School discipline

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A Harper's Weekly cover from 1898 shows a caricature of school discipline.
This Punishment Book, from the school attended by Henry Lawson, is one of the earliest surviving examples of this type of record.

School discipline is the actions taken by a teacher or the school organization towards a student (or group of students) when the student's behavior disrupts the ongoing educational activity or breaks a rule created by the teacher or the school system. Discipline can guide the children's behaviour or set limits to help them learn to take care of themselves, other people and the world around them.[1]

School systems set rules, and if students break these rules they are subject to discipline. These rules may, for example, define the expected standards of clothing, timekeeping, social conduct, and work ethic. The term "discipline" is applied to the punishment that is the consequence of breaking the rules. The aim of discipline is to set limits restricting certain behaviors or attitudes that are seen as harmful or against school policies, educational norms, school traditions, etc.[1] The focus of discipline is shifting and alternative approaches are emerging due to notably high dropout rates and disproportionate punishment upon minority students.

The importance of discipline[edit]

Disciplining children is important to create a safe and fun learning environment. Discipline requires knowledge, skill, sensitivity and self-confidence; like any art, it is something that one will acquire through training and experience; it becomes easier with practice. Many people confuse discipline with classroom management; discipline is one dimension of classroom management and classroom management is a general term.[2] Discipline can also have a positive influence on both the individual and classroom environment. Utilizing disciplinary actions can be an opportunity to reflect and learn about consequences, instill collective values, and encourage behavior that is acceptable for the classroom. Recognition of the diversity of values within communities can increase understanding and tolerance of different disciplinary techniques.[3] Promoting positive correction of questionable behavior within the classroom dynamic, as opposed to out-of-class punishments like detention, suspension, or expulsion, can encourage learning and discourage future misbehavior.[4] Learning to own one’s bad behavior can also contribute to positive growth in social emotional learning.[5]

Discipline is a set of actions determined by the school district to remedy actions taken by a student that are deemed inappropriate. Some scholars think students misbehave because of the lack of engagement and stimulation in typical school settings, a rigid definition of acceptable behaviors and/or a lack of attention and love in a student's personal life. Recently, scholars have begun to explore alternative explanations for why students are being disciplined, in particular the disproportionate rate of discipline towards African American and Minority students.

  • Lack of engagement and stimulation - Students are curious and constantly searching for meaning and stimulation in the school environment. Classes that are too one-dimensional, that fail to involve students sufficiently, are too challenging or are very much information heavy (leaving little room for discussion and consideration), will not satisfy students' curiosities or needs for authentic intellectual stimulation.[6]
  • A rigid definition of acceptable behavior - Most students, particularly older ones, are asked to sit at their desks for many minutes at a time and listen, read, and/or take notes. Teachers who fail to offer opportunities for movement and interpersonal engagement are likelier to have to use strictness and rules to maintain law and order.[6][unreliable source?]
  • Lack of attention and love - When students fail to receive the attention that they crave, they are likelier to find other ways to get it, even if it means drawing negative attention to themselves and even negative consequences. The more teachers let their students know how much they care about them and value their work, the likelier they are to respect a teacher's request and conform to their expectation.[6]
  • Disproportionate Discipline – African-American students, particularly boys, are disciplined more often in schools than any other demographic. African-American boys are also most likely to receive out-of-school suspensions. African-American boys were also the most likely to be labeled by faculty or school administration as overtly aggressive.[7] Research suggests that when given an opportunity to choose among several disciplinary options for a relatively minor offense, teachers and school administrators often choose more severe punishment for black students than for white students for the same offense.[8] Researchers who have examined these problems in American schools argue that schools use zero-tolerance discipline policies to, in effect, criminalize misdeeds such as dress code violations or talking back to a teacher.[9] Disciplinary methods also vary based on the student’s socioeconomic status. While high-income students more often reported receiving mild and moderate consequences (e.g., teacher reprimand, seat reassignment), low-income students reported receiving more severe consequences, sometimes delivered in a less-than-professional manner (e.g., yelled at in front of class, made to stand in hall all day, search of personal belongings).[10] School administrators may be implicitly biased towards students of colors and students of low socioeconomic status and need to find more equitable ways of disciplining their students in school.


School discipline practices are generally informed by theory from psychologists and educators. There are a number of theories to form a comprehensive discipline strategy for an entire school or a particular class.

  • Positive approach is grounded in teachers' respect for students. Instills in students a sense of responsibility by using youth/adult partnerships to develop and share clear rules, provide daily opportunities for success, and administer in-school suspension for noncompliant students. Based on Glasser's Reality Therapy. Research (e.g., Allen) is generally supportive of the PAD program.[11]
  • Teacher effectiveness training differentiates between teacher-owned and student-owned problems, and proposes different strategies for dealing with each. Students are taught problem-solving and negotiation techniques. Researchers (e.g., Emmer and Aussiker) find that teachers like the programme and that their behaviour is influenced by it, but effects on student behaviour are unclear.[11]
  • Adlerian approaches is an umbrella term for a variety of methods which emphasize understanding the individual's reasons for maladaptive behavior and helping misbehaving students to alter their behavior, while at the same time finding ways to get their needs met. Named for psychiatrist Alfred Adler. These approaches have shown some positive effects on self-concept, attitudes, and locus of control, but effects on behavior are inconclusive (Emmer and Aussiker).[11] Not only were the statistics on suspensions and vandalism significant, but also the recorded interview of teachers demonstrates the improvement in student attitude and behaviour, school atmosphere, academic performance, and beyond that, personal and professional growth.[12]
  • Appropriate school learning theory and educational philosophy is a strategy for preventing violence and promoting order and discipline in schools, put forward by educational philosopher Daniel Greenberg[13] and practised by the Sudbury Valley School.[14][15][16]

Disciplinary action[edit]


Detention is one of the most common punishments in schools in the United States, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Singapore, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and some other countries. It requires the pupil to report to a designated area of the school during a specified time on a school day (typically either recess or after school) and remain there for a specified period of time, but also may require a pupil to report to that part of school at a certain time on a non-school day, e.g. "Saturday detention" at some US, UK, and Irish schools (especially for serious offenses not quite serious enough for suspension).[clarification needed]

Typically, in schools in the US, UK, and Singapore, if one misses a detention, then another is added or the student gets a more serious punishment. In UK schools, for offenses too serious for a normal detention but not serious enough for a detention requiring the pupil to return to school at a certain time on a non-school day, a detention can require a pupil to return to school 1–2 hours after school ends on a school day, e.g. "Friday Night Detention".[17]

In Germany detention is less common. In some states like Baden-Württemberg there is detention to rework missed school hours, but in others like Rheinland-Pfalz it is prohibited by law. In schools where some classes are held on Saturdays, pupils may get detention on a Saturday even if it is a non-school day for them.

In China, long-time detention is less common than in the US, the UK, Ireland, Singapore, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and some other countries. However, short-time detention by teachers is still common. Teachers may ask the students to do some missed work after school. Keeping students after school is common, but usually lasts no more than 3 to 5 hours.[citation needed]

In Australia,[18] the policy for school detention: the principal must consider circumstances when determining what a reasonable time and place for detention entails and make sure that any special conditions relating to the imposition of detention are specified in the school's 'Student Engagement Policy'. The conditions that schools must ensure are that: no more than half the time for recess is used for detention, when students are kept after school, parents should be informed at least the day before detention, and detention should not exceed 45 minutes.[19]


Counseling is also provided when a kid/teen/adult will have to see a school counselor if they behave badly. The purpose of counseling is to help the student recognize their mistakes and find positive ways to make changes in the student’s life. Counseling can also help the student clarify the school's expectations, as well as understand the consequences of failing to meet those standards.


Suspension or temporary exclusion is mandatory leave assigned to a student as a form of punishment that can last anywhere from one day to a few weeks, during which the student is not allowed to attend regular lessons. In some US, UK, Australian and Canadian schools, there are two types of suspension: In-School (ISS, Internal Exclusion or Isolation) and Out-of-School (OSS, Off-Campus Suspension, External Exclusion). In-school suspension requires the student to report to school as usual, but attend a designated suspension classroom or room all day.[20] Out-of-school suspension bans the student from being on school grounds during school hours while school is in session. Students who breach a suspension by attending school may be arrested for and charged with trespassing. This could result in an extension of suspension, community service, and sometimes jail time. Students who continue to breach a suspension could be sentenced to expulsion and longer, more severe punishments. Students are also not allowed to attend after-school activities (such as proms, sporting events, etc.) while suspended from school.[21] Schools are usually required to notify the student's parents/guardians of the reason for and duration of an out-of-school or in-school suspension.[22] Students are often required to continue to learn and complete assignments during their suspension.[22] Studies suggest that exclusion can be associated with psychological distress, and to have a bi-directional link with mental illness.[23] In the United Kingdom, excluded children have been targeted by "county lines" drug traffickers.[24]

Corporal punishment[edit]

Throughout the history of education, the most common means of maintaining discipline in schools was corporal punishment. While a child was in school, a teacher was expected to act as a substitute parent, with many forms of parental discipline or rewards open to them. This often meant that students were commonly chastised with the birch, cane, paddle, strap or yardstick if they did something wrong. Around 69 countries still use school corporal punishment.

Corporal punishment in schools has now disappeared from most Western countries, including all European countries. In the United States, corporal punishment is not used in public schools in 34 states, banned in 31, permitted in 19, of which only 16 actually have school districts actively administering corporal punishment. Every U.S. state except New Jersey and Iowa permits corporal punishment in private schools, however an increasing number of private schools have abandoned the practice, especially Catholic schools, nearly all of which now ban. Thirty-one U.S. states as well as the District of Columbia have banned it from public schools, most recently New Mexico in 2011. The other 19 states (mostly in the South) continue to allow corporal punishment in public schools. Of the 19 which permit the practice, three – Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming have no public schools that actually use corporal punishment as of 2016. Paddling is still used to a significant (though declining) degree in some public schools in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas. Private schools in these and most other states may also use it, though many choose not to do so.

A cartoon picture that shows students receiving "Corporal Punishment."

Official corporal punishment, often by caning, remains commonplace in schools in some Asian, African and Caribbean countries.

Most mainstream schools in most other countries retain punishment for misbehavior, but it usually takes non-corporal forms such as detention and suspension.

In China, school corporal punishment was completely banned under the Article 29 of the Compulsory Education Act of the People's Republic of China, but in practice, beating by schoolteachers is still common, especially in rural areas.

In Australia, school corporal punishment has been banned in most states.

  • New South Wales (NSW) – Banned in government schools in 1990 and in non-government schools in 1995.[25]
  • Queensland (QLD) – Repealed provisions that allowed for corporal punishment in state schools in 1989.[25] Still permitted in private schools as of 2016.
  • Victoria (VIC) – Banned in government schools in 1985 and non-government schools in 2006.[25]
  • Tasmania (TAS) – Banned in both government and non-government schools in 1999.[25]
  • Australian Capital Territory (ACT) – Banned in all schools in 1997.[25]
  • Northern Territory (NT) – Banned in government schools in 2016. In 2009, it was banned in non-government schools as a part of school registration requirements.[25]
  • South Australia (SA) – Repealed provisions that allowed for corporal punishment in schools in 1991.[25] Still permitted in private schools as of 2016.
  • Western Australia (WA) – Corporal punishment was banned in government schools in 1999, but regulations did not extend to non-government schools.[25] However, it is banned in both government and non-government schools as of 2016.


Expulsion, exclusion, withdrawing, or permanent exclusion terminates the student's education. This is the last resort, when all other methods of discipline have failed. However, in extreme situations, it may also be used for a single offense.[26] Some education authorities have a nominated school in which all excluded students are collected; this typically has a much higher staffing level than mainstream schools. In some US public schools, expulsions are so serious that they require an appearance before the Board of Education or the court system. In the UK, head teachers may make the decision to exclude, but the student's parents have the right of appeal to the local education authority. It was completely banned for compulsory schools in China. This has proved controversial in cases where the head teacher's decision has been overturned (and his or her authority thereby undermined), and there are proposals to abolish the right of appeal. In the United States, when it comes to student discipline, there is a marked difference in procedure between public and private institutions. With public schools, the school must provide the student with constitutional due process protections as public educational institutions operate as an extension of state governments. Conversely, with private schools, the student can be expelled for any reason – provided that the expulsion was not “arbitrary and capricious.” Generally, as long as a private school follows the procedures in its student handbook, a court will not view its actions as arbitrary and capricious.[27] Expulsion from a private school is a more straightforward matter, since the school can merely terminate its contract with the parents if the pupil does not have (a) sibling(s) in the same school.

Restorative justice[edit]

In schools, restorative justice is an offshoot of the model used by some courts and law enforcement; it seeks to repair the harm that has been done by acknowledging the impact on the victim, community, and offender, accepting responsibility for the wrongdoing, and repairing the harm that was caused. Restorative practices can “also include preventive measures designed to build skills and capacity in students as well as adults." Some examples of preventative measures in restorative practices might include teachers and students devising classroom expectations together or setting up community building in the classroom. Restorative justice also focuses on justice as needs and obligations, expands justice as conversations between the offender, victim and school, and recognizes accountability as understanding the impact of actions and repairing the harm. Traditional styles of discipline do not always work well for students across every cultural community. As an alternative to the normative approaches of corporal punishment, detention, counseling, suspension, and expulsion, restorative justice was established to give students a voice in their consequences, as well as an opportunity to make a positive contribution to their community.[28] This method of discipline typically involves peer-mediation or adult-supervised conversations surrounding a perceived offence. Each student has the ability to contribute to the conversation, the person who has misbehaved has the opportunity not only to give their side of the story but also has a say in their consequence. Consequences defy the traditional methods of punitive punishment and instead give students an opportunity for restoration.[29] Restorative justice focuses on relationship building and the community as a whole over the individual student and their offence, creating a sense that everyone has a part in the community and it is everyone’s responsibility to uphold the values of the particular community.[30] This is a method that not only increases an understanding of perceived community values, but is also a method thought to work well in cultures and communities where there is a high value on the community, rather than just on the individual.

In 2012, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights released a report entitled "School Discipline and Disparate Impact," which was somewhat critical of the Department of Education's approach to school discipline.[31]

See also[edit]

Other articles of the topic Schools : EduCampus Aruba, Tarsus American College, Amanit school, Tarbiat School, Corporate Contribution Programme, Australian International School Dhaka, Seventh-day Adventist Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Vellore
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  • Adultism
  • Assertive discipline
  • Child discipline
  • Classroom management
  • Positive behavior support
  • Positive Discipline
  • School district drug policies
  • School to prison pipeline
  • School violence
  • Zero tolerance (schools)


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  2. "What is Discipline?". Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  3. Scarlett. W. George (Feb 24, 2015). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Classroom Management
  4. What is Positive School Discipline? (2013). Education Development Center.
  5. Chadsey, Terry and Jody McVittie (August 2006). The Positive Discipline Association.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Why Kids Misbehave in Classrooms". The Huffington Post. 26 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  7. Rudd, Thomas. “Racial Disproportionality in School Discipline: Implicit Bias Is Heavily Implicated.” Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity. Accessed December 01, 2016.
  8. “When Schools Are Forced to Practice Race-Based Discipline.” The Atlantic. Accessed December 01, 2016.
  9. “Study Tracks Vast Racial Gap In School Discipline In 13 Southern States.” NPR. Accessed December 06, 2016.
  10. Skiba, Russell. “The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment.” The Urban Review 34, no. 4 (December 2002)
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Cotton (December 1990). "Schoolwide and Classroom Discipline". School Improvement Research Series. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. 5. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link))
  12. Efficacy of Class Meetings in Elementary Schools, Ann Roeder Platt, B.A., California State University, Sacramento. The University of San Francisco, The Effectiveness of Alderian Parent and Teacher Study Groups in Changing Child Maladaptive Behavior in a Positive Direction. Jane Nelsen
  13. Greenberg, 1987
  14. The Sudbury Valley School (1970). Law and Order: Foundations of Discipline, The Crisis in American Education — An Analysis and a Proposal. (p. 49-55). Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  15. Greenberg, D. (1987). With Liberty and Justice for All, Free at Last, The Sudbury Valley School. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  16. Greenberg, D. (1987). Back to Basics, The Sudbury Valley School Experience. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
  17. "Behaviour and discipline in schools: Guidance for governing bodies". Department for Education (UK). 17 July 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2015.
  18. Training, Department of Education and. "Detentions". Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  19. "Detention". Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  20. Skiba, Russel (2006). "Zero tolerance, suspension, and expulsion: Questions of equity and effectiveness". In Evertson, C.M. Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Erlbaum. pp. 1063–1092. |access-date= requires |url= (help) Search this book on Logo.png
  21. "Discipline Policy and Procedures" (PDF). Delran Township School District, New Jersey. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
  22. 22.0 22.1 American Psychological Association Zero Tolerance Task Force (2008). "Are zero tolerance policies effective in the schools? An evidentiary review and recommendations". American Psychologist. 63: 852–862. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.63.9.852. PMID 19086747.
  23. Doward, Jamie (2017-08-19). "School exclusion 'linked to long-term mental health problems' – study". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  24. Rawlinson, Kevin (2018-09-28). "'County lines' drug gangs recruit excluded schoolchildren – report". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 "Federal Government rules out return of corporal punishment, after curriculum adviser says it can be 'very effective'". ABC NEWS. 16 July 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
  26. "Improving Behaviour and Attendance: Guidance on Exclusion from Schools and Pupil Referral Units" (PDF), Teachernet, Department for Children, Schools and Families, England, retrieved 25 January 2009
  27. "The Difference Between Public and Private School Disciplinary Hearings".
  28. Davis, Matt. (2015). Restorative Justice: Resources for Schools. Edutopia. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  29. Dalporto, Deva (2013). Restorative Justice: A Different Approach to Discipline. We Are Teachers. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  30. Editors of Rethinking Schools (2014). Restorative Justice: What it is and is not. Rethinking Schools. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  31. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, School Discipline and Disparate Impact (2012).


External links[edit]

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