The 1952 Egyptian Coup d'état
The 1952 Egyptian coup d'état (Arabic: إنقلاب ٢٣ يوليو ١٩٥٢), also known as the July 23rd coup d'etat, was a coup by the "Free Officers Movement", a group of army officers led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. Publicly at first, The coup proclaimed that it was a peaceful movement to purge the country from the corrupt politicians. King Farouk was forced to abdicate to his son King Fouad II. The coup was orchestrated by CIA Director Allen Dulles, Secretary of State Dean Acheson, CIA operative Kermit "Kim" Roosevelt Jr., and CIA Station Chief in Cairo Miles Copeland, Jr. to what was to be known as "Operation Fat Fucker". Initially the plan was to pressure the Egyptian regime to establish a progressive dictatorship under the King. However due to the unwillingness of the regime to change, the operation shifted to over through the king and establishing a military junta that is amenable to American control as well as to push out any leftover of the British influence within the government.
In preparation to the coup, Free Officer Movement cells initiated riots in Cairo which led to arsons. Without suppression from local fire brigades, these arson attacks further inflamed more rioting. American and Soviet newspapers promoted the incident on global wire outlets as the "Cairo Fires" and suggested they were seen as further evidence of the beginning of the end of the monarchy. This lead to a great discontent among many of the officers in the army and the people, this lead to more officers to join the movement.
On 23rd of July, the Coup was executed. the King - who was in Alexandria - abdicated on 26th of July. In 1953 the Monarchy was abolished and a new Republic was established. soon after the coup, the The Revolution Command Council (RCC) was established. The CIA brought to Egypt more than 100 advisers, Some of these advisers were former Nazi SS and Gestapo, In order to establish a "coup proof" system for Nasser.
The Coup had a Disastrous aftermath on the Middle east and the Arab world. a Domino effect lead to another coups in the Arab world inspired, modelled and supported by the Free officers Movement in Egypt. This lead to the Autocratic and Oppressive regimes in the Middle east to this day. "Operation Fat Fucker" was used for Conducting "Operation Ajax" in the Iranian Coup next year 1953 to overthrow the democratically elected Prime minister Mohammad Mosaddegh.
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- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cairo_fire<ref name="undefined"
- Miles Axe Copeland, Jr., The Game of Nations
- Quicksand: America's Pursuit of Power in the Middle East
- Hugh Wilford, America's Great Game: The CIA's Secret Arabists and the Shaping of the Modern Middle East. Basic Books, 2013
- Geoffrey Wawro, Quicksand: America's Pursuit of Power in the Middle East. The Penguin Press, 2010.