Announced by the Australian company Thumtronics Pty Ltd in 2005, the Thummer won awards and received extensive press coverage. However, the product did not come to market. Isomorphic keyboards similar to those used in a jammer have been shown to accelerate the rate at which students grasp otherwise-abstract concepts in music theory.
The jammer keyboard was invented by Jim Plamondon in September 2003. Following this, he founded Thumtronics to design its "Thummer(tm)-brand jammer" and bring it to market. The trade name was to emphasize the unique thumb-control feature. Prototype Thummers were produced, but the effort to commercialize them failed, and Thumtronics was disbanded in mid-2009.
- At least one 2-dimensional keyboard in a hexagonal array; preferably, one for each hand.
The keys of the left-hand instrument are mirror-imaged to those on the right, to match the mirroring of one's hands.
- Notes assigned to the array using the Wicki/Hayden note-layout.
- At least one thumb-operated expressive control (such as the thumb-operated joysticks found on seventh-generation video game controllers).
- Optionally, other expressive controls, such as internal motion-sensors (such as those found in the Wii Remote video game controller), foot-pedals, breath controllers, etc.
- Jurgensen, John (7 December 2007). "The Soul of a New Instrument". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
- Beschizza, Rob (1 March 2007). "The Thummer: A Musican Instrument for the 21st Century?". Wired. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
- Van Buskirk, Eliot (25 September 2007). "Thummer musical instrument combines buttons, Wii-style motion detection". Wired. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
- Merrett, Andy (26 September 2007). "Thummer: new concept musical instrument based on QWERTY keyboard and motion detection". Tech Digest. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
- Strauss, Paul (25 September 2007). "Thummer: This Synthesizer is All About Expression". TechnaBob. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
- Holland, S. (1993). "Learning about harmony with Harmony Space: An overview". Proceedings of the 1993 World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education on Music Education (AI-ED 93): 24–40.
- Bergstrom, T.; Karahalios, K.; Hart, J. C. (2007). Isochords: visualizing structure in music. Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2007. p. 297. doi:10.1145/1268517.1268565. ISBN 9781568813370. Search this book on
- "The Thummer: A Musican Instrument for the 21st Century?". Wired.
- Milne, Andrew; Sethares, W.A.; Plamondon, J. (March 2008). "Tuning Continua and Keyboard Layouts". Journal of Mathematics and Music. 2 (1): 1–19. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.158.6927. doi:10.1080/17459730701828677.
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