS used the Shah Bano case negatively as they show the community that the government has appeased Muslims and treated the Hindus unfairly and doing injustices to get the support for a larger community of Hindus for Hindu nationalism. Also, it was the Hindutva ideology behind the massacre of Gujrat riots. Recommendations This article evaluated the Indian ideology of Hindutva. Hindutva has damaged the roots and foundations of the secular and communist India. The India once known for its secularism in the World has lost its secular identity to Hindutva. Hindutva has promoted religious hate and discrimination in the Non-Hindu minorities of India against Hindu nationalism. Hindutva has also promoted violence in the name of Hindu nationalism. Therefore, it is recommended to policy makers and government of India to rethink its policy of Hindutva and formulate new policies that will promote secular India. Furthermore, it is recommended that the violence based on Hindu nationalism should be stopped. Also, it is recommended to separate religion from state as to become a true secular state. Furthermore, it is recommended that all the discriminating laws against minorities should be abolished at earliest to protect the minorities. It is further recommended to academicians and social researchers to study Hindutva along with context and background as without context Hindutva can be easily mixed with other ideologies. Also, it is recommended that further research should be performed on role of personal interests hidden in the ideology of Hindutva. � Bibliography
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