From EverybodyWiki Bios & Wiki
Created byBilly Ray Waldon
DateLikely began in the 1950s or 1960s
UsersUnknown, at least one
constructed language
  • International auxiliary language
    • Poliespo
Writing system
SourcesPhonology derived from Esperanto, vocabulary mostly from Esperanto, but also partially English and Spanish, plus two words from Cherokee, grammar from Esperanto and Cherokee.
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Poliespo (Polisinteza Esperanto, "Polysynthetic Esperanto"), also referred to as Po, is an international auxiliary language created by Billy Ray Waldon, also known as Nvwtohiyada Idehesdi Sequoyah,[1] a Native American Movement activist and Esperantist on death row.[1][2]


The principle of creation for Poliespo was Nvwtohiyada's belief that certain languages contain words that made communication quicker, which he referred to as "lightning bolts" or "lightning words", and the goal was to combine as many of these as possible into one language.[citation needed] The language was originally referred to as Anagalisgi, the romanized form of Cherokee word for lightning. Most of Poliespo comes from Cherokee, English, Esperanto, and Spanish, the languages that Nvwtohiyada could speak.[citation needed]

The philosophy behind the language is reminiscent of sound symbolism, and therefore radically differs from the principles of Esperanto.

Nvwtohiyada also claimed that learning Poliespo is a golden opportunity to acquire an "Iroquoian spirit." In his words, "When one gains a new language, one gains a new soul. Po is your golden chance to acquire an Iroquoian spirit."[3]


Poliespo is believed to have 32 consonants, including the glottal stop, in addition to 22 vowels: 10 oral vowels, 2 of which are distinguished by vowel length, and 9 nasal vowels, 1 of which is distinguished by vowel length. Poliespo is also a tonal language, having 3 or 4 tones. The rising tone is the only tone that is marked, using an acute accent.[4]

Poliespo Consonants
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m   n        
Stop p b     t d   k ɡ /ʔ/
Preaspirated Nasal m̆ /ʰm/   n̆ /ʰn/        
Preaspirated Stop b̆ /ʰb/         k̆ /ʰk/  
Labialized Stop pw   /pʷ/            
Affricate     c /t͡s/ ĉ /t͡ʃ/ ĝ /d͡ʒ/      
Fricative f v t̂ /θ/ tͮ /ð/ s z ŝ /ʃ/ ĵ /ʒ/ y /ç/ ĥ /x/ h
Approximant ŭ /w/   l   j (ŭ /w/)  
Trill     r        
Poliespo Oral Vowels
Front Central Back
Close i | i: /iː/ ĭ /ɪ/ | ĭ: /ɪː/   u
Mid e x /ə/ q /ɜ~ɝ/ o
Open ⱥ /æ/ a w /ɔ/
Poliespo Nasal Vowels
Front Central Back
Close î /ɪ̃/ î: /ɪ̃ː/   û /ũ/
Mid ê /ẽ/ 2 /ə̃/ q̂ /ɜ̃~ɝ̃/ ô /õ/
Open ⱥ̂ /æ̃/ â /ã/ ŵ /ɔ̃/


Poliespo's alphabet consists of 54 letters: a, â, ⱥ, ⱥ̂, b, b̆, c, ĉ, d, e, ê, f, g, ĝ, h, ĥ, i, ĭ, ĭ:, ĭ́, î, î:, î́, j, ĵ, k, k̆, l, m, m̆, n, n̆, o, ô, p, pw  , s, ŝ, t, t̂, tͮ, u, û, ŭ, v, z, ẑ, z̆, q, q́, q̂, q̂́, w, ẃ, ŵ, ŵ́, x, x́, y, 2, 2́. In addition, the consonant ẑ represents /kts/, while the consonant z̆ represents /gdz/. pw   is p overstruck with w, and tͮ is t overstruck with v.[5][3]


The structure is more similar to Ido than to Esperanto, since radicals are inflected; therefore, the language is not perfectly agglutinative.[3] Unlike Ido, it has only one prefix in addition to those of Esperanto: pe-, which is used to indicate the "neutral" gender. Besides the accusative, there is also a subject suffix, as in Korean and Japanese.[citation needed] In Poliespo, there are two forms of oral speech. If one does not understand what you say in Poliespo, referred to as Idpo, one should repeat themselves in Esperanto, referred to as Zaespo.[3]

"I don't like bananas!"[citation needed]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Wallace, Amy (30 June 1991). "Making a Case for Providing Own Defense". Los Angeles Times.
  2. "Human Rights Advocates" (PDF). 42. Winter 2003–2004.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 https://www.oocities.org/raiu_harrison/conlang/conl9308.txt
  4. "SAN DIEGO : Billy Ray Waldon Gets Death Sentence". Los Angeles Times. 1992-02-29.
  5. "Poliespo: A Cherokee Esperanto". Archived from the original on 2005-02-05. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)

This article "Poliespo" is from Wikipedia. The list of its authors can be seen in its historical and/or the page Edithistory:Poliespo. Articles copied from Draft Namespace on Wikipedia could be seen on the Draft Namespace of Wikipedia and not main one.