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Republic of India

Bhārat Gaṇarājya
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]
Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana" (Hindi)[2]
"Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"[3][2]
National song
"Vande Mataram" (Sanskrit)
"I Bow to Thee, Mother"[lower-alpha 1][1][2]
Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.
Area controlled by India shown in dark green;
claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
CapitalNew Delhi
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Largest cityMumbai
Lua error: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
National languageNone[8][9][10]
Religion
Demonym(s)Indian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary
constitutional socialist[12]
republic[1]
• President
Ram Nath Kovind
Venkaiah Naidu
{{#statements:P6|from=Q668}}
Dipak Misra
Sumitra Mahajan
LegislatureParliament
Rajya Sabha
Lok Sabha
Independence 
• Dominion
15 August 1947
• Republic
26 January 1950
Area
• Total
3,287,263[5] km2 (1,269,219 sq mi)[lower-alpha 4] (7th)
• Water (%)
9.6
Population
• 2016 estimate
1,324,171,354[13] (2nd)
• 2011 census
1,210,854,977[14][15] (2nd)
• Density
401.1/km2 (1,038.8/sq mi) (31st)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$10.385 trillion[16] (3rd)
• Per capita
$7,783[16] (116th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$2.848 trillion[16] (6th)
• Per capita
$2,134[16] (133rd)
Gini (2013)33.9[17]
medium · 79th
HDI (2015)Increase 0.624[18]
medium · 131st
CurrencyIndian rupee () (INR)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
DST is not observed
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+91
ISO 3166 code[[ISO 3166-2:Script error: No such module "ISO 3166".|Script error: No such module "ISO 3166".]]
Internet TLD.in

India (IAST: Bhārat), also called the Republic of India (IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[19][lower-alpha 5] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;[lower-alpha 6] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, and Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires; the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, and Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture. Much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate; the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947.

In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP[20] and third largest by purchasing power parity.[16] Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

Etymology[edit | edit source]

The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu.[21] The latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.[22] The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi (Ἰνδοί), which translates as "The people of the Indus".[23]

The geographical term Bharat (Bhārat, pronounced [ˈbʱaːɾət̪] (About this soundlisten)), which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country,[24] is used by many Indian languages in its variations. It is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.[19][25]

Hindustan ([ɦɪnd̪ʊˈst̪aːn] (About this soundlisten)) is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century BCE. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety.[19][25][26] Currently, the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.[26]

History[edit | edit source]

Ancient India[edit | edit source]

The earliest authenticated human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago.[27] Nearly contemporaneous Mesolithic rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh.[28] Around 7000 BCE, one of the first known Neolithic settlements appeared on the subcontinent in Mehrgarh and other sites in the subcontinent.[29] These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation,[30] the first urban culture in South Asia;[31] it flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.[32] Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilisation engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.[31]

During the period 2000–500 BCE, in terms of culture, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age.[33] The Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism,[34] were composed during this period,[35] and historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.[33] Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west.[34] The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests, warriors, and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period.[36] On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation.[33] In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period,[37] as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.[37]

Damaged brown painting of a reclining man and woman.
Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, 6th century

In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas.[38][39] The emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira.[40] Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle class; chronicling the life of the Buddha was central to the beginnings of recorded history in India.[41][42][43] In an age of increasing urban wealth, both religions held up renunciation as an ideal,[44] and both established long-lasting monastic traditions. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire.[45] The empire was once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent excepting the far south, but its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas.[46][47] The Mauryan kings are known as much for their empire-building and determined management of public life as for Ashoka's renunciation of militarism and far-flung advocacy of the Buddhist dhamma.[48][49]

The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia.[50][51] In North India, Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family, leading to increased subordination of women.[52][45] By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire had created in the greater Ganges Plain a complex system of administration and taxation that became a model for later Indian kingdoms.[53][54] Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism based on devotion rather than the management of ritual began to assert itself.[55] The renewal was reflected in a flowering of sculpture and architecture, which found patrons among an urban elite.[54] Classical Sanskrit literature flowered as well, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made significant advances.[54]

Medieval India[edit | edit source]

The granite tower of Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur was completed in 1010 CE by Raja Raja Chola I.

The Indian early medieval age, 600 CE to 1200 CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity.[56] When Harsha of Kannauj, who ruled much of the Indo-Gangetic Plain from 606 to 647 CE, attempted to expand southwards, he was defeated by the Chalukya ruler of the Deccan.[57] When his successor attempted to expand eastwards, he was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal.[57] When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards, they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south.[57] No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his core region.[56] During this time, pastoral peoples whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agricultural economy were accommodated within caste society, as were new non-traditional ruling classes.[58] The caste system consequently began to show regional differences.[58]

In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language.[59] They were imitated all over India and led to both the resurgence of Hinduism and the development of all modern languages of the subcontinent.[59] Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they patronised drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities, which became economic hubs as well.[60] Temple towns of various sizes began to appear everywhere as India underwent another urbanisation.[60] By the 8th and 9th centuries, the effects were felt in South-East Asia, as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to lands that became part of modern-day Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, and Java.[61] Indian merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission; South-East Asians took the initiative as well, with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages.[61]

After the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans, using swift-horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly overran South Asia's north-western plains, leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206.[62] The sultanate was to control much of North India and to make many forays into South India. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs.[63][64] By repeatedly repulsing Mongol raiders in the 13th century, the sultanate saved India from the devastation visited on West and Central Asia, setting the scene for centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north.[65][66] The sultanate's raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India paved the way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire.[67] Embracing a strong Shaivite tradition and building upon the military technology of the sultanate, the empire came to control much of peninsular India,[68] and was to influence South Indian society for long afterwards.[67]

Early modern India[edit | edit source]

Writing the will and testament of the Mughal king in Persian, 1590–1595

In the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers,[69] fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors.[70] The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices[71][72] and diverse and inclusive ruling elites,[73] leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.[74] Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status.[73] The Mughal state's economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture[75] and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency,[76] caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets.[74] The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion,[74] resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture.[77] Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience.[78] Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India.[78] As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs.[79]

By the early 18th century, with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India Company, had established coastal outposts.[80][81] The East India Company's control of the seas, greater resources, and more advanced military training and technology led it to increasingly flex its military muscle and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite; these factors were crucial in allowing the company to gain control over the Bengal region by 1765 and sideline the other European companies.[82][80][83][84] Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s.[85] India was then no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the British Empire with raw materials, and many historians consider this to be the onset of India's colonial period.[80] By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and effectively having been made an arm of British administration, the company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.[86]

Modern India[edit | edit source]

The British Indian Empire, from the 1909 edition of The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Areas directly governed by the British are shaded pink; the princely states under British suzerainty are in yellow.

Historians consider India's modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. The appointment in 1848 of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe.[87][88][89][90] However, disaffection with the company also grew during this time, and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule.[91][92] Although the rebellion was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and the direct administration of India by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest.[93][94] In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.[95][96][97][98]

Jawaharlal Nehru sharing a joke with Mahatma Gandhi, Mumbai, 6 July 1946
Jawaharlal Nehru (left) became India's first prime minister in 1947. Mahatma Gandhi (right) led the independence movement.

The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks—many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets.[99] There was an increase in the number of large-scale famines,[100] and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by Indian taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for Indians.[101] There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption.[102] The railway network provided critical famine relief,[103] notably reduced the cost of moving goods,[103] and helped the nascent Indian-owned industry.[102]

About 14.5 million people lost their homes as a result of the partition of India in 1947.

After World War I, in which approximately one million Indians served,[104] a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislations, by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-co-operation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol.[105] During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections.[106] The next decade was beset with crises: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress's final push for non-co-operation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the advent of independence in 1947, but tempered by the partition of India into two states: India and Pakistan.[107]

Vital to India's self-image as an independent nation was its constitution, completed in 1950, which put in place a secular and democratic republic.[108] It has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press.[109] Economic liberalisation, which was begun in the 1990s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into one of the world's fastest-growing economies,[110] and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.[109] Yet, India is also shaped by seemingly unyielding poverty, both rural and urban;[109] by religious and caste-related violence;[111] by Maoist-inspired Naxalite insurgencies;[112] and by separatism in Jammu and Kashmir and in Northeast India.[113] It has unresolved territorial disputes with China[114] and with Pakistan.[114] The India–Pakistan nuclear rivalry came to a head in 1998.[115] India's sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world's newer nations; however, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from want for its disadvantaged population remains a goal yet to be achieved.[116]

Geography[edit | edit source]

Map of India. Most of India is yellow (elevation 100–1000 m). Some areas in the south and mid-east are brown (above 1000 m). Major river valleys are green (below 100 m).
A topographic map of India

India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate, and part of the Indo-Australian Plate.[117] India's defining geological processes began 75 million years ago when the Indian plate, then part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a north-eastward drift caused by seafloor spreading to its south-west and, later, south and south-east.[117] Simultaneously, the vast Tethyn oceanic crust, to its northeast, began to subduct under the Eurasian plate.[117] These dual processes, driven by convection in the Earth's mantle, both created the Indian Ocean and caused the Indian continental crust eventually to under-thrust Eurasia and to uplift the Himalayas.[117] Immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast trough that rapidly filled with river-borne sediment[118] and now constitutes the Indo-Gangetic Plain.[119] Cut off from the plain by the ancient Aravalli Range lies the Thar Desert.[120]

The original Indian plate survives as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part of India. It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east.[121] To the south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan Plateau, is flanked on the west and east by coastal ranges known as the Western and Eastern Ghats;[122] the plateau contains the country's oldest rock formations, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6° 44' and 35° 30' north latitude[lower-alpha 7] and 68° 7' and 97° 25' east longitude.[123]

A shining white snow-clad range, framed against a turquoise sky. In the middle ground, a ridge descends from the right to form a saddle in the centre of the photograph, partly in shadow. In the near foreground, a loop of a road is seen.
The Kedar Range of the Greater Himalayas rises behind Kedarnath Temple (Indian state of Uttarakhand), which is one of the twelve jyotirlinga shrines.

India's coastline measures 7,517 kilometres (4,700 mi) in length; of this distance, 5,423 kilometres (3,400 mi) belong to peninsular India and 2,094 kilometres (1,300 mi) to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep island chains.[124] According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coastline consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches; 11% rocky shores, including cliffs; and 46% mudflats or marshy shores.[124]

Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal.[125] Important tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi; the latter's extremely low gradient often leads to severe floods and course changes.[126] Major peninsular rivers, whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding, include the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal;[127] and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into the Arabian Sea.[128] Coastal features include the marshy Rann of Kutch of western India and the alluvial Sundarbans delta of eastern India; the latter is shared with Bangladesh.[129] India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweep, coral atolls off India's south-western coast; and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.[130]

The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the economically and culturally pivotal summer and winter monsoons.[131] The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes.[132][133] The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-laden south-west summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India's rainfall.[131] Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.[134]

Biodiversity[edit | edit source]

The lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is the Indian national flower. Hindus and Buddhists regard it as a sacred symbol of enlightenment.[135]

India lies within the Indomalaya ecozone and contains three biodiversity hotspots.[136] One of 17 megadiverse countries, it hosts 8.6% of all mammalian, 13.7% of all avian, 7.9% of all reptilian, 6% of all amphibian, 12.2% of all piscine, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species.[137][138] About 21.2% of the country's landmass is covered by forests (tree canopy density >10%), of which 12.2% comprises moderately or very dense forests (tree canopy density >40%).[139] Endemism is high among plants, 33%, and among ecoregions such as the shola forests.[140] Habitat ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and North-East India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the moist deciduous sal forest of eastern India; the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.[141] The medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian herbal remedies, is a key Indian tree. The luxuriant pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment.

Many Indian species descend from taxa originating in Gondwana, from which the Indian plate separated more than 105 million years before present.[142] Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards and collision with the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. Epochal volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago forced a mass extinction.[143] Mammals then entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes flanking the rising Himalaya.[141] Thus, while 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians are endemic, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are.[138] Among them are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172 IUCN-designated threatened animal species, or 2.9% of endangered forms.[144] These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, the snow leopard and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which, by ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-laced cattle, nearly became extinct.

The pervasive and ecologically devastating human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered Indian wildlife. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act[145] and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial wilderness; the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980 and amendments added in 1988.[146] India hosts more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries and thirteen biosphere reserves,[147] four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.[148]

Politics and government[edit | edit source]

Politics[edit | edit source]

A parliamentary joint session being held in the Sansad Bhavan.

India is the world's most populous democracy.[149] A parliamentary republic with a multi-party system,[150] it has seven recognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties.[151] The Congress is considered centre-left in Indian political culture,[152] and the BJP right-wing.[153][154][155] For most of the period between 1950—when India first became a republic—and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP,[156] as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalitions at the centre.[157]

In the Republic of India's first three general elections, in 1951, 1957, and 1962, the Jawaharlal Nehru-led Congress won easy victories. On Nehru's death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted just over three years. Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived, lasting just under two years.[158] Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority. The Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao.[159]

The Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official residence of the President of India.

A two-year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several short-lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the NDA became the first non-Congress, coalition government to complete a five-year term.[160] In the 2004 Indian general elections, again no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the 2009 general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India's communist parties.[161] That year, Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term.[162] In the 2014 general election, the BJP became the first political party since 1984 to win a majority and govern without the support of other parties.[163] The Prime Minister of India is Narendra Modi, who was formerly Chief Minister of Gujarat. On 20 July 2017, Ram Nath Kovind was elected India’s 14th President and took the oath of office on 25 July 2017.[164][165][166]

Government[edit | edit source]

India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, in which "majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the Union, or Central, government and the states. The government abides by constitutional checks and balances. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950,[167] states in its preamble that India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.[168] India's form of government, traditionally described as "quasi-federal" with a strong centre and weak states,[169] has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic, and social changes.[170][171]

National symbols[1]
FlagTiranga (Tricolour)
EmblemSarnath Lion Capital
LanguageNone[8][9][10]
AnthemJana Gana Mana
SongVande Mataram
Currency (Indian rupee)
CalendarSaka
AnimalTiger (land)
River dolphin (aquatic)
BirdIndian peafowl
FlowerLotus
FruitMango
TreeBanyan
RiverGanga
GameNot declared[172]

The Union government comprises three branches:[173]

Subdivisions[edit | edit source]

<imagemap> File:Political map of India EN.svg|thumb|380px|A clickable map of the 29 states and 7 union territories of India

rect 950 1825 1448 1856 Indian Ocean rect 1073 1154 1279 1246 Bay of Bengal rect 1375 1620 1578 1686 Andaman Sea rect 50 1316 234 1382 Arabian Sea rect 400 1768 627 1836 Laccadive Sea

poly 591.167 220.195 586.167 218.321 583.516 218.195 574.418 219.737 570.038 220.992 566.501 221.228 564.167 223.402 561.501 224.528 554.696 224.671 553.667 221.195 551.167 219.862 547.163 220.033 544.967 217.371 541.334 216.194 538.459 214.569 535.462 210.927 535.283 217.428 552.783 247.732 591.167 220.195 Siachen Glacier

rect 1204 1323 1531 1815 Andaman and Nicobar Islands rect 318 418 359 465 Chandigarh rect 209 1136 250 1181 Dadra and Nagar Haveli rect 124 1090 163 1140 Daman and Diu rect 611 649 643 699 Delhi rect 131 1435 328 1759 Lakshadweep rect 334 1582 377 1631 Pondicherry rect 708 1622 752 1669 Pondicherry rect 842 1310 886 1357 Pondicherry

rect 1384 553 1418 602 Arunachal Pradesh rect 1310 693 1351 739 Assam rect 949 739 989 786 Bihar rect 755 982 785 1028 Chhattisgarh rect 262 1379 293 1426 Goa rect 224 862 258 910 Gujarat rect 498 545 531 591 Haryana rect 545 425 578 475 Himachal Pradesh rect 512 285 581 331 Jammu and Kashmir rect 918 871 981 921 Jharkhand rect 425 1385 493 1435 Karnataka rect 346 1681 417 1728 Kerala rect 555 890 623 939 Madhya Pradesh rect 438 1089 505 1140 Maharashtra rect 1512 895 1574 942 Manipur rect 1170 842 1232 895 Meghalaya rect 1425 927 1491 974 Mizoram rect 1510 812 1574 863 Nagaland rect 853 1020 923 1068 Odisha rect 421 467 485 519 Punjab rect 328 684 400 736 Rajasthan rect 986 520 1061 570 Sikkim rect 546 1560 620 1608 Tamil Nadu rect 1061 1014 1130 1064 Tripura rect 696 684 770 733 Uttar Pradesh rect 609 489 680 540 Uttarakhand rect 1057 892 1129 940 West Bengal

rect 9 174 282 202 Afghanistan rect 1109 807 1273 828 Bangladesh rect 1134 655 1254 678 Bhutan rect 1356 978 1552 1012 Myanmar rect 1101 452 1360 505 China rect 765 601 905 632 Nepal rect 30 515 315 549 Pakistan rect 680 1765 774 1810 Sri Lanka rect 16 40 231 72 Tajikistan

poly 325.786 1062.258 323.978 1062.35 323.526 1063.913 318.488 1061.984 321.008 1059.755 325.259 1057.69 316.836 1055.401 314.001 1064.13 314.001 1064.13 326.203 1069.576 326.203 1062.344 325.786 1062.258 325.786 1062.258 325.786 1062.258 325.786 1062.258 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

poly 307.006 1051.577 309.351 1050.014 310.321 1046.659 311.329 1044.345 313.31 1047.582 310.804 1050.654 Daman and Diu

poly 671.115 1533.138 670.914 1529.12 666.065 1529.704 664.252 1529.994 664.841 1528.737 663.923 1527.621 664.081 1524.945 662.261 1527.266 660.76 1525.617 657.447 1525.482 658.723 1527.641 658.723 1528.921 658.057 1531.925 654.137 1533.402 658.627 1537.417 661.381 1538.14 663.616 1538.14 664.908 1539.124 665.282 1540.257 666.212 1540.401 667.441 1540.054 670.548 1540.121 667.126 1539.811 667.632 1533.476 669.699 1528.059 Pondicherry

poly 804.218 1260.591 804.895 1253.357 803.994 1253.258 803.994 1251.1 807.62 1254.966 805.822 1260.279 804.215 1266.372 800.526 1264.766 800.504 1261.386 Pondicherry

poly 669.045 1583.373 664.753 1583.125 662.112 1585.983 665.566 1589.822 665.613 1590.093 666.582 1591.134 668.322 1592.116 669.607 1588.367 Pondicherry

poly 431.219 1537.034 431.549 1539.923 430.695 1540.62 425.592 1538.505 Pondicherry

poly 352.971 1355.319 351.339 1350.319 348.58 1345.653 346.044 1341.712 346.597 1341.6 341.445 1327.743 346.62 1327.26 340.396 1325.917 343.95 1322.924 337.439 1320.9 334.645 1314.671 330.737 1305.911 336.733 1309.087 348.419 1312.957 356.597 1315.284 357.626 1315.242 361.577 1315.294 364.153 1317.376 366.202 1323.628 365.295 1330.9 369.193 1336.241 367.284 1337.722 363.961 1338.34 366.853 1342.9 366.3 1343.013 365.926 1349.38 363.886 1351.29 363.86 1354.236 358.985 1352.298 359.193 1354.569 Goa

poly 302.654 1062.325 301.26 1058.051 306.046 1055.836 307.006 1051.577 310.804 1050.654 313.31 1047.582 311.329 1044.345 312.713 1032.052 316.605 1029.045 312.397 1028.325 310.106 1024.058 315.939 1022.608 316.289 1019.726 310.039 1019.942 308.764 1015.075 312.939 1013.942 312.939 1012.711 306.366 1012.943 309.612 1010.278 304.373 1009.276 305.614 1005.253 304.323 1002.993 305.349 1000.42 306.266 995.051 305.713 994.941 307.915 992.249 309.898 989.572 314.039 984.381 315.296 984.258 310.672 986.019 304.373 987.618 303.933 985.389 302.682 984.389 311.938 983.951 311.939 983.05 301.767 981.202 302.693 975.553 302.64 969.989 309.153 968.618 316.572 965.757 305.597 967.281 302.039 967.29 303.937 959.615 301.949 957.007 304.415 950.341 310.673 952.024 314.849 952.985 318.573 953.334 324.074 948.402 310.397 949.286 299.265 947.627 296.024 948.943 301.273 949.058 301.273 950.29 296.657 952.007 291.382 950.058 288.65 955.258 292.875 955.987 291.715 957.064 288.934 961.673 287.634 968.026 288.991 970.673 288.991 974.681 288.049 981.066 285.583 992.266 278.267 1001.956 277.373 1002.056 277.273 1005.289 271.664 1008.501 265.984 1011.037 260.268 1013.283 251.981 1014.346 246.325 1018.051 250.606 1016.052 244.991 1018.336 239.934 1021.952 235.998 1021.994 231.566 1024.343 223.714 1025.393 218.893 1028.634 212.359 1027.055 208.317 1025.327 204.991 1026.669 197.657 1023.003 193.667 1021.928 190.306 1018.571 182.694 1013.653 179.331 1010.041 174.966 1006.749 168.323 1000.674 157.041 986.4 157.948 985.4 152.732 981.34 146.966 974.934 140.317 968.592 134.917 962.674 122.991 947.935 119.249 941.081 116.275 929.284 117.608 927.339 117.985 925.001 122.616 924.392 119.595 926.246 120.991 929.674 124.311 928.33 128.682 928.128 128.276 935.396 126.043 938.627 129.171 936.58 133.984 935.419 137.991 933.98 141.942 936.294 141.944 934.067 141.091 933.753 149.607 933.063 150.06 935.295 151.275 934.953 153.325 933.013 154.756 932.779 155.234 931.258 161.042 931.966 162.602 931.959 162.716 931.402 164.943 930.964 169.283 924.735 166.111 924.694 169.976 922.662 172.66 922.341 174.993 924.702 176.728 923.748 182.61 923.964 183.301 920.005 186.734 917.022 193.609 910.626 196.252 900.95 199.26 897.939 201.635 894.391 195.944 892.064 188.611 897.293 184.678 895.983 181.379 898.297 184.276 898.399 182.989 901.337 177.994 901.353 173.586 905.038 162.717 906.745 162.611 907.641 158.085 908.699 152.011 908.024 144.078 908.38 140.709 908.641 132.474 904.949 127.733 901.035 123.318 897.451 113.643 891.432 104.385 885.298 101.028 880.089 105.276 875.976 105.276 875.076 99.636 878.326 100.985 875.96 101.611 872.403 97.712 875.315 99.011 869.683 93.087 867.964 95.319 865.098 91.371 863.314 91.662 855.358 92.121 854.278 94.671 853.69 98.303 852.419 101.398 849.755 105.49 848.429 106.969 843.756 103.252 846.337 99.252 848.613 90.328 850.355 84.994 857.021 77.248 855.803 77.341 851.353 76.737 849.095 78.334 847.435 78.538 850.242 80.309 844.68 81.246 840.617 83.312 838.013 86.845 837.566 89.179 835.366 91.903 836.638 95.587 836.62 111.862 836.57 113.513 828.953 114.92 821.296 117.253 817.287 119.864 823.893 123.863 818.343 128.262 821.956 130.839 820.343 133.662 822.531 140.578 821.94 143.578 822.032 146.863 823.233 150.004 821.534 154.588 822.284 159.937 822.262 163.189 826.28 172.254 830.954 181.644 829.679 187.345 825.315 191.254 823.625 195.587 822.958 199.579 820.303 203.904 819.625 212.87 819.675 214.92 830.291 226.795 830.907 230.864 825.902 230.977 825.345 235.263 826.005 240.532 822.573 241.537 821.565 241.536 820.669 234.305 820.569 235.197 812.008 233.972 811.548 240.118 808.135 240.517 805.685 240.911 808.954 246.203 811.57 246.303 808.672 253.578 807.954 260.252 809.954 267.861 810.621 272.202 815.57 275.203 811.339 277.528 813.234 284.536 808.673 286.847 814.38 294.271 814.942 295.588 817.958 297.66 820.552 300.636 826.259 304.645 821.684 308.252 824.301 312.204 826.343 312.636 831.261 323.645 833.574 327.253 828.626 327.82 827.011 334.869 826.342 334.303 832.907 338.886 833.706 331.902 840.623 337.544 847.674 338.587 852.64 345.857 849.058 348.26 852.619 343.261 861.96 341.829 866.366 345.937 868.274 349.162 876.161 355.26 876.961 354.845 885.034 362.585 886.626 365.504 888.941 369.196 891.346 369.31 891.901 371.92 891.96 377.994 894.886 377.904 898.017 378.588 901.3 385.944 902.618 385.944 902.618 385.92 910.96 390.587 916.96 393.919 918.294 393.919 922.291 388.896 929.625 385.245 931.292 381.311 931.351 377.253 936.875 370.303 937.01 381.869 947.241 371.913 947.96 368.854 950.21 370.52 954.364 372.496 958.698 373.61 960.948 372.236 962.345 376.924 972.979 372.158 973.958 369.265 977.307 364.307 977.351 367.532 980.358 367.533 984.579 364.974 988.918 368.565 994.344 374.307 992.056 381.841 991.305 390.814 995.659 387.3 996.662 381.923 996.703 377.607 998.984 372.641 1000.018 372.54 1002.912 364.926 1004.388 362.947 1010.053 359.998 1011.045 357.856 1012.567 350.642 1012.684 351.015 1014.597 352.791 1014.889 357.264 1015.292 360.968 1018.767 365.12 1022.625 366.874 1034.24 360.642 1035.354 361.794 1039.083 360.237 1041.423 353.931 1044.011 349.973 1041.911 349.872 1038.014 343.556 1036.629 339.98 1033.682 338.388 1037.646 340.922 1042.962 339.255 1048.629 339.254 1052.295 338.921 1054.366 337.303 1055.953 336.538 1062.911 332.646 1063.014 331.188 1064.845 328.2 1064.83 325.786 1062.258 323.978 1062.35 323.526 1063.913 318.488 1061.984 321.008 1059.755 325.259 1057.69 316.836 1055.401 314.001 1064.13 306.56 1063.47 309.954 1060.174 Gujarat

poly 650.517 344.017 660.541 350.443 658.175 358.017 662.777 364.755 664.445 368.017 666.942 370.62 669.151 376.945 664.851 379.101 661.768 381.935 659.518 385.348 656.122 382.715 656.122 382.715 651.805 389.298 647.791 389.933 646.276 391.887 646.002 393.152 644.622 393.334 641.804 397.302 637.806 394.798 632.931 391.546 632.804 388.068 629.908 387.299 630.804 376.736 629.577 376.745 627.472 379.973 617.464 384.974 614.423 387.12 619.516 392.349 618.754 392.373 615.692 390.935 613.004 388.872 608.793 390.048 611.467 387.085 608.004 374.872 606.448 376.329 604.505 376.623 601.754 379.129 597.504 378.372 593.042 378.335 592.816 372.866 589.692 368.181 584.748 364.618 584.216 359.406 576.754 362.369 567.504 364.882 558.442 362.191 555.254 359.623 549.792 359.83 546.298 355.309 543.005 352.621 537.938 351.433 536.461 346.662 523.748 346.125 513.712 349.583 510.17 355.668 502.798 356.161 501.504 359.379 500.2 360.075 498.807 361.624 495.949 362.186 493.462 359.664 491.05 359.914 490.042 364.59 493.754 366.878 493.254 372.378 491.005 381.121 489.005 382.642 488.055 382.924 488.055 382.924 487.776 384.086 484.267 385.886 481.754 388.622 476.542 388.66 474.217 392.836 468.255 391.429 465.893 391.146 465.909 391.73 460.515 386.668 456.212 386.643 454.445 382.412 451.549 382.42 451.439 382.974 449.78 384.647 447.217 384.639 447.107 384.086 445.885 383.971 444.781 380.745 434.823 382.401 434.116 378.754 434.762 375.304 435.108 370.419 434.551 370.305 435.78 362.745 432.218 363.754 432.114 366.979 429.16 367.15 425.506 364.483 424.5 361.824 423.976 358.553 421.001 356.198 421.179 352.027 417.667 350.031 416.009 349.497 414.467 347.735 411.708 345.693 409.663 341.898 406.195 339.526 407.342 336.572 410.504 334.067 413.472 330.697 412.838 326.364 411.825 322.348 406.463 317.743 404.668 314.53 404.668 312.531 408.34 309.196 411.331 308.15 413.697 306.192 416.709 304.9 420.46 299.897 418.51 298.155 416.648 295.393 408.002 295.032 403.669 295.202 402.835 292.198 404.197 288.401 407.473 285.994 406.502 282.041 405.339 278.019 402.335 277.866 398.964 277.745 396.993 275.022 400.971 272.99 402.03 271.782 404.005 270.198 404.197 268.193 406.21 266.86 406.661 263.198 408.506 259.702 412.002 260.044 416.502 260.031 419.831 257.567 423.294 255.332 425.169 254.567 428.169 255.363 432.669 255.363 436.339 256.558 438.665 259.737 440.339 259.976 443.305 261.249 445.335 261.355 446.669 262.837 450.036 262.861 454.095 263.528 461.169 264.361 468.31 264.218 468.803 266.885 470.366 268.67 471.494 270.003 473.505 270.027 484.863 271.186 490.175 272.532 491.996 271.565 494.55 270.287 498.134 267.819 501.001 265.199 507.03 266.002 512.838 263.86 518.033 261.222 533.647 260.502 535.004 258.689 535.334 256.36 537.834 251.657 546.501 250.527 548.217 251.077 549.825 249.867 553.718 244.124 552.783 247.732 591.167 220.195 590.552 221.321 590.622 226.996 595.333 224.791 600.797 224.32 601.053 225.485 598.391 227.34 598.084 231.789 599.876 239.489 600.292 239.576 602.546 242.32 601.626 246.326 603.126 252.746 603.792 252.819 605.084 256.532 607.333 261.782 608.578 265.789 612.108 268.246 615.907 268.82 616.371 272.496 624.084 272.535 630.297 274.827 633.283 279.802 637.626 282.99 643.045 291.748 640.656 294.107 637.789 296.497 632.081 297.54 630.319 298.769 633.06 302.192 630.834 306.338 632.327 318.282 629.827 322.282 633.023 328.785 634.57 331.931 635.813 334.685 637.327 335.341 639.29 337.321 639.365 339.241 640.809 340.533 Jammu and Kashmir

poly 352.971 1355.319 356.612 1358.593 350.713 1360.927 353.297 1363.267 357.329 1363.311 359.639 1366.007 363.254 1366.791 363.722 1370.897 365.322 1373.647 369.605 1378.367 367.994 1381.127 369.066 1384.584 370.316 1387.406 371.599 1390.26 371.046 1390.372 371.039 1391.601 370.949 1399.994 378.663 1408.642 379.647 1411.997 380.656 1414.313 380.706 1420.26 384.272 1422.252 383.655 1428.978 383.939 1437.586 380.049 1439.386 382.656 1441.24 384.663 1443.969 386.305 1448.24 387.322 1452.645 387.322 1457.322 387.674 1461.645 390.872 1463.897 392.238 1472.303 400.647 1478.171 401.327 1478.359 401.541 1481.588 403.291 1484.17 405.46 1485.839 409.253 1484.377 410.765 1486.639 409.779 1488.588 412.965 1488.664 413.059 1491.369 416.465 1488.409 416.277 1492.381 419.545 1496.088 420.959 1496.078 423.058 1497.18 421.246 1499.628 422.517 1501.372 422.5 1503.179 424.498 1506.62 428.068 1507.308 431.782 1514.579 440.288 1519.866 445.267 1520.559 446.239 1524.881 453.253 1528.11 456.99 1527.845 461.464 1526.648 461.54 1531.829 466.234 1531.913 468.961 1535.824 469.045 1535.403 472.959 1538.309 476.766 1539.096 480.002 1540.86 479.973 1543.356 486.296 1543.385 487.3 1548.584 491.599 1547.304 495.59 1547.303 502.213 1547.303 503.118 1544.368 506.564 1537.939 513.928 1536.626 518.199 1539.916 518.637 1537.352 523.512 1536.634 527.66 1537.572 531.911 1538.218 536.536 1539.583 538.913 1531.552 549.536 1529.25 550.004 1525.72 552.594 1523.634 552.536 1515.968 544.585 1513.968 537.62 1512.21 540.995 1509.311 544.669 1506.974 545.87 1498.019 544.287 1497.915 544.639 1489.019 554.452 1486.992 556.653 1478.019 563.834 1478.371 568.851 1479.892 571.529 1478.371 573.947 1480.892 578.259 1482.634 580.613 1484.318 581.09 1481.241 586.7 1476.095 586.7 1474.903 583.483 1471.818 588.966 1474.003 592.449 1475.621 591.734 1468.38 596.695 1465.094 597.946 1461.096 598.483 1456.88 598.431 1452.126 588.521 1451.344 587.483 1448.132 587.483 1445.132 587.739 1439.153 582.983 1436.382 578.202 1438.096 577.009 1438.094 577.447 1433.167 574.478 1432.125 572.034 1432.594 573.697 1430.601 573.925 1424.448 572.706 1420.722 567.198 1422.595 565.273 1422.595 566.948 1415.67 565.023 1415.67 564.948 1418.095 563.273 1418.095 557.009 1416.683 557.697 1420.096 553.978 1423.126 549.022 1424.669 548.947 1425.595 540.022 1425.669 539.007 1428.315 538.944 1426.669 536.424 1424.881 536.195 1420.669 527.983 1419.883 521.021 1416.419 520.983 1420.383 521.251 1424.095 513.272 1424.094 514.277 1418.42 515.692 1412.133 512.23 1409.377 512.697 1405.67 508.022 1403.845 508.022 1401.421 516.166 1406.691 517.285 1409.138 519.727 1409.384 522.021 1413.345 524.277 1411.927 532.921 1415.148 536.898 1417.509 537.249 1413.648 533.983 1412.346 533.988 1406.883 537.732 1404.133 541.701 1401.92 537.982 1397.89 536.988 1395.17 535.039 1394.399 534.989 1397.878 535.95 1400.634 533.48 1399.142 530.775 1398.091 530.504 1393.723 529.778 1393.916 523.028 1394.864 520.686 1399.841 517.529 1399.842 511.993 1398.897 510.948 1393.668 508.523 1390.916 509.193 1390.843 510.192 1389.837 512.698 1387.842 509.985 1386.385 505.274 1384.087 502.731 1380.386 502.474 1375.125 503.78 1369.908 505.449 1369.592 506.029 1364.115 506.449 1358.918 502.939 1358.129 502.524 1354.167 504.299 1351.711 508.489 1356.195 512.983 1355.673 516.245 1355.616 518.026 1357.003 522.738 1353.88 523.174 1340.936 521.236 1339.38 519.236 1337.63 517.736 1331.88 518.428 1325.88 522.448 1323.092 521.962 1319.673 519.478 1312.804 519.478 1312.804 519.485 1312.804 519.485 1312.805 519.485 1312.8 520.008 1311.381 534.059 1307.374 545.214 1308.586 545.002 1297.831 546.294 1287.668 551.464 1284.162 548.794 1284.086 541.32 1282.167 531.039 1279.336 539.709 1275.781 543.214 1271.837 544.208 1269.331 542.276 1266.83 541.84 1260.662 544.709 1260.586 543.69 1253.357 545.232 1250.876 545.496 1247.37 546.208 1240.857 543.251 1240.386 540.536 1238.284 542.953 1235.829 544.702 1234.827 546.927 1230.614 550.06 1226.621 554.56 1223.887 556.748 1222.124 559.459 1222.085 551.802 1218.872 547.241 1218.503 545.746 1217.114 543.534 1216.835 547.459 1213.835 547.74 1210.636 550.964 1209.335 551.034 1204.911 555.551 1201.865 557.996 1197.874 556.689 1192.624 558.708 1189.586 558.708 1185.659 557.783 1180.411 559.458 1180.335 559.458 1178.911 552.033 1178.835 550.745 1176.357 548.533 1174.911 550.262 1171.351 550.262 1171.351 544.786 1169.413 541.95 1173.573 538.267 1176.683 535.544 1178.249 534.48 1179.372 534.241 1180.612 529.492 1180.913 521.554 1184.038 523.783 1186.017 523.704 1189.328 521.279 1189.401 521.315 1192.936 519.943 1194.122 518.547 1194.672 511.784 1194.822 511.703 1192.904 511.027 1192.904 510.923 1197.412 512.582 1200.848 508.182 1204.304 506.744 1206.575 504.701 1203.652 498.738 1202.858 495.486 1205.608 493.726 1208.115 493.524 1210.82 489.546 1210.614 487.028 1210.152 487.99 1214.62 486.991 1217.615 489.951 1223.907 488.513 1227.346 483.234 1224.159 478.963 1224.111 476.692 1222.544 472.279 1221.648 472.446 1223.066 464.533 1223.079 462.661 1220.975 461.754 1218.868 458.533 1217.411 454.991 1217.811 452.563 1216.309 447.277 1213.655 447.252 1218.051 446.585 1220.197 447.055 1224.551 448.451 1229.322 446.562 1234.248 447.909 1236.96 447.746 1240.619 448.015 1243.434 445.295 1244.065 444.007 1241.544 441.282 1241.403 441.231 1244.579 424.533 1244.66 425.024 1248.129 420.744 1249.367 418.0 1247.38 405.763 1244.424 406.456 1249.335 404.531 1249.403 401.749 1255.123 398.549 1255.673 393.956 1258.08 389.75 1259.675 390.973 1263.318 384.281 1264.334 382.06 1260.114 376.489 1261.372 376.207 1263.89 373.738 1264.119 371.456 1267.587 366.531 1265.663 369.056 1270.567 371.005 1275.129 368.994 1276.623 369.243 1279.373 372.286 1280.416 376.987 1284.137 378.743 1287.372 378.753 1288.277 378.706 1291.084 371.531 1292.166 376.916 1296.479 372.532 1302.916 372.456 1307.084 366.782 1306.157 366.782 1306.829 368.456 1308.841 363.425 1309.054 357.626 1315.242 357.626 1315.242 361.577 1315.294 364.153 1317.376 366.202 1323.628 365.295 1330.9 369.193 1336.241 367.284 1337.722 363.961 1338.34 366.853 1342.9 366.3 1343.013 365.926 1349.38 363.886 1351.29 363.86 1354.236 358.985 1352.298 359.193 1354.569 Karnataka

poly 400.647 1478.171 401.327 1478.359 401.541 1481.588 403.291 1484.17 405.46 1485.839 409.253 1484.377 410.765 1486.639 409.779 1488.588 412.965 1488.664 413.059 1491.369 416.465 1488.409 416.277 1492.381 419.545 1496.088 420.959 1496.078 423.058 1497.18 421.246 1499.628 422.517 1501.372 422.5 1503.179 424.498 1506.62 428.068 1507.308 431.782 1514.579 440.288 1519.866 445.267 1520.559 446.239 1524.881 453.253 1528.11 456.99 1527.845 461.464 1526.648 461.54 1531.829 466.234 1531.913 468.961 1535.824 469.045 1535.403 472.959 1538.309 476.766 1539.096 480.002 1540.86 479.973 1543.356 475.207 1549.252 469.312 1547.346 468.969 1555.918 473.698 1556.277 475.589 1557.631 477.922 1557.974 481.591 1560.914 485.538 1563.573 482.914 1567.298 480.202 1571.248 479.353 1571.298 491.996 1571.039 495.539 1580.912 492.978 1581.021 492.294 1587.239 496.918 1589.302 502.187 1591.961 503.531 1601.569 501.887 1608.022 500.665 1615.438 502.692 1623.853 507.972 1627.91 509.86 1627.567 514.506 1622.89 517.256 1620.616 521.248 1620.293 523.574 1622.287 524.928 1625.741 524.995 1627.711 521.629 1633.01 522.296 1636.572 525.94 1639.298 524.493 1641.866 522.305 1648.24 522.862 1648.35 523.211 1651.912 518.871 1661.287 525.863 1664.578 529.203 1662.42 531.277 1666.981 529.632 1669.938 528.509 1673.963 527.549 1678.244 523.931 1686.977 521.236 1692.318 518.672 1694.909 523.504 1701.08 523.195 1706.912 518.904 1711.645 521.64 1718.571 522.198 1718.682 519.642 1724.32 519.537 1727.91 518.304 1728.013 518.203 1733.577 516.974 1733.682 516.865 1734.238 511.175 1735.828 512.247 1735.627 508.572 1732.385 504.256 1728.942 501.322 1723.89 492.76 1714.14 486.347 1704.671 488.521 1705.094 488.272 1703.173 484.746 1703.085 482.268 1699.912 484.345 1699.882 483.031 1698.634 486.844 1696.641 483.115 1694.434 482.333 1696.345 480.315 1697.168 478.595 1693.584 480.775 1692.34 478.35 1690.164 478.062 1692.168 476.624 1686.772 474.132 1681.123 471.8 1675.887 471.061 1670.137 469.115 1664.783 468.645 1658.315 467.812 1650.675 464.647 1638.023 465.739 1639.451 466.846 1641.389 468.45 1644.551 469.47 1648.641 470.11 1652.807 472.812 1655.14 471.679 1658.505 471.312 1662.51 474.637 1664.473 479.248 1665.449 476.801 1661.656 476.619 1662.627 474.337 1662.58 473.98 1653.809 472.48 1650.142 472.647 1645.975 470.433 1642.819 467.679 1639.804 465.137 1636.272 463.443 1632.309 462.711 1630.091 463.619 1629.612 464.456 1627.168 464.507 1627.785 467.099 1628.806 463.683 1622.992 463.955 1625.783 461.475 1626.252 460.619 1621.469 459.807 1620.645 459.82 1619.313 459.454 1616.848 458.445 1614.979 457.824 1612.645 455.845 1608.5 456.792 1608.5 459.302 1610.604 457.61 1607.675 455.756 1607.751 453.793 1605.304 453.292 1603.134 450.681 1600.28 450.182 1597.666 452.588 1597.988 452.014 1595.998 452.66 1594.429 451.182 1593.45 450.853 1592.976 450.461 1594.615 450.016 1594.67 449.62 1597.295 449.328 1593.644 447.984 1589.644 447.479 1585.81 446.203 1582.133 445.453 1578.512 444.822 1574.81 443.313 1571.319 445.46 1568.837 442.683 1569.009 442.178 1569.425 441.155 1564.482 440.828 1562.321 439.682 1560.675 442.463 1560.623 438.525 1559.609 437.737 1557.517 436.151 1555.48 434.488 1554.647 432.948 1553.318 432.821 1550.98 431.509 1548.503 433.298 1548.452 433.298 1547.67 431.278 1545.517 430.497 1541.637 430.695 1540.62 431.549 1539.923 431.219 1537.034 430.497 1541.637 427.816 1538.678 425.627 1535.507 423.201 1534.271 419.664 1532.349 417.951 1529.515 416.347 1526.837 419.142 1526.775 413.685 1523.339 414.334 1522.095 412.156 1521.976 410.314 1521.469 408.984 1521.14 408.692 1517.145 407.28 1513.183 403.891 1504.028 400.914 1493.737 395.886 1483.392 392.238 1472.303 Kerala

poly 385.944 902.618 385.92 910.96 390.587 916.96 393.919 918.294 393.919 922.291 388.896 929.625 385.245 931.292 381.311 931.351 377.253 936.875 370.303 937.01 381.869 947.241 371.913 947.96 368.854 950.21 370.52 954.364 372.496 958.698 373.61 960.948 372.236 962.345 376.924 972.979 380.842 971.212 390.523 972.908 394.949 968.596 397.972 971.45 401.133 973.345 402.35 982.293 407.933 988.626 417.257 987.273 426.256 988.548 430.5 994.361 435.233 1000.886 440.587 1000.953 444.254 1001.952 448.588 1000.928 454.182 1002.285 463.366 1001.686 472.171 1001.353 475.125 1001.62 476.651 1003.892 483.255 1008.619 483.866 1017.226 483.303 1017.338 492.917 1019.281 498.258 1019.302 498.635 1014.995 504.583 1014.941 508.867 1012.558 506.035 1008.633 511.201 1003.893 514.582 1000.951 515.293 995.669 518.302 991.995 522.937 991.252 526.251 989.205 534.318 990.504 539.526 989.888 544.284 984.825 552.031 985.467 558.89 996.866 556.248 998.664 555.599 996.393 548.618 996.665 553.2 1005.57 554.917 1002.272 557.584 1003.947 560.917 1004.617 564.646 1005.29 576.268 1003.292 583.864 1001.59 590.281 995.602 596.336 996.974 599.537 993.999 600.337 1000.216 604.312 998.007 610.365 1001.028 615.258 1002.946 626.541 1001.562 626.294 994.999 636.467 996.638 636.307 994.662 639.542 994.227 641.324 989.677 645.575 993.042 653.929 995.194 656.581 998.944 664.254 997.941 668.639 997.834 674.662 1000.541 686.919 999.966 691.344 996.246 693.24 997.892 696.22 997.996 699.197 999.267 700.329 1000.613 702.322 1004.185 705.574 1008.372 716.517 1008.61 722.587 998.96 722.587 993.96 721.639 989.343 727.921 985.624 726.567 974.285 730.207 973.234 730.308 966.672 736.874 967.903 736.866 964.008 737.956 956.987 741.873 957.237 741.974 947.006 751.027 946.047 754.591 944.954 758.875 946.238 762.574 942.62 766.923 940.619 767.683 938.38 770.006 937.026 774.277 934.299 774.923 928.861 778.923 924.952 780.236 919.267 783.293 914.665 792.286 913.022 794.001 905.614 790.594 898.966 784.645 894.235 780.914 889.985 777.181 889.702 771.933 888.952 767.68 889.869 764.931 886.22 771.272 875.281 767.001 869.406 773.648 872.238 781.93 871.697 787.603 871.963 796.647 874.571 804.322 875.237 810.968 875.983 812.616 878.07 813.637 874.934 818.267 873.309 819.921 868.288 825.182 866.751 827.234 862.681 825.293 859.297 821.669 856.247 821.67 854.349 823.901 854.246 824.351 849.695 825.874 848.63 826.265 846.963 824.332 840.913 824.229 836.349 822.665 836.255 822.674 831.674 827.307 832.064 826.954 827.44 824.332 826.565 823.955 824.294 819.339 823.023 805.999 824.683 806.228 829.58 801.999 827.58 801.895 824.349 798.665 824.247 798.561 818.683 792.665 818.58 792.562 815.683 783.946 815.508 782.56 807.014 774.01 805.566 771.611 802.967 766.997 803.247 766.952 795.604 761.311 795.344 760.561 801.241 756.666 799.233 756.219 797.339 751.612 800.336 751.227 798.005 748.237 798.622 746.819 809.236 733.887 808.33 727.061 810.903 728.944 803.621 729.337 800.268 731.235 798.009 727.653 798.001 727.277 800.665 726.893 798.668 722.079 799.008 723.555 801.008 723.562 801.904 718.607 801.643 715.332 799.002 714.68 800.918 710.992 800.686 708.994 807.238 707.617 802.29 704.234 805.239 699.994 805.561 702.227 803.573 703.559 802.572 704.257 800.928 703.33 800.563 705.685 797.361 707.561 793.01 704.278 789.979 700.228 783.337 693.562 786.586 687.969 786.023 684.831 791.335 682.188 791.814 679.891 791.696 678.89 798.577 666.663 798.912 664.266 795.954 662.89 798.912 657.266 798.954 656.89 803.251 655.598 796.689 659.899 791.007 654.557 788.007 649.399 786.267 650.545 790.689 650.66 794.682 650.558 797.244 647.608 797.626 644.348 796.524 639.326 797.574 639.223 796.014 637.538 792.025 633.318 793.004 630.988 794.904 630.997 792.676 633.223 787.335 630.326 787.676 629.885 790.906 627.659 789.558 633.555 784.567 631.581 779.292 632.852 773.983 629.839 775.526 626.637 777.668 626.554 781.233 623.99 781.335 619.323 784.9 617.596 780.944 613.658 782.006 612.262 783.527 611.603 785.618 608.323 787.003 611.271 788.619 614.698 790.877 615.999 798.229 620.939 811.29 624.271 813.29 624.032 817.623 623.324 826.239 630.888 825.007 632.962 828.275 632.888 832.244 630.995 834.234 635.901 838.629 633.551 844.234 628.915 846.535 625.647 848.917 620.647 846.345 620.546 848.584 617.254 845.793 615.955 841.627 609.519 837.984 606.543 844.577 602.645 844.243 602.601 835.294 596.31 830.019 597.266 821.294 595.519 815.961 593.311 811.012 599.853 807.311 601.645 799.678 606.543 796.575 605.202 792.011 601.927 783.958 602.846 779.545 606.876 779.575 609.26 772.959 617.927 772.959 621.594 770.606 625.667 770.291 624.646 763.343 625.544 763.243 627.871 759.581 630.65 752.349 635.536 744.237 635.981 739.35 640.543 734.912 640.934 726.954 637.261 719.275 636.277 712.289 630.214 708.357 621.981 705.008 621.879 706.24 612.579 706.231 608.246 704.297 602.645 703.17 597.335 704.545 595.511 707.626 593.674 713.074 576.183 719.561 570.621 721.009 566.885 724.78 557.345 728.225 545.247 734.628 541.143 739.503 534.393 741.276 524.768 751.651 520.258 755.64 513.841 757.223 509.305 764.213 511.379 770.639 513.755 777.637 521.131 785.261 533.755 786.637 537.255 786.637 540.755 785.211 546.17 787.048 552.68 781.213 555.208 787.21 555.18 799.062 549.829 800.061 549.793 796.828 541.102 800.723 528.832 800.718 528.731 806.165 531.158 809.237 525.32 813.725 531.756 819.138 538.256 824.638 535.268 832.648 526.306 829.741 530.167 847.724 524.682 853.561 521.68 849.714 515.831 848.563 515.643 844.177 515.168 845.055 510.831 845.214 510.68 848.089 499.769 846.139 488.831 844.713 486.146 853.025 479.333 856.722 480.68 862.561 477.17 864.563 467.342 864.224 466.293 870.223 457.331 865.062 457.731 856.115 463.856 857.07 472.258 855.652 476.19 853.044 473.252 851.148 472.52 839.828 470.197 838.457 473.156 832.218 477.669 833.555 478.577 825.784 473.839 825.058 473.68 816.218 465.513 818.344 460.332 820.565 460.181 818.217 447.757 817.139 442.749 814.643 446.184 811.568 449.182 805.565 449.182 798.216 440.244 798.987 437.878 805.648 430.757 807.634 424.861 801.201 431.178 818.058 426.753 815.096 424.179 812.706 422.657 820.029 418.345 823.102 418.334 829.052 423.72 831.656 422.268 837.637 418.798 842.052 427.682 842.2 428.745 849.527 430.282 855.649 426.768 861.113 426.754 868.126 421.375 881.248 407.341 886.213 406.294 893.026 413.741 900.112 401.252 906.064 396.456 905.289 396.015 906.417 388.516 900.448 Madhya Pradesh

poly 306.56 1063.47 309.954 1060.174 314.001 1064.13 326.203 1069.576 326.203 1062.344 325.786 1062.258 325.786 1062.258 325.786 1062.258 325.786 1062.258 328.2 1064.83 331.188 1064.845 332.646 1063.014 336.538 1062.911 337.303 1055.953 338.921 1054.366 339.254 1052.295 339.255 1048.629 340.922 1042.962 338.388 1037.646 339.98 1033.682 343.556 1036.629 349.872 1038.014 349.973 1041.911 353.931 1044.011 360.237 1041.423 361.794 1039.083 360.642 1035.354 366.874 1034.24 365.12 1022.625 360.968 1018.767 357.264 1015.292 352.791 1014.889 351.015 1014.597 350.642 1012.684 357.856 1012.567 359.998 1011.045 362.947 1010.053 364.926 1004.388 372.54 1002.912 372.641 1000.018 377.607 998.984 381.923 996.703 387.3 996.662 390.814 995.659 381.841 991.305 374.307 992.056 368.565 994.344 364.974 988.918 367.533 984.579 367.532 980.358 364.307 977.351 369.265 977.307 372.158 973.958 376.924 972.979 376.924 972.979 380.842 971.212 390.523 972.908 394.949 968.596 397.972 971.45 401.133 973.345 402.35 982.293 407.933 988.626 417.257 987.273 426.256 988.548 430.5 994.361 435.233 1000.886 440.587 1000.953 444.254 1001.952 448.588 1000.928 454.182 1002.285 463.366 1001.686 472.171 1001.353 475.125 1001.62 476.651 1003.892 483.255 1008.619 483.866 1017.226 483.303 1017.338 492.917 1019.281 498.258 1019.302 498.635 1014.995 504.583 1014.941 508.867 1012.558 506.035 1008.633 511.201 1003.893 514.582 1000.951 515.293 995.669 518.302 991.995 522.937 991.252 526.251 989.205 534.318 990.504 539.526 989.888 544.284 984.825 552.031 985.467 558.89 996.866 556.248 998.664 555.599 996.393 548.618 996.665 553.2 1005.57 554.917 1002.272 557.584 1003.947 560.917 1004.617 564.646 1005.29 576.268 1003.292 583.864 1001.59 590.281 995.602 596.336 996.974 599.537 993.999 600.337 1000.216 604.312 998.007 610.365 1001.028 615.258 1002.946 626.541 1001.562 626.294 994.999 636.467 996.638 636.307 994.662 639.542 994.227 641.324 989.677 645.575 993.042 653.929 995.194 656.581 998.944 664.254 997.941 668.639 997.834 674.662 1000.541 686.919 999.966 691.344 996.246 693.24 997.892 696.22 997.996 699.197 999.267 700.329 1000.613 702.322 1004.185 705.574 1008.372 713.922 1010.945 713.922 1010.945 717.596 1013.612 716.254 1018.025 711.942 1019.623 708.303 1021.894 705.304 1019.998 706.252 1024.28 706.327 1029.299 712.179 1034.33 709.636 1051.893 715.202 1050.664 714.599 1059.215 713.177 1066.045 706.3 1068.0 704.226 1071.632 704.299 1076.236 706.901 1074.978 710.577 1077.01 711.586 1081.28 711.0 1085.934 706.303 1086.663 707.503 1091.526 705.987 1095.92 712.925 1093.588 717.195 1099.005 717.934 1103.61 721.551 1104.997 721.967 1107.56 729.59 1109.529 728.3 1115.884 729.964 1116.602 727.867 1119.552 726.867 1120.886 723.856 1122.884 717.249 1122.277 711.899 1117.595 709.916 1119.684 707.256 1121.851 701.965 1124.995 701.866 1125.891 700.248 1129.614 699.914 1131.967 698.242 1132.854 698.925 1141.883 701.922 1144.283 700.582 1147.876 695.307 1152.561 697.577 1153.953 696.203 1155.605 692.929 1155.633 683.373 1152.396 681.545 1147.57 680.354 1141.216 679.282 1137.949 676.606 1136.624 678.502 1130.527 680.514 1120.626 681.605 1115.633 679.91 1111.349 671.271 1105.625 667.378 1104.957 661.663 1104.344 658.986 1107.573 656.914 1105.675 656.546 1108.883 651.887 1105.675 649.658 1105.573 649.574 1103.657 644.771 1103.22 643.49 1101.004 642.053 1101.005 641.879 1105.564 642.234 1109.554 635.055 1106.671 634.892 1107.578 630.266 1107.026 625.987 1107.567 626.587 1102.954 628.894 1099.671 621.654 1099.901 621.552 1092.004 616.268 1091.953 611.677 1090.851 602.988 1091.567 594.595 1085.091 592.303 1087.033 594.869 1094.861 591.912 1097.623 593.295 1099.271 592.855 1101.541 592.947 1105.937 591.322 1110.294 585.941 1112.943 581.326 1113.326 584.208 1116.027 586.24 1119.535 585.213 1120.554 578.137 1122.554 575.458 1115.694 571.99 1115.997 568.937 1122.615 568.611 1127.288 564.673 1129.708 565.611 1133.018 566.34 1135.277 569.39 1139.521 571.889 1139.668 566.827 1145.23 562.744 1151.217 561.265 1154.281 561.295 1157.288 554.214 1157.594 551.972 1160.019 551.329 1163.006 552.85 1167.019 551.321 1171.006 551.885 1177.569 550.262 1171.351 544.786 1169.413 541.95 1173.573 538.267 1176.683 535.544 1178.249 534.48 1179.372 534.241 1180.612 529.492 1180.913 521.554 1184.038 523.783 1186.017 523.704 1189.328 521.279 1189.401 521.315 1192.936 519.943 1194.122 518.547 1194.672 511.784 1194.822 511.703 1192.904 511.027 1192.904 510.923 1197.412 512.582 1200.848 508.182 1204.304 506.744 1206.575 504.701 1203.652 498.738 1202.858 495.486 1205.608 493.726 1208.115 493.524 1210.82 489.546 1210.614 487.028 1210.152 487.99 1214.62 486.991 1217.615 489.951 1223.907 488.513 1227.346 483.234 1224.159 478.963 1224.111 476.692 1222.544 472.279 1221.648 472.446 1223.066 464.533 1223.079 462.661 1220.975 461.754 1218.868 458.533 1217.411 454.991 1217.811 452.563 1216.309 447.277 1213.655 447.252 1218.051 446.585 1220.197 447.055 1224.551 448.451 1229.322 446.562 1234.248 447.909 1236.96 447.746 1240.619 448.015 1243.434 445.295 1244.065 444.007 1241.544 441.282 1241.403 441.231 1244.579 424.533 1244.66 425.024 1248.129 420.744 1249.367 418.0 1247.38 405.763 1244.424 406.456 1249.335 404.531 1249.403 401.749 1255.123 398.549 1255.673 393.956 1258.08 389.75 1259.675 390.973 1263.318 384.281 1264.334 382.06 1260.114 376.489 1261.372 376.207 1263.89 373.738 1264.119 371.456 1267.587 366.531 1265.663 369.056 1270.567 371.005 1275.129 368.994 1276.623 369.243 1279.373 372.286 1280.416 376.987 1284.137 378.743 1287.372 378.753 1288.277 378.706 1291.084 371.531 1292.166 376.916 1296.479 372.532 1302.916 372.456 1307.084 366.782 1306.157 366.782 1306.829 368.456 1308.841 363.425 1309.054 357.626 1315.242 356.597 1315.284 348.419 1312.957 336.733 1309.087 330.737 1305.911 327.068 1296.678 324.069 1293.255 321.037 1290.051 323.585 1286.062 321.721 1283.598 321.635 1279.348 319.97 1272.68 319.32 1266.326 317.653 1259.318 318.004 1253.34 316.021 1240.391 318.595 1238.715 316.37 1238.273 315.703 1231.275 317.269 1228.609 314.711 1225.6 314.702 1221.964 316.269 1219.704 313.013 1219.603 312.279 1205.655 315.367 1203.987 312.037 1203.269 310.636 1190.987 310.201 1182.071 306.596 1176.38 305.03 1175.942 306.928 1170.713 303.37 1166.374 309.653 1168.037 309.944 1163.706 307.596 1165.272 304.679 1165.261 305.262 1161.042 303.037 1160.261 303.37 1151.7 304.605 1151.699 304.704 1152.6 306.546 1152.672 303.647 1148.316 302.988 1145.629 301.405 1143.899 304.606 1135.365 304.705 1136.264 310.63 1135.731 308.412 1133.891 305.038 1133.928 304.93 1132.034 305.913 1127.236 307.314 1125.301 310.606 1125.259 310.987 1121.312 309.938 1117.364 308.264 1123.593 303.706 1123.695 301.264 1129.589 300.597 1124.589 300.93 1120.922 300.93 1117.703 299.305 1110.296 306.978 1108.058 300.039 1107.871 299.922 1103.38 298.656 1100.317 304.955 1096.399 301.33 1093.295 300.271 1097.271 297.37 1097.271 296.705 1086.937 297.705 1079.371 299.937 1078.922 297.969 1075.94 297.711 1072.047 300.271 1072.037 302.344 1074.888 299.314 1065.659 302.654 1062.325 Maharashtra

poly 602.757 704.147 595.511 707.626 593.674 713.074 576.183 719.561 570.621 721.009 566.885 724.78 557.345 728.225 545.247 734.628 541.143 739.503 534.393 741.276 524.768 751.651 520.258 755.64 513.841 757.223 509.305 764.213 511.379 770.639 513.755 777.637 521.131 785.261 533.755 786.637 537.255 786.637 540.755 785.211 546.17 787.048 552.68 781.213 555.208 787.21 555.18 799.062 549.829 800.061 549.793 796.828 541.102 800.723 528.832 800.718 528.731 806.165 531.158 809.237 525.32 813.725 531.756 819.138 538.256 824.638 535.268 832.648 526.306 829.741 530.167 847.724 524.682 853.561 521.68 849.714 515.831 848.563 515.643 844.177 515.168 845.055 510.831 845.214 510.68 848.089 499.769 846.139 488.831 844.713 486.146 853.025 479.333 856.722 480.68 862.561 477.17 864.563 467.342 864.224 466.293 870.223 457.331 865.062 457.731 856.115 463.856 857.07 472.258 855.652 476.19 853.044 473.252 851.148 472.52 839.828 470.197 838.457 473.156 832.218 477.669 833.555 478.577 825.784 473.839 825.058 473.68 816.218 465.513 818.344 460.332 820.565 460.181 818.217 447.757 817.139 442.749 814.643 446.184 811.568 449.182 805.565 449.182 798.216 440.244 798.987 437.878 805.648 430.757 807.634 424.861 801.201 431.178 818.058 426.753 815.096 424.179 812.706 422.657 820.029 418.345 823.102 418.334 829.052 423.72 831.656 422.268 837.637 418.798 842.052 427.682 842.2 428.745 849.527 430.282 855.649 426.768 861.113 426.754 868.126 421.375 881.248 407.341 886.213 406.294 893.026 413.741 900.112 401.252 906.064 396.456 905.289 396.015 906.417 388.516 900.448 385.944 902.618 378.588 901.3 377.904 898.017 377.994 894.886 371.92 891.96 369.31 891.901 369.196 891.346 365.504 888.941 362.585 886.626 354.845 885.034 355.26 876.961 349.162 876.161 345.937 868.274 341.829 866.366 343.261 861.96 348.26 852.619 345.857 849.058 338.587 852.64 337.544 847.674 331.902 840.623 338.886 833.706 334.303 832.907 334.869 826.342 327.82 827.011 327.253 828.626 323.645 833.574 312.636 831.261 312.204 826.343 308.252 824.301 304.645 821.684 300.636 826.259 297.66 820.552 295.588 817.958 294.271 814.942 286.847 814.38 284.536 808.673 277.528 813.234 275.203 811.339 272.202 815.57 267.861 810.621 260.252 809.954 253.578 807.954 246.303 808.672 246.203 811.57 240.911 808.954 240.517 805.685 240.118 808.135 233.144 795.108 227.755 785.62 222.781 776.618 218.255 766.145 216.755 755.12 210.755 748.12 199.755 746.62 195.731 744.642 192.342 741.033 192.154 735.221 188.868 732.117 189.771 720.645 193.728 716.588 194.755 710.614 192.255 699.213 181.231 696.701 179.268 698.15 176.866 696.087 173.392 692.978 162.256 678.119 165.254 671.117 171.352 658.241 183.153 651.008 191.986 640.891 198.764 632.119 201.242 627.495 221.752 622.548 223.865 631.01 232.915 640.238 247.957 634.803 261.334 632.527 284.872 629.164 291.605 615.502 298.116 611.0 303.251 606.624 305.168 598.041 315.23 586.113 323.112 583.488 339.361 574.551 352.713 556.902 357.472 549.139 360.335 540.052 364.341 523.71 373.754 520.622 381.863 521.286 386.67 516.249 391.311 512.686 392.58 515.151 394.716 521.63 401.56 521.63 410.254 523.63 419.504 524.073 417.068 526.683 418.841 529.348 422.177 530.202 422.176 533.536 419.327 540.547 423.676 540.698 423.752 545.122 422.242 548.735 422.676 556.047 417.829 556.196 421.666 559.196 422.214 561.932 431.665 562.055 435.641 560.118 441.165 562.205 441.328 566.042 443.665 566.205 450.254 569.116 458.067 566.76 458.394 568.457 463.269 580.621 466.172 581.195 465.797 598.278 469.786 606.007 471.348 610.991 478.173 611.692 481.372 618.016 485.874 620.978 490.646 632.991 488.633 636.005 488.244 639.116 487.631 645.116 491.744 648.531 495.633 648.105 498.669 649.041 497.721 640.094 505.68 639.041 504.323 633.202 505.709 632.202 502.828 630.192 513.36 634.493 521.162 639.529 522.213 634.192 528.173 634.041 528.336 629.704 536.66 633.703 536.673 635.034 533.249 648.617 536.175 659.541 541.173 656.041 540.856 652.165 550.252 652.117 560.912 645.336 557.058 646.145 555.198 651.422 555.278 662.144 558.431 671.029 565.395 675.599 569.001 677.745 566.336 679.201 570.686 684.535 569.183 687.545 565.834 692.545 575.194 696.034 569.18 698.545 562.839 698.706 562.67 699.537 560.18 708.543 572.678 703.544 572.829 699.694 577.753 699.606 580.357 702.015 587.169 699.694 590.18 703.544 591.343 699.207 593.182 699.046 595.161 696.685 599.333 701.123 597.335 704.545 Rajasthan

poly 511.175 1735.828 516.865 1734.238 516.974 1733.682 518.203 1733.577 518.304 1728.013 519.537 1727.91 519.642 1724.32 522.198 1718.682 521.64 1718.571 518.904 1711.645 523.195 1706.912 523.504 1701.08 518.672 1694.909 521.236 1692.318 523.931 1686.977 527.549 1678.244 528.509 1673.963 529.632 1669.938 531.277 1666.981 529.203 1662.42 525.863 1664.578 518.871 1661.287 523.211 1651.912 522.862 1648.35 522.305 1648.24 524.493 1641.866 525.94 1639.298 522.296 1636.572 521.629 1633.01 524.995 1627.711 524.928 1625.741 523.574 1622.287 521.248 1620.293 517.256 1620.616 514.506 1622.89 509.86 1627.567 507.972 1627.91 502.692 1623.853 500.665 1615.438 501.887 1608.022 503.531 1601.569 502.187 1591.961 496.918 1589.302 492.294 1587.239 492.978 1581.021 495.539 1580.912 491.996 1571.039 479.353 1571.298 480.202 1571.248 482.914 1567.298 485.538 1563.573 481.591 1560.914 477.922 1557.974 475.589 1557.631 473.698 1556.277 468.969 1555.918 469.312 1547.346 475.207 1549.252 479.973 1543.356 479.973 1543.356 486.296 1543.385 487.3 1548.584 491.599 1547.304 495.59 1547.303 502.213 1547.303 503.118 1544.368 506.564 1537.939 513.928 1536.626 518.199 1539.916 518.637 1537.352 523.512 1536.634 527.66 1537.572 531.911 1538.218 536.536 1539.583 538.913 1531.552 549.536 1529.25 550.004 1525.72 552.594 1523.634 552.536 1515.968 544.585 1513.968 537.62 1512.21 540.995 1509.311 544.669 1506.974 545.87 1498.019 544.287 1497.915 544.639 1489.019 554.452 1486.992 556.653 1478.019 563.834 1478.371 568.851 1479.892 571.529 1478.371 573.947 1480.892 578.259 1482.634 580.613 1484.318 580.613 1484.318 581.936 1487.309 585.259 1489.384 592.168 1489.56 595.193 1486.919 597.859 1484.169 602.21 1478.915 602.203 1471.686 601.65 1471.575 601.984 1468.019 618.245 1464.629 623.266 1465.963 626.592 1468.978 632.642 1466.347 634.872 1466.243 639.525 1464.92 641.807 1460.678 645.198 1459.57 646.531 1454.01 643.852 1452.361 650.587 1451.299 653.972 1456.585 656.204 1455.571 660.972 1458.256 665.536 1458.588 672.869 1453.911 671.977 1450.018 678.534 1443.579 678.638 1438.349 681.311 1439.245 682.199 1439.349 682.638 1441.923 685.967 1439.334 685.904 1436.08 688.416 1441.008 691.622 1443.542 695.726 1450.624 696.622 1462.331 692.622 1474.309 692.622 1481.31 690.604 1487.976 684.446 1498.189 682.955 1497.348 680.838 1497.312 682.585 1498.333 684.885 1499.891 684.41 1503.146 682.63 1505.475 681.463 1508.075 676.029 1512.989 674.321 1514.704 673.793 1516.816 673.17 1518.1 673.312 1519.012 671.654 1520.283 670.716 1518.192 667.82 1520.613 670.819 1521.592 670.34 1524.307 671.115 1533.138 670.914 1529.12 666.065 1529.704 664.252 1529.994 664.841 1528.737 663.923 1527.621 664.081 1524.945 662.261 1527.266 660.76 1525.617 657.447 1525.482 658.723 1527.641 658.723 1528.921 658.057 1531.925 654.137 1533.402 658.627 1537.417 661.381 1538.14 663.616 1538.14 664.908 1539.124 665.282 1540.257 666.212 1540.401 667.441 1540.054 670.548 1540.121 667.126 1539.811 666.497 1545.811 666.663 1556.478 667.793 1558.136 667.814 1560.937 668.626 1562.309 669.293 1571.311 669.607 1588.367 668.322 1592.116 666.582 1591.134 665.613 1590.093 665.566 1589.822 662.112 1585.983 664.753 1583.125 669.045 1583.373 669.607 1588.367 671.126 1608.278 671.408 1618.619 670.303 1624.448 667.96 1620.808 665.646 1620.108 662.29 1618.795 659.131 1619.647 656.136 1619.31 652.798 1619.31 650.297 1621.054 651.468 1620.47 652.965 1620.47 655.798 1620.304 658.631 1620.304 664.8 1621.804 668.738 1623.947 665.799 1623.968 663.132 1623.131 656.582 1623.267 646.246 1621.808 641.983 1622.522 638.42 1626.429 637.938 1629.281 636.156 1635.781 637.76 1637.767 635.667 1638.769 634.01 1640.965 628.603 1648.611 625.004 1653.507 620.13 1659.82 620.796 1674.807 625.111 1677.044 628.158 1679.273 631.629 1679.634 636.098 1680.3 639.469 1679.3 641.607 1677.823 643.296 1682.794 645.796 1684.3 647.076 1686.48 643.833 1684.79 640.795 1682.639 633.12 1681.307 627.454 1681.139 621.629 1680.307 612.954 1681.649 610.796 1681.982 609.27 1683.444 605.663 1684.504 605.571 1685.615 602.59 1686.14 591.852 1688.619 587.292 1689.692 584.297 1693.338 580.338 1694.793 578.594 1696.272 576.802 1696.835 575.463 1701.813 575.441 1710.23 573.635 1713.136 572.446 1716.946 566.325 1718.275 569.941 1718.275 572.611 1718.296 572.805 1721.467 571.422 1723.592 570.292 1726.299 567.428 1731.112 563.139 1733.791 560.967 1735.11 558.967 1735.339 555.755 1736.493 553.348 1740.139 550.967 1742.092 546.301 1743.467 542.631 1743.453 540.777 1746.437 540.505 1746.488 539.562 1747.676 537.853 1747.697 533.232 1747.37 522.747 1743.913 515.463 1740.533 512.247 1735.627 Tamil Nadu

poly 1176 759 1176 744 1176 731 1171 718 1180 709 1176 694 1195 689 1200 683 1215 687 1228 692 1256 687 1319 669 1363 670 1374 648 1389 633 1463 600 1472 600 1463 607 1463 618 1472 633 1474 637 1450 641 1402 687 1385 703 1381 726 1376 729 1370 718 1354 744 1361 753 1343 790 1343 807 1324 809 1315 822 1300 816 1306 794 1302 787 1317 790 1317 783 1311 775 1328 764 1328 757 1320 748 1319 742 1309 737 1298 744 1300 722 1278 724 1274 733 1263 729 1254 744 1234 735 1208 733 1195 737 1182 742 1186 755 Assam

poly 1183 742 1185 753 1176 760 1178 769 1198 775 1211 779 1243 774 1254 775 1271 775 1282 777 1293 772 1302 772 1311 779 1319 772 1330 763 1324 753 1322 746 1308 740 1295 744 1296 729 1302 720 1278 724 1274 733 1261 729 1254 742 1243 739 1212 733 Meghalaya

poly 521 1309 518 1334 530 1356 515 1362 508 1356 505 1387 530 1399 543 1406 546 1424 543 1427 571 1418 580 1434 593 1452 599 1459 586 1477 593 1490 611 1468 633 1465 633 1459 646 1449 661 1452 677 1437 686 1424 689 1393 683 1371 686 1331 693 1325 708 1309 717 1300 730 1309 739 1303 755 1281 774 1287 799 1278 808 1247 824 1237 852 1225 848 1218 864 1206 877 1187 898 1169 920 1153 930 1141 930 1134 883 1147 877 1137 842 1172 820 1181 814 1172 805 1194 786 1200 749 1234 689 1256 686 1256 636 1286 643 1280 643 1274 652 1268 668 1271 582 1309 593 1295 606 1298 Andhra Pradesh

poly 1404 683 1415 683 1426 685 1431 689 1439 678 1448 672 1461 659 1474 648 1485 635 1500 631 1509 626 1520 633 1529 639 1533 637 1520 624 1516 617 1522 605 1529 596 1538 594 1537 580 1527 570 1507 570 1500 565 1485 572 1483 565 1496 550 1485 535 1474 543 1470 537 1476 526 1463 515 1439 532 1435 541 1420 539 1407 539 1398 532 1385 539 1363 565 1352 572 1330 578 1330 589 1306 609 1311 618 1295 626 1282 626 1278 633 1261 633 1258 644 1265 648 1278 648 1287 655 1282 663 1284 670 1291 679 1317 672 1320 668 1343 668 1367 665 1374 648 1387 635 1385 628 1396 628 1415 618 1442 605 1455 602 1466 600 1470 604 1461 613 1466 624 1472 633 1472 635 1455 637 1446 648 1424 661 Arunachal Pradesh

poly 1407 683 1400 692 1396 683 1383 705 1378 726 1374 720 1361 735 1354 744 1361 750 1361 759 1370 759 1383 742 1407 740 1418 726 1418 740 1424 742 1431 737 1428 726 1441 707 1442 696 1431 687 1420 681 Nagaland

poly 1405 742 1387 740 1383 740 1376 753 1372 759 1357 757 1352 770 1343 788 1339 809 1348 818 1365 829 1383 825 1404 833 1409 803 1426 770 1426 759 1420 757 1418 753 1422 742 1418 735 1415 729 1409 735 Manipur

poly 1326 805 1315 824 1304 818 1311 851 1315 864 1315 877 1317 892 1328 907 1330 925 1333 934 1335 938 1339 931 1348 942 1352 936 1361 929 1363 916 1356 912 1357 894 1352 886 1365 886 1370 873 1367 849 1359 829 1356 822 1346 818 1343 809 1339 805 1330 809 Mizoram

poly 571 1304 624 1292 639 1270 671 1260 702 1248 733 1235 755 1226 758 1211 739 1204 721 1189 708 1167 696 1161 680 1154 674 1136 677 1111 649 1104 646 1104 624 1104 611 1095 602 1095 593 1114 586 1117 577 1123 571 1129 561 1151 558 1173 558 1179 555 1170 549 1214 549 1257 549 1267 540 1276 549 1292 571 1126 549 1295 Telangana

poly 1304 820 1309 831 1308 849 1291 855 1291 868 1285 868 1285 875 1289 879 1287 888 1280 896 1274 888 1269 875 1265 892 1261 890 1258 877 1258 866 1252 857 1254 846 1256 833 1265 829 1272 829 1282 820 1287 822 1300 811 Tripura

poly 1149 947 1143 927 1141 907 1136 903 1139 888 1130 890 1132 873 1119 866 1119 855 1125 849 1128 840 1126 831 1112 827 1095 818 1091 811 1095 801 1097 794 1104 798 1108 792 1110 781 1136 779 1125 761 1119 768 1108 761 1104 755 1093 748 1093 727 1106 716 1101 709 1101 705 1121 722 1130 720 1130 711 1141 720 1141 729 1160 735 1167 720 1180 709 1176 694 1158 694 1147 687 1139 689 1123 683 1117 672 1108 670 1101 676 1080 672 1093 700 1091 709 1095 720 1075 740 1075 746 1091 757 1077 770 1080 781 1075 785 1084 794 1080 805 1084 814 1075 820 1080 825 1073 838 1060 849 1053 846 1049 859 1038 857 1027 870 1008 883 997 875 988 884 986 896 999 899 1006 907 1023 908 1016 918 1036 933 1038 944 1034 949 1040 955 1047 957 1049 969 1060 960 1069 975 1080 981 1095 962 1106 958 1097 971 1097 984 1114 982 1152 979 1152 958 West Bengal

poly 1080 672 1093 674 1099 678 1106 672 1121 674 1123 665 1119 652 1121 641 1121 624 1110 618 1095 626 1088 626 1084 648 1077 659 Sikkim

poly 1128 650 1145 635 1143 624 1160 611 1169 613 1176 600 1193 604 1204 607 1200 617 1210 617 1221 615 1230 620 1234 613 1254 618 1256 635 1258 642 1269 650 1282 648 1287 654 1282 661 1282 670 1287 674 1287 681 1256 685 1247 689 1215 689 1204 681 1191 689 1171 694 1158 696 1149 687 1141 692 1130 687 1123 679 1119 674 1125 665 1130 659 Bhutan

poly 1317 1003 1315 992 1319 979 1326 971 1333 977 1339 982 1333 951 1332 929 1319 899 1315 883 1313 862 1306 844 1298 851 1291 859 1291 868 1285 875 1287 883 1282 897 1274 888 1267 875 1267 892 1261 892 1258 877 1258 866 1254 859 1254 844 1254 835 1265 829 1271 829 1282 822 1285 825 1300 809 1306 796 1306 787 1315 792 1317 787 1311 777 1295 770 1278 772 1276 777 1258 772 1215 777 1187 772 1178 770 1175 746 1173 720 1167 720 1160 731 1152 733 1143 727 1136 716 1132 711 1130 722 1119 727 1119 713 1108 709 1104 705 1101 713 1108 720 1099 726 1097 733 1091 740 1091 748 1104 753 1108 761 1123 766 1132 770 1134 777 1134 781 1112 781 1110 790 1104 796 1095 796 1093 809 1093 812 1106 827 1121 829 1123 829 1130 844 1125 853 1121 857 1121 868 1130 875 1130 888 1134 890 1141 890 1138 899 1143 914 1147 944 1156 953 1173 953 1184 964 1193 960 1197 953 1206 964 1217 951 1230 942 1234 942 1245 938 1245 927 1252 938 1254 949 1260 934 1260 925 1276 929 1289 931 1296 958 1304 975 1308 992 Bangladesh

poly 1086 757 1091 764 1077 768 1080 779 1075 785 1064 781 1058 788 1053 788 1038 801 1043 805 1038 818 1034 827 1023 822 1016 825 1008 835 999 825 995 825 990 814 979 816 975 814 966 829 953 831 940 842 929 831 916 844 907 844 907 831 905 831 899 835 890 827 890 831 857 833 866 825 866 818 855 811 853 794 860 785 875 777 888 764 894 759 901 764 903 759 914 761 918 757 896 746 886 733 892 733 897 724 892 720 881 720 892 709 903 713 907 709 901 707 899 696 888 696 886 692 888 687 883 683 Bihar

poly 1066 779 1084 794 1078 807 1084 814 1075 818 1080 829 1064 849 1056 848 1056 853 1047 864 1042 857 1030 868 1012 879 1008 881 1001 877 992 879 986 894 1003 903 1023 908 1017 918 1034 929 1042 947 1034 949 1023 940 1021 947 1012 938 992 934 999 944 997 958 990 964 986 958 975 958 968 953 960 960 951 960 947 955 949 936 936 940 921 940 912 947 903 942 894 934 905 921 905 912 897 907 890 897 890 890 892 883 886 873 881 877 870 862 859 851 855 846 859 829 870 833 888 831 892 827 899 835 908 829 912 833 912 844 920 842 929 831 940 842 953 831 964 833 977 812 986 818 990 814 999 829 1010 838 1019 822 1036 822 1040 812 1047 807 1043 798 1054 785 1060 790 Jharkhand

poly 875 670 879 666 888 665 890 659 899 665 905 672 914 672 918 683 916 692 931 692 945 698 949 705 966 694 969 700 971 711 977 713 984 705 999 709 1017 718 1029 714 1036 707 1040 718 1049 722 1053 716 1064 718 1071 713 1080 718 1088 703 1093 700 1095 718 1073 744 870 1128 881 1134 888 1143 905 1147 914 1141 916 1134 931 1126 942 1121 960 1097 984 1088 1010 1080 1025 1064 1034 1058 1043 1040 1047 1030 1040 1010 1047 995 1071 986 1077 977 1066 971 1058 962 1049 969 1049 958 1040 953 1023 940 1019 947 1012 938 1001 933 992 933 995 955 992 962 979 955 968 951 953 962 949 958 949 936 940 938 923 938 912 947 903 942 892 934 890 944 875 951 866 960 870 969 864 977 859 988 857 997 851 1001 851 1006 846 1012 829 1010 820 1010 816 1023 812 1030 807 1025 805 1036 805 1049 812 1056 809 1069 814 1077 825 1078 825 1086 816 1084 812 1080 805 1084 799 1075 787 1073 779 1071 779 1084 788 1090 792 1095 788 1101 794 1110 794 1125 799 1138 792 1143 785 1151 781 1151 783 1160 772 1163 768 1171 759 1176 755 1189 748 1197 770 1199 785 1191 794 1184 805 1193 807 1184 805 1173 807 1163 814 1158 822 1165 818 1176 822 1178 831 1167 840 1171 846 1167 848 1160 842 1156 846 1145 859 1149 866 1141 Odisha

poly 781 1152 794 1145 796 1138 796 1119 796 1110 787 1099 788 1093 777 1078 779 1073 798 1075 805 1084 811 1082 822 1088 827 1082 822 1075 812 1075 807 1071 812 1051 803 1045 803 1025 812 1029 820 1008 846 1014 851 999 862 997 857 986 864 977 870 968 866 964 886 942 894 934 905 921 905 908 897 907 886 892 890 881 886 877 879 879 870 860 862 851 853 848 848 864 838 866 825 855 812 873 790 868 775 866 770 862 766 866 770 872 764 881 770 886 781 883 794 894 796 903 785 908 779 916 768 938 748 942 737 949 733 962 724 979 718 1008 705 1019 711 1027 709 1045 720 1049 709 1060 703 1064 711 1073 709 1084 707 1091 718 1093 722 1104 731 1108 726 1119 711 1112 700 1123 698 1134 705 1141 694 1145 703 1156 711 1156 724 1173 722 1184 731 1180 735 1193 737 1204 755 1193 761 1180 761 1173 768 1169 774 1169 785 1156 Chhattisgarh

poly 831 860 840 866 849 864 855 853 857 838 862 825 864 818 855 809 851 794 860 785 875 779 892 759 899 764 903 759 912 763 918 757 901 748 886 735 894 731 892 722 879 718 888 711 903 711 905 711 901 705 896 698 886 696 886 685 879 674 870 668 859 663 846 672 840 663 822 663 818 659 818 650 805 652 785 641 781 644 757 631 750 624 742 613 718 607 713 598 709 604 698 594 692 598 676 587 663 591 646 580 641 572 635 574 626 565 635 559 607 537 596 543 589 550 585 539 574 541 574 532 585 511 570 504 550 528 546 541 539 559 543 578 546 587 554 607 552 611 561 624 561 637 552 650 559 666 567 672 570 681 567 687 574 692 561 696 559 703 559 705 563 700 572 700 576 698 587 696 598 694 602 700 615 703 628 703 637 713 641 726 637 735 631 750 624 764 611 768 605 772 602 785 604 792 600 798 598 805 594 807 600 822 598 827 604 833 604 842 611 833 618 838 622 844 630 842 635 835 633 829 633 822 630 820 626 822 624 814 622 805 618 796 615 787 609 781 615 774 620 779 635 768 631 783 637 790 644 794 650 792 650 779 663 790 661 794 672 794 681 790 692 781 698 779 707 788 707 794 703 803 709 803 711 794 733 792 729 807 750 805 755 790 761 794 768 790 770 798 781 803 783 809 799 814 803 822 820 818 829 822 825 829 825 831 829 842 822 849 827 859 Uttar Pradesh

poly 570 502 585 513 576 528 572 532 576 543 587 541 591 550 609 537 631 561 624 565 637 578 641 574 655 587 672 593 679 589 689 600 696 596 692 587 707 567 703 557 711 546 709 535 720 532 722 526 737 513 724 504 713 496 698 493 696 478 685 474 676 467 670 472 659 461 648 461 641 463 628 458 622 456 609 454 600 456 593 463 587 458 576 478 576 491 580 498 Uttarakhand

poly 733 513 726 526 718 526 718 535 711 539 711 550 702 559 705 565 700 576 692 596 709 604 711 598 737 617 750 618 748 626 764 637 783 646 788 641 807 655 820 652 818 663 838 665 844 670 851 674 862 663 879 670 894 663 905 672 916 672 918 681 916 689 923 692 931 690 936 698 947 703 953 703 964 696 971 696 971 711 977 713 984 705 995 709 1008 711 1021 720 1036 709 1040 718 1051 722 1053 716 1062 718 1073 711 1084 720 1084 711 1090 700 1091 696 1084 681 1082 670 1082 652 1091 631 1088 628 1075 635 1069 639 1056 637 1047 637 1045 641 1036 639 1025 633 1014 624 1006 626 1008 635 1006 635 999 635 988 628 988 635 977 637 973 624 964 620 953 615 942 615 936 611 936 594 933 594 927 602 914 596 912 591 907 594 897 591 892 591 890 589 886 574 886 567 875 563 864 574 853 576 851 567 855 563 842 556 842 548 827 543 816 532 803 522 785 515 772 515 757 508 750 509 750 524 744 519 Nepal

poly 537 591 545 587 550 591 552 598 552 607 550 607 546 611 543 604 533 604 532 602 537 598 Delhi

poly 530 469 535 474 537 481 537 502 528 495 526 502 521 509 524 515 519 515 513 509 508 513 504 511 504 522 500 530 491 532 482 528 467 535 467 533 456 545 456 548 454 539 452 530 445 524 430 519 424 524 417 522 423 528 421 532 426 539 421 546 421 554 428 557 437 556 445 563 458 563 465 576 467 589 469 602 478 611 491 624 491 637 493 644 500 644 498 637 504 631 504 626 515 633 519 635 530 624 537 631 535 642 533 657 546 650 556 646 561 642 559 637 563 630 559 618 550 607 543 607 539 604 532 602 537 596 537 589 548 587 546 578 543 565 541 557 543 548 548 539 548 532 557 522 563 513 572 504 567 498 554 495 550 491 550 480 537 471 Haryana

poly 530 467 526 476 528 478 533 482 539 489 537 500 528 493 526 502 522 506 524 515 519 515 515 509 509 511 504 511 504 528 502 532 491 535 484 528 474 537 467 532 456 546 452 537 454 526 447 524 441 522 430 519 424 526 415 519 400 517 391 515 393 506 393 498 391 489 395 487 415 469 432 454 428 452 426 441 432 434 426 417 434 410 445 404 461 402 467 395 469 389 487 378 489 387 478 395 478 406 485 406 491 413 491 419 498 430 502 441 502 445 511 437 519 445 521 450 521 461 526 465 Punjab

poly 522 461 530 465 541 478 550 489 552 495 567 502 578 495 576 487 580 474 580 465 591 458 594 463 600 454 607 454 620 458 635 458 639 463 646 460 635 454 631 447 630 437 633 432 624 417 622 397 620 389 615 376 611 367 600 375 591 369 583 356 570 358 552 356 541 345 533 341 524 341 515 349 504 354 496 360 493 356 491 362 491 376 485 380 489 386 478 397 476 406 489 412 491 419 495 428 502 436 500 443 504 443 509 439 517 447 524 454 Himachal Pradesh

poly 530 467 530 471 528 474 526 474 532 480 535 482 535 474 535 469 Chandigarh

poly 474 393 452 384 434 384 434 375 421 368 409 362 393 362 390 356 387 331 384 312 381 300 381 275 387 250 393 250 402 244 409 234 396 225 396 219 377 209 368 209 359 194 340 191 346 172 349 156 362 150 381 141 387 135 352 141 331 150 312 159 303 169 296 175 296 200 303 231 293 247 275 262 278 284 268 297 231 297 221 294 225 303 243 325 234 331 215 340 209 337 197 356 184 362 168 372 172 390 172 403 168 412 150 409 140 406 125 412 112 418 90 421 87 428 75 428 56 428 47 450 34 465 31 490 22 503 3 509 3 512 3 528 6 537 6 553 9 574 3 593 0 618 3 630 3 646 0 665 3 684 0 699 0 733 28 743 28 762 25 774 22 783 47 796 53 815 56 821 72 827 94 830 128 815 162 818 181 830 231 824 240 808 228 786 215 771 215 755 200 743 190 733 193 718 190 702 172 696 165 684 162 680 175 655 197 637 218 624 243 634 262 637 303 609 303 593 349 565 359 546 362 534 424 453 430 421 Pakistan

poly 673.145 1721.495 674.921 1711.631 674.587 1701.536 673.262 1699.284 671.957 1697.028 674.989 1699.754 678.635 1697.352 685.585 1692.959 684.243 1689.301 684.928 1685.385 683.589 1677.462 682.755 1675.455 682.594 1674.289 684.288 1673.971 685.914 1671.994 688.56 1669.266 686.583 1664.816 684.587 1664.453 682.279 1663.432 681.758 1661.633 686.249 1663.449 689.082 1665.292 693.727 1668.604 691.633 1669.129 693.374 1669.275 695.056 1670.602 698.211 1669.124 701.568 1668.154 700.606 1667.592 697.085 1663.617 694.844 1662.946 693.115 1660.636 690.637 1660.145 690.715 1661.926 687.902 1659.969 680.256 1660.095 678.545 1657.283 675.773 1655.921 675.203 1651.733 677.411 1650.834 679.24 1648.938 682.412 1649.378 685.791 1650.279 690.27 1649.618 692.876 1649.478 694.4 1652.608 698.434 1656.584 704.909 1663.145 706.909 1664.623 708.742 1665.753 712.057 1668.772 707.53 1666.577 702.426 1666.322 705.574 1668.294 709.407 1668.947 711.25 1670.98 713.923 1670.609 722.569 1677.812 724.773 1683.716 718.92 1684.74 724.522 1692.755 727.218 1697.65 730.471 1695.338 734.471 1698.344 739.428 1706.969 740.113 1712.99 740.207 1709.743 745.156 1716.033 742.207 1722.976 748.771 1725.638 749.209 1722.075 753.151 1725.95 751.174 1731.305 754.913 1736.623 756.604 1740.243 752.782 1744.376 758.197 1746.402 765.885 1754.351 771.428 1765.298 766.761 1765.997 773.125 1773.664 776.562 1777.663 777.481 1781.684 782.821 1785.01 782.157 1793.365 783.48 1800.346 781.066 1817.013 773.837 1832.364 767.416 1835.931 761.166 1841.68 758.146 1845.004 756.496 1849.012 749.48 1851.004 734.71 1857.244 727.48 1859.68 720.278 1862.065 716.83 1867.698 695.814 1865.669 689.179 1861.773 683.906 1854.255 679.558 1846.015 673.815 1840.348 668.818 1829.41 665.479 1820.681 663.813 1813.773 663.539 1799.375 666.171 1800.732 665.483 1790.033 663.483 1779.282 662.15 1767.096 661.57 1745.927 665.175 1735.378 664.571 1739.941 664.576 1742.275 662.953 1744.786 664.018 1751.311 664.677 1756.822 667.255 1750.301 667.592 1743.589 670.009 1736.651 669.839 1730.515 673.145 1721.495 673.145 1721.495 673.145 1721.495 673.145 1721.495 Sri Lanka poly 657.414 1663.309 658.164 1662.702 657.834 1663.362 662.114 1666.981 661.214 1667.082 659.214 1669.645 659.114 1665.752 657.904 1665.652 657.414 1663.309 657.414 1663.309 657.414 1663.309 Sri Lanka poly 667.106 1691.534 670.752 1696.24 663.116 1694.266 658.586 1692.787 656.278 1691.478 658.049 1691.608 659.24 1692.619 662.789 1692.453 666.203 1691.453 Sri Lanka poly 668.055 1659.075 668.915 1657.299 668.055 1659.075 668.055 1659.075 666.999 1660.918 668.959 1661.763 666.999 1660.918 666.999 1660.918 Sri Lanka poly 670.566 1661.29 671.963 1660.018 672.26 1661.572 670.566 1661.29 670.566 1661.29 670.566 1661.29 670.276 1654.624 Sri Lanka poly 672.033 1654.624 670.095 1655.236 670.278 1654.622 670.278 1654.622 670.277 1654.622 670.277 1654.624 670.276 1654.624 Sri Lanka poly 664.913 1661.918 663.193 1661.298 664.833 1660.698 664.833 1660.698 664.833 1660.698 664.833 1660.698 Sri Lanka poly 655.164 1690.698 654.544 1690.068 655.164 1690.698 655.164 1690.698 Sri Lanka poly 664.833 1660.698 665.163 1660.698 Sri Lanka

poly 531 217 544 226 556 243 544 251 533 257 520 260 507 264 501 268 492 268 474 270 471 259 461 264 448 259 437 257 435 251 418 251 414 260 410 249 420 240 414 232 405 226 401 219 393 213 389 204 382 200 374 194 355 190 353 173 371 168 374 156 386 149 408 151 423 141 437 139 454 136 476 139 499 156 509 189 531 202 Disputed territory in Jammu and Kashmir poly 424 254 408 263 397 270 404 280 404 291 408 295 420 302 408 307 409 318 413 325 408 336 417 348 420 357 427 359 420 362 417 357 404 354 397 350 395 346 392 345 392 332 390 320 388 304 384 295 384 286 388 273 384 268 399 256 411 254 409 254 Disputed territory in Jammu and Kashmir

desc bottom-left </imagemap>

States (1–29) & Union territories (A-G)
1. Andhra Pradesh 19. Nagaland
2. Arunachal Pradesh 20. Odisha
3. Assam 21. Punjab
4. Bihar 22. Rajasthan
5. Chhattisgarh 23. Sikkim
6. Goa 24. Tamil Nadu
7. Gujarat 25. Telangana
8. Haryana 26. Tripura
9. Himachal Pradesh 27. Uttar Pradesh
10. Jammu and Kashmir 28. Uttarakhand
11. Jharkhand 29. West Bengal
12. Karnataka A. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
13. Kerala B. Chandigarh
14. Madhya Pradesh C. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
15. Maharashtra D. Daman and Diu
16. Manipur E. Lakshadweep
17. Meghalaya F. National Capital Territory of Delhi
18. Mizoram G. Puducherry

India is a federation composed of 29 states and 7 union territories.[188] All states, as well as the union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments, both patterned on the Westminster model. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis.[189] Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged. Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts. The districts, in turn, are further divided into tehsils and ultimately into villages.

Foreign relations and military[edit | edit source]

Modi and British Prime Minister Theresa May at the India-UK Tech Summit in New Delhi

Since its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relations with most nations. In the 1950s, it strongly supported decolonisation in Africa and Asia and played a lead role in the Non-Aligned Movement.[190] In the late 1980s, the Indian military twice intervened abroad at the invitation of neighbouring countries: a peace-keeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990; and an armed intervention to prevent a 1988 coup d'état attempt in the Maldives. India has tense relations with neighbouring Pakistan; the two nations have gone to war four times: in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999. Three of these wars were fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir, while the fourth, the 1971 war, followed from India's support for the independence of Bangladesh.[191] After waging the 1962 Sino-Indian War and the 1965 war with Pakistan, India pursued close military and economic ties with the Soviet Union; by the late 1960s, the Soviet Union was its largest arms supplier.[192]

Aside from ongoing strategic relations with Russia, India has wide-ranging defence relations with Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World Trade Organisation. The nation has provided 100,000 military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. It participates in the East Asia Summit, the G8+5, and other multilateral forums.[193] India has close economic ties with South America,[194] Asia, and Africa; it pursues a "Look East" policy that seeks to strengthen partnerships with the ASEAN nations, Japan, and South Korea that revolve around many issues, but especially those involving economic investment and regional security.[195][196]

INS Vikramaditya, the Indian Navy's biggest warship.

China's nuclear test of 1964, as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the 1965 war, convinced India to develop nuclear weapons.[197] India conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974 and carried out further underground testing in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, considering both to be flawed and discriminatory.[198] India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy and is developing a nuclear triad capability as a part of its "minimum credible deterrence" doctrine.[199][200] It is developing a ballistic missile defence shield and, in collaboration with Russia, a fifth-generation fighter jet.[201] Other indigenous military projects involve the design and implementation of Vikrant-class aircraft carriers and Arihant-class nuclear submarines.[201]

Since the end of the Cold War, India has increased its economic, strategic, and military co-operation with the United States and the European Union.[202] In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group, ending earlier restrictions on India's nuclear technology and commerce. As a consequence, India became the sixth de facto nuclear weapons state.[203] India subsequently signed co-operation agreements involving civilian nuclear energy with Russia,[204] France,[205] the United Kingdom,[206] and Canada.[207]

The President of India is the supreme commander of the nation's armed forces; with 1.395 million active troops, they compose the world's second-largest military. It comprises the Indian Army, the Indian Navy, the Indian Air Force, and the Indian Coast Guard.[208] The official Indian defence budget for 2011 was US$36.03 billion, or 1.83% of GDP.[209] For the fiscal year spanning 2012–2013, US$40.44 billion was budgeted.[210] According to a 2008 SIPRI report, India's annual military expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US$72.7 billion.[211] In 2011, the annual defence budget increased by 11.6%,[212] although this does not include funds that reach the military through other branches of government.[213] As of 2012, India is the world's largest arms importer; between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 10% of funds spent on international arms purchases.[214] Much of the military expenditure was focused on defence against Pakistan and countering growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean.[212]

Economy[edit | edit source]

A daily wage worker in a salt field. The average minimum wage of daily labourers is around Rs.100 per day

According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Indian economy in 2017 was nominally worth US$2.611 trillion; it is the sixth-largest economy by market exchange rates, and is, at US$9.459 trillion, the third-largest by purchasing power parity, or PPP.[16] With its average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% over the past two decades, and reaching 6.1% during 2011–12,[215] India is one of the world's fastest-growing economies.[216] However, the country ranks 140th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 129th in GDP per capita at PPP.[217] Until 1991, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by socialist economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the outside world. An acute balance of payments crisis in 1991 forced the nation to liberalise its economy;[218] since then it has slowly moved towards a free-market system[219][220] by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows.[221] India has been a member of WTO since 1 January 1995.[222]

The 513.7-million-worker Indian labour force is the world's second-largest, as of 2016.[208] The service sector makes up 55.6% of GDP, the industrial sector 26.3% and the agricultural sector 18.1%. India's foreign exchange remittances of US$70 billion in 2014, the largest in the world, contributed to its economy by 25 million Indians working in foreign countries.[223] Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes.[188] Major industries include textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and software.[188] In 2006, the share of external trade in India's GDP stood at 24%, up from 6% in 1985.[219] In 2008, India's share of world trade was 1.68%;[224] In 2011, India was the world's tenth-largest importer and the nineteenth-largest exporter.[225] Major exports include petroleum products, textile goods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures.[188] Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals.[188] Between 2001 and 2011, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total exports grew from 14% to 42%.[226] India was the second largest textile exporter after China in the world in the calendar year 2013.[227]

Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5% for several years prior to 2007,[219] India has more than doubled its hourly wage rates during the first decade of the 21st century.[228] Some 431 million Indians have left poverty since 1985; India's middle classes are projected to number around 580 million by 2030.[229] Though ranking 51st in global competitiveness, India ranks 17th in financial market sophistication, 24th in the banking sector, 44th in business sophistication, and 39th in innovation, ahead of several advanced economies, as of 2010.[230] With 7 of the world's top 15 information technology outsourcing companies based in India, the country is viewed as the second-most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States, as of 2009.[231] India's consumer market, the world's eleventh-largest, is expected to become fifth-largest by 2030.[229] However, hardly 2% of Indians pay income taxes.[232]

Driven by growth, India's nominal GDP per capita has steadily increased from US$329 in 1991, when economic liberalisation began, to US$1,265 in 2010, to an estimated US$1,723 in 2016, and is expected to grow to US$2,358 by 2020;[16] however, it has remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is expected to remain so in the near future. However, it is higher than Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and others.[233]

According to a 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2045.[234] During the next four decades, Indian GDP is expected to grow at an annualised average of 8%, making it potentially the world's fastest-growing major economy until 2050.[234] The report highlights key growth factors: a young and rapidly growing working-age population; growth in the manufacturing sector because of rising education and engineering skill levels; and sustained growth of the consumer market driven by a rapidly growing middle-class.[234] The World Bank cautions that, for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and nutrition.[235]

According to the Worldwide Cost of Living Report 2017 released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) which was created by comparing more than 400 individual prices across 160 products and services, four of the cheapest cities were in India: Bangalore (3rd), Mumbai (5th), Chennai (5th) and New Delhi (8th).[236]

Industries[edit | edit source]

Street-level view looking up at a modern 30-story building.
The Bombay Stock Exchange is Asia's oldest and India's largest bourse by market capitalisation.

India's telecommunication industry, the world's fastest-growing, added 227 million subscribers during the period 2010–11,[237] and after the third quarter of 2017, India surpassed the US to become the second largest smartphone market in the world after China.[238]

The Indian automotive industry, the world's second-fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26% during 2009–10,[239] and exports by 36% during 2008–09.[240] India's capacity to generate electrical power is 300 gigawatts, of which 42 gigawatts is renewable.[241] At the end of 2011, the Indian IT industry employed 2.8 million professionals, generated revenues close to US$100 billion equalling 7.5% of Indian GDP and contributed 26% of India's merchandise exports.[242]

The pharmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for the global pharmaceutical industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is expected to reach $48.5 billion by 2020. India's R & D spending constitutes 60% of the biopharmaceutical industry.[243][244] India is among the top 12 biotech destinations in the world.[245][246] The Indian biotech industry grew by 15.1% in 2012–13, increasing its revenues from 204.4 billion INR (Indian rupees) to 235.24 billion INR (3.94 B US$ – exchange rate June 2013: 1 US$ approx. 60 INR).[247]

Socio-economic challenges[edit | edit source]

Despite economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. In 2006, India contained the largest number of people living below the World Bank's international poverty line of US$1.25 per day,[248] the proportion having decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005;[249] under its later revised poverty line, it was 21% in 2011.[lower-alpha 8][251] 30.7% of India's children under the age of five are underweight.[252] According to a Food and Agriculture Organization report in 2015, 15% of the population is undernourished.[253][254] The Mid-Day Meal Scheme attempts to lower these rates.[255]

According to a Walk Free Foundation report in 2016, there were an estimated 18.3 million people in India, or 1.4% of the population, living in the forms of modern slavery, such as bonded labour, child labour, human trafficking, and forced begging, among others.[256][257][258] According to the 2011 census, there were 10.1 million child labourers in the country, a decline of 2.6 million from 12.6 million child labourers in 2001.[259]

Since 1991, economic inequality between India's states has consistently grown: the per-capita net state domestic product of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the poorest.[260] Corruption in India is perceived to have decreased. According to Corruption Perceptions Index, India ranked 76th out of 176 countries in 2016, from 85th in 2014.[261]

Demographics[edit | edit source]

An ascetic in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

With 1,210,193,422 residents reported in the 2011 provisional census report,[262] India is the world's second-most populous country. Its population grew by 17.64% during 2001–2011,[263] compared to 21.54% growth in the previous decade (1991–2001).[263] The human sex ratio, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males.[262] The median age was 27.6 as of 2016.[208] The first post-colonial census, conducted in 1951, counted 361.1 million people.[264] Medical advances made in the last 50 years as well as increased agricultural productivity brought about by the "Green Revolution" have caused India's population to grow rapidly.[265] India continues to face several public health-related challenges.[266][267]

Life expectancy in India is at 68 years, with life expectancy for women being 69.6 years and for men being 67.3.[268] There are around 50 physicians per 100,000 Indians.[269] Migration from rural to urban areas has been an important dynamic in the recent history of India. The number of Indians living in urban areas grew by 31.2% between 1991 and 2001.[270] Yet, in 2001, over 70% still lived in rural areas.[271][272] The level of urbanisation increased further from 27.81% in the 2001 Census to 31.16% in the 2011 Census. The slowing down of the overall growth rate of population was due to the sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas since 1991.[273] According to the 2011 census, there are 53 million-plus urban agglomerations in India; among them Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad, in decreasing order by population.[274] The literacy rate in 2011 was 74.04%: 65.46% among females and 82.14% among males.[275] The rural-urban literacy gap, which was 21.2 percentage points in 2001, dropped to 16.1 percentage points in 2011. The improvement in literacy rate in rural area is two times that in urban areas.[273] Kerala is the most literate state with 93.91% literacy; while Bihar the least with 63.82%.[275]

India is home to two major language families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by 24% of the population). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan language families. India has no national language.[276] Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language of the government.[277][278] English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a "subsidiary official language";[4] it is important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 "scheduled languages". The Constitution of India recognises 212 scheduled tribal groups which together constitute about 7.5% of the country's population.[279] The 2011 census reported that the religion in India with the largest number of followers was Hinduism (79.80% of the population), followed by Islam (14.23%); the remaining were Christianity (2.30%), Sikhism (1.72%), Buddhism (0.70%), Jainism (0.36%) and others[lower-alpha 3] (0.9%).[11] India has the world's largest Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Zoroastrian, and Bahá'í populations, and has the third-largest Muslim population—the largest for a non-Muslim majority country.[280][281]

Culture[edit | edit source]

A Toda tribal hut exemplifies Indian vernacular architecture.

Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500 years.[282] During the Vedic period (c. 1700 – 500 BCE), the foundations of Hindu philosophy, mythology, theology and literature were laid, and many beliefs and practices which still exist today, such as dhárma, kárma, yóga, and mokṣa, were established.[23] India is notable for its religious diversity, with Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, and Jainism among the nation's major religions.[283] The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by various historical schools of thought, including those of the Upanishads,[284] the Yoga Sutras, the Bhakti movement,[283] and by Buddhist philosophy.[285]

Art and architecture[edit | edit source]

Much of Indian architecture, including the Taj Mahal, other works of Mughal architecture, and South Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions with imported styles.[286] Vernacular architecture is also highly regional in it flavours. Vastu shastra, literally "science of construction" or "architecture" and ascribed to Mamuni Mayan,[287] explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings;[288] it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs.[289] As applied in Hindu temple architecture, it is influenced by the Shilpa Shastras, a series of foundational texts whose basic mythological form is the Vastu-Purusha mandala, a square that embodied the "absolute".[290] The Taj Mahal, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by orders of Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, has been described in the UNESCO World Heritage List as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage".[291] Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, developed by the British in the late 19th century, drew on Indo-Islamic architecture.[292]

Literature[edit | edit source]

The earliest literary writings in India, composed between 1700 BCE and 1200 CE, were in the Sanskrit language.[293][294] Prominent works of this Sanskrit literature include epics such as the Mahābhārata and the Ramayana, the dramas of Kālidāsa such as the Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā), and poetry such as the Mahākāvya.[295][296][297] Kamasutra, the famous book about sexual intercourse also originated in India. Developed between 600 BCE and 300 CE in South India, the Sangam literature, consisting of 2,381 poems, is regarded as a predecessor of Tamil literature.[298][299][300][301] From the 14th to the 18th centuries, India's literary traditions went through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of devotional poets such as Kabīr, Tulsīdās, and Guru Nānak. This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression; as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions.[302] In the 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore,[303] who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Performing arts[edit | edit source]

Muria tribal dancers in Bastar, Chhattisgarh

Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles. Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: the northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic schools.[304] Regionalised popular forms include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter. Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms. Among the better-known folk dances are the bhangra of Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the chhau of Odisha, West Bengal and Jharkhand, garba and dandiya of Gujarat, ghoomar of Rajasthan, and the lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Odisha, and the sattriya of Assam.[305] Theatre in India melds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue.[306] Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theatre includes the bhavai of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, tamasha of Maharashtra, burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka.[307] India has a theatre training institute N.S.D that is situated at New Delhi It is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.[308]

Motion pictures, television[edit | edit source]

The Indian film industry produces the world's most-watched cinema.[309] Established regional cinematic traditions exist in the Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Odia, Tamil, and Telugu languages.[310] South Indian cinema attracts more than 75% of national film revenue.[311]

Television broadcasting began in India in 1959 as a state-run medium of communication and had slow expansion for more than two decades.[312][313] The state monopoly on television broadcast ended in the 1990s and, since then, satellite channels have increasingly shaped the popular culture of Indian society.[314] Today, television is the most penetrative media in India; industry estimates indicate that as of 2012 there are over 554 million TV consumers, 462 million with satellite and/or cable connections, compared to other forms of mass media such as press (350 million), radio (156 million) or internet (37 million).[315]

Cuisine[edit | edit source]

An assortment of Indian spices

Indian cuisine encompasses a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines, often depending on a particular state (such as Maharashtrian cuisine). Staple foods of Indian cuisine include pearl millet (bājra), rice, whole-wheat flour (aṭṭa), and a variety of lentils, such as masoor (most often red lentils), toor (pigeon peas), urad (black gram), and mong (mung beans). Lentils may be used whole, dehusked—for example, dhuli moong or dhuli urad—or split. Split lentils, or dal, are used extensively.[316] The spice trade between India and Europe is often cited by historians as the primary catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery.[317]

Society[edit | edit source]

Muslims offer namaz at a mosque in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir.

Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent. Social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis, or "castes".[318] India declared untouchability to be illegal[319] in 1947 and has since enacted other anti-discriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives. At the workplace in urban India and in international or leading Indian companies, the caste related identification has pretty much lost its importance.[320][321]

Family values are important in the Indian tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas.[322] An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other elders in the family.[323] Marriage is thought to be for life,[323] and the divorce rate is extremely low.[324] As of 2001, just 1.6 percent of Indian women were divorced but this figure was rising due to their education and economic independence.[324] Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas; many women wed before reaching 18, which is their legal marriageable age.[325] Female infanticide and female foeticide in the country have caused a discrepancy in the sex ratio, as of 2005 it was estimated that there were 50 million more males than females in the nation.[326][327] However a report from 2011 has shown improvement in the gender ratio.[328] The payment of dowry, although illegal, remains widespread across class lines.[329] Deaths resulting from dowry, mostly from bride burning, are on the rise, despite stringent anti-dowry laws.[330]

Many Indian festivals are religious in origin. The best known include Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Thai Pongal, Holi, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas, and Vaisakhi.[331][332] India has three national holidays which are observed in all states and union territories – Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti. Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in individual states.

Clothing[edit | edit source]

Cotton was domesticated in India by 4000 BCE. Traditional Indian dress varies in colour and style across regions and depends on various factors, including climate and faith. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as the sari for women and the dhoti or lungi for men. Stitched clothes, such as the shalwar kameez for women and kurtapyjama combinations or European-style trousers and shirts for men, are also popular.[333] Use of delicate jewellery, modelled on real flowers worn in ancient India, is part of a tradition dating back some 5,000 years; gemstones are also worn in India as talismans.[334]

Sports[edit | edit source]

Boys playing football in Manipur.

In India, several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi, kho kho, pehlwani and gilli-danda. Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts, such as kalarippayattu, musti yuddha, silambam, and marma adi, originated in India. Chess, commonly held to have originated in India as chaturaṅga, is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian grandmasters.[335][336] Pachisi, from which parcheesi derives, was played on a giant marble court by Akbar.[337]

The improved results garnered by the Indian Davis Cup team and other Indian tennis players in the early 2010s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country.[338] India has a comparatively strong presence in shooting sports, and has won several medals at the Olympics, the World Shooting Championships, and the Commonwealth Games.[339][340] Other sports in which Indians have succeeded internationally include badminton[341] (Saina Nehwal and P V Sindhu are two of the top-ranked female badminton players in the world), boxing,[342] and wrestling.[343] Football is popular in West Bengal, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and the north-eastern states.[344]

India was the host country for the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup. The matches were held from 6 to 28 October in the cities of New Delhi, Kolkata, Kochi, Navi Mumbai, Guwahati and Margao.[345]

Field hockey in India is administered by Hockey India. The Indian national hockey team won the 1975 Hockey World Cup and have, as of 2016, taken eight gold, one silver, and two bronze Olympic medals, making it the sport's most successful team in the Olympics.

India has also played a major role in popularising cricket. Thus, cricket is, by far, the most popular sport in India. The Indian national cricket team won the 1983 and 2011 Cricket World Cup events, the 2007 ICC World Twenty20, shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka, and won 2013 ICC Champions Trophy. Cricket in India is administered by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI); the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy, and the NKP Salve Challenger Trophy are domestic competitions. The BCCI also conducts an annual Twenty20 competition known as the Indian Premier League.

India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games; the 1987, 1996, and 2011 Cricket World Cup tournaments; the 2003 Afro-Asian Games; the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy; the 2010 Hockey World Cup; and the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Major international sporting events held annually in India include the Chennai Open, the Mumbai Marathon, the Delhi Half Marathon, and the Indian Masters. The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix featured in late 2011 but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since 2014.[346]

India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games. An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where Team India won three out of four tournaments to date.[347]

The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna and the Arjuna Award are the highest forms of government recognition for athletic achievement; the Dronacharya Award is awarded for excellence in coaching.

See also[edit | edit source]


Others articles of the Topic India : UpGrad, Meet Barot, Mr. Rajkumar (actor), LimeRoad, Authenticook, Deepak Agrawal, Bombay, Jersey City

Others articles of the Topic Asia : Pakistan, Treasure 13

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. "[...] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it." (Constituent Assembly of India 1950).
  2. Hindi in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Union. English is an additional official language for government work alongside Hindi.[4][1][5] States and union territories can have a different official language of their own other than Hindi or English.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Besides specific religions, the last two categories in the 2011 Census were "Other religions and persuasions" (0.65%) and "Religion not stated" (0.23%).
  4. "The country's exact size is subject to debate because some borders are disputed. The Indian government lists the total area as 3,287,260 km2 (1,269,220 sq mi) and the total land area as 3,060,500 km2 (1,181,700 sq mi); the United Nations lists the total area as 3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi) and total land area as 2,973,190 km2 (1,147,960 sq mi)." (Library of Congress 2004).
  5. See also: names of India in its official languages.
  6. The Government of India also regards Afghanistan as a bordering country, as it considers all of Kashmir to be part of India. However, this is disputed, and the region bordering Afghanistan is administered by Pakistan. Source: "Ministry of Home Affairs (Department of Border Management)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  7. The northernmost point under Indian control is the disputed Siachen Glacier in Jammu and Kashmir; however, the Government of India regards the entire region of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Gilgit-Baltistan administered by Pakistan, to be its territory. It therefore assigns the latitude 37° 6' to its northernmost point.
  8. In 2015, the World Bank raised its international poverty line to $1.90 per day.[250]

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Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".

Bibliography[edit | edit source]

Overview

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Etymology

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History

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Geography

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Biodiversity

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Politics

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Foreign relations and military

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Economy

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Demographics

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Culture

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  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".
  • Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".

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General information

Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24". Lua error: Internal error: The interpreter has terminated with signal "24".