Monitoring and Evaluation

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                  Monitoring and Evaluation 

Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) is a process that helps improve performance and achieve results. Its goal is to improve current and future management of outputs, outcomes and impact. It is mainly used to assess the performance of projects, institutions and programs set up by governments, international organizations and NGOs. It establishes links between the past, present and future actions. Monitoring and evaluation processes can be managed by the donors financing the assessed activities, by an independent branch of the implementing organization, by the project managers or implementing team themselves and/or by a private company. The credibility and objectivity of monitoring and evaluation reports depend very much on the independence of the evaluators. Their expertise and independence is of major importance for the process to be successful Monitoring Monitoring is a continuous assessment that aims at providing all stakeholders with early detailed information on the progress or delay of the ongoing assessed activities. It is an oversight of the activity's implementation stage. Its purpose is to determine if the outputs, deliveries and schedules planned have been reached so that action can be taken to correct the deficiencies as quickly as possible.

Evaluation The M&E is separated into two distinguished categories: evaluation and monitoring. An evaluation is a systematic and objective examination concerning the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and impact of activities in the light of specified objectives The idea in evaluating projects is to isolate errors not to repeat them and to underline and promote the successful mechanisms for current and future projects. An important goal of evaluation is to provide recommendations and lessons to the project managers and implementation teams that have worked on the projects and for the ones that will implement and work on similar projects. Difference between monitoring and evaluation The common ground for monitoring and evaluation is that they are both management tools. For monitoring, data and information collection for tracking progress according to the terms of reference is gathered periodically which is not the case in evaluations for which the data and information collection is happening during or in view of the evaluation. The monitoring is a short term assessment and does not take into consideration the outcomes and impact unlike the evaluation process which also assesses the outcomes and sometime longer term impact. This impact assessment occurs sometimes after the end of a project, even though it is rare because of its cost and of the difficulty to determine whether the project is responsible of the observed results.

Types of monitoring and evaluation • Process monitoring/ physical progress monitoring. ... • Technical monitoring. ... • Assumption monitoring. ... • Financial Monitoring. ... • Impact Monitoring

Monitoring is the systematic and routine collection of data during project implementation for the purpose of establishing whether an intervention is moving towards the set objectives or project goals. In this case, data is collected throughout the life cycle of the project. The data collection tools are usually embedded into the project activities in order to ensure that the process is seamless. There are several types of monitoring in M&E and they include process monitoring, technical monitoring, assumption monitoring, financial monitoring and impact monitoring. Process monitoring/ physical progress monitoring In process monitoring, routine data is collected and analyzed in order to establish whether the project tasks and activities are leading towards the intended project results. It authenticates the progress of the project towards the intended results. This kind of monitoring measures the inputs, activities and outputs. In other words, process monitoring answers the questions “what has been done so far, where, when and how has it been done?” Most of the data collected during project implementation usually serves this kind of monitoring. Technical monitoring Technical monitoring involves assessing the strategy that is being used in project implementation to establish whether it is achieving the required results. It involves the technical aspects of the project such as the activities to be conducted. In a safe water project for example, physical progress monitoring may show that there is little or no uptake of chlorination as a water treatment strategy. Technical monitoring may establish that this could be a result of installing chlorine dispensers at the water source and women are too time constrained that they have no time to line up to get chlorine from the dispensers. This may prompt a change of strategy where the project might opt for household distribution of bottled chlorine. Assumption monitoring Any project has its working assumptions which have to be clearly outlined in the project log frame. These assumptions are those factors which might determine project success or failure, but which the project has no control over. Assumption monitoring involves measuring these factors which are external to the project. It is important to carry out assumption monitoring as it may help to explain success or failure of a project1. For example, a project that was promoting the use of contraceptives may realize that uptake of use of contraceptives has dropped. The drop in use of the contraceptive could however, be attributed to increased taxation on the importation of contraceptives in the country which makes them more expensive, rather than on project failure. Financial Monitoring Just like the name suggests, financial monitoring simply refers to monitoring project/ program expenditure and comparing them with the budgets prepared at the planning stage. The use of funds at the disposal of a program/project is crucial for ensuring there are no excesses or wastages. Financial monitoring is also important for accountability and reporting purposes, as well as for measuring financial efficiency (the maximization of outputs with minimal inputs). Impact Monitoring Impact monitoring is a type of monitoring which continually assesses the impactof project activities to the target population. Indeed, impacts are usually the long term effects of a project. However, for projects with a long life span or programs (programs have no defined timelines) there emerges a need for measuring impact change in order show whether the general conditions of the intended beneficiaries are improving or otherwise2. In this case, the manager monitors impact through the pre-determined set of impact indicators. Monitoring both the positive and negative impacts, intended and un-intended impacts of the project/program becomes imperative. For example, in a Water and Sanitation program, there may be a need to monitor the change in Under 5 Mortality in the program area over time. In this case, rather than being identified as an impact evaluation, this would be identified as impact monitoring.

Monitoring and Evaluation[edit]

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Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) is a process that helps improve performance and achieve results. Its goal is to improve current and future management of outputs, outcomes and impact. It is mainly used to assess the performance of projects, institutions and programs set up by governments, international organizations and NGOs. It establishes links between the past, present and future actions. Monitoring and evaluation processes can be managed by the donors financing the assessed activities, by an independent branch of the implementing organization, by the project managers or implementing team themselves and/or by a private company. The credibility and objectivity of monitoring and evaluation reports depend very much on the independence of the evaluators. Their expertise and independence is of major importance for the process to be successful Monitoring Monitoring is a continuous assessment that aims at providing all stakeholders with early detailed information on the progress or delay of the ongoing assessed activities. It is an oversight of the activity's implementation stage. Its purpose is to determine if the outputs, deliveries and schedules planned have been reached so that action can be taken to correct the deficiencies as quickly as possible.

Evaluation The M&E is separated into two distinguished categories: evaluation and monitoring. An evaluation is a systematic and objective examination concerning the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and impact of activities in the light of specified objectives The idea in evaluating projects is to isolate errors not to repeat them and to underline and promote the successful mechanisms for current and future projects. An important goal of evaluation is to provide recommendations and lessons to the project managers and implementation teams that have worked on the projects and for the ones that will implement and work on similar projects. Difference between monitoring and evaluation The common ground for monitoring and evaluation is that they are both management tools. For monitoring, data and information collection for tracking progress according to the terms of reference is gathered periodically which is not the case in evaluations for which the data and information collection is happening during or in view of the evaluation. The monitoring is a short term assessment and does not take into consideration the outcomes and impact unlike the evaluation process which also assesses the outcomes and sometime longer term impact. This impact assessment occurs sometimes after the end of a project, even though it is rare because of its cost and of the difficulty to determine whether the project is responsible of the observed results.

Types of monitoring and evaluation • Process monitoring/ physical progress monitoring. ... • Technical monitoring. ... • Assumption monitoring. ... • Financial Monitoring. ... • Impact Monitoring

Monitoring is the systematic and routine collection of data during project implementation for the purpose of establishing whether an intervention is moving towards the set objectives or project goals. In this case, data is collected throughout the life cycle of the project. The data collection tools are usually embedded into the project activities in order to ensure that the process is seamless. There are several types of monitoring in M&E and they include process monitoring, technical monitoring, assumption monitoring, financial monitoring and impact monitoring. Process monitoring/ physical progress monitoring In process monitoring, routine data is collected and analyzed in order to establish whether the project tasks and activities are leading towards the intended project results. It authenticates the progress of the project towards the intended results. This kind of monitoring measures the inputs, activities and outputs. In other words, process monitoring answers the questions “what has been done so far, where, when and how has it been done?” Most of the data collected during project implementation usually serves this kind of monitoring. Technical monitoring Technical monitoring involves assessing the strategy that is being used in project implementation to establish whether it is achieving the required results. It involves the technical aspects of the project such as the activities to be conducted. In a safe water project for example, physical progress monitoring may show that there is little or no uptake of chlorination as a water treatment strategy. Technical monitoring may establish that this could be a result of installing chlorine dispensers at the water source and women are too time constrained that they have no time to line up to get chlorine from the dispensers. This may prompt a change of strategy where the project might opt for household distribution of bottled chlorine. Assumption monitoring Any project has its working assumptions which have to be clearly outlined in the project log frame. These assumptions are those factors which might determine project success or failure, but which the project has no control over. Assumption monitoring involves measuring these factors which are external to the project. It is important to carry out assumption monitoring as it may help to explain success or failure of a project1. For example, a project that was promoting the use of contraceptives may realize that uptake of use of contraceptives has dropped. The drop in use of the contraceptive could however, be attributed to increased taxation on the importation of contraceptives in the country which makes them more expensive, rather than on project failure. Financial Monitoring Just like the name suggests, financial monitoring simply refers to monitoring project/ program expenditure and comparing them with the budgets prepared at the planning stage. The use of funds at the disposal of a program/project is crucial for ensuring there are no excesses or wastages. Financial monitoring is also important for accountability and reporting purposes, as well as for measuring financial efficiency (the maximization of outputs with minimal inputs). Impact Monitoring Impact monitoring is a type of monitoring which continually assesses the impactof project activities to the target population. Indeed, impacts are usually the long term effects of a project. However, for projects with a long life span or programs (programs have no defined timelines) there emerges a need for measuring impact change in order show whether the general conditions of the intended beneficiaries are improving or otherwise2. In this case, the manager monitors impact through the pre-determined set of impact indicators. Monitoring both the positive and negative impacts, intended and un-intended impacts of the project/program becomes imperative. For example, in a Water and Sanitation program, there may be a need to monitor the change in Under 5 Mortality in the program area over time. In this case, rather than being identified as an impact evaluation, this would be identified as impact monitoring.

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