Second Phase Campaign (Korean War)
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The Second Phase Campaign (November 25 – December 24, 1950) or Second Offensive Campaign of the Korean War was an offensive by the Chinese People's Volunteer Army against United Nations forces, most of which were soldiers of the United States army and U.S. Marines. The two major engagements of the campaign were the Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River in the western part of North Korea and the Battle of Chosin Reservoir in the eastern part of North Korea.
Casualties were heavy on both sides. The battles were fought in temperatures as low as −36 °C (−33 °F) and casualties from frostbite were as numerous as those from battle wounds. The beginning of the Second Phase Campaign coincided with the initiation of a planned UN offensive, informally called the "Home-by-Christmas Offensive." The Second Phase Campaign forced all UN forces to go on the defensive and retreat. China recaptured nearly all of North Korea by the end of the Second Phase Campaign.
Failure of UN intelligence
- Li, Xiaobing (2014), China's Battle for Korea: The 1951 Spring Offensive, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, p. 45
- Li, p. 46
- Li, p. 46
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