Urdu in Nastaʿlīq script
|Native to||Pakistan and India|
|Ethnicity||No specific ethnicity|
|67 million (51 million in India, 16 million in Pakistan) (2011 & 2017 census)|
L2 speakers: 102 million (1999)
Official language in
|Regulated by||National Language Promotion Department|
Areas in India and Pakistan where Urdu is either official or co-official
Urdu (or modern standard Urdu) is one of the standard languages of the subcontinent. It is the national and public language of Pakistan, while it is the official language of six states of India. According to the Constitution of India, it has been included in 22 official identification languages. According to the 2001 census, Urdu as the mother tongue is 5.01% of the population in India and in this sense it is the sixth largest language in India, while in Pakistan it is used as the mother tongue 7.59% of the people, it is the fifth largest of Pakistan. Is the language. Urdu has historically been linked to the Muslim population of India. [Citation needed] Apart from some vocabulary, the language is understandable in standard Hindi, which is attributed to Hindus in the region.
The language was recognized and promoted when the British rulers in the British period, with English instead of Persian, imposed it as the official language in Northern India and Jammu and Kashmir in 1846 and Punjab in 1849. In addition, a large number of Urdu speakers are settled in the Gulf, European, Asian and American areas, mainly Urdu-speaking people from South Asia. According to the 1999 data, the total number of Urdu language translators was around 10 million. In this sense, it is the ninth largest language in the world.
Urdu is sometimes compared to Hindi. The fundamental difference between Urdu and Hindi is that Urdu is written in the Nastaliq script and uses Arabic and Persian words. While Hindi is written in Devanagari script and uses Sanskrit words more. Some linguists consider Urdu and Hindi to be two standard variants of the same language. Other experts, however, consider them both to be based on socioeconomic differences. Rather, the fact is that Hindi originated from Urdu. Similarly, if Urdu and Hindi are considered as one, then it is the fourth largest language in the world.
See also[edit | edit source]
- List of Urdu-language poets
- List of Urdu-language writers
- National Translation Mission (NTM)
- Persian and Urdu
- States of India by Urdu speakers
- Urdu in the United Kingdom
- Uddin and Begum Hindustani Romanisation
- Urdu Digest
- Urdu in Aurangabad
- Urdu Informatics
- Urdu keyboard
- Glossary of the British Raj
Notes[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Ramkrishna Mukherjee (2018). Understanding Social Dynamics in South Asia: Essays in Memory of Ramkrishna Mukherjee. Springer. pp. 221–. ISBN 9789811303876.
- Economic and Political Weekly. Sameeksha Trust. 1996.
- "Scheduled Languages in descending order of speaker's strength - 2011" (PDF). Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 29 June 2018.
- "Population by Mother Tongue | Pakistan Bureau of Statistics". www.pbs.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 12 July 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2018. Unknown parameter
- Urdu at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
- Hindustani (2005). Keith Brown, ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.
- Gaurav Takkar. "Short Term Programmes". punarbhava.in. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2015. Unknown parameter
- "Indo-Pakistani Sign Language", Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics
- "Urdu is Telangana's second official language". The Indian Express. 2017-11-16. Retrieved 2018-02-27.
- "Urdu is second official language in Telangana as state passes Bill". The News Minute. 2017-11-17. Retrieved 2018-02-27.
- "The World Fact Book". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 16 July 2017. Unknown parameter
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Urdu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Henry Blochmann (1877). English and Urdu dictionary, romanized (8 ed.). CALCUTTA: Printed at the Baptist mission press for the Calcutta school-book society. p. 215. Retrieved 6 July 2011.the University of Michigan
- John Dowson (1908). A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language (3 ed.). LONDON: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., ltd. p. 264. Retrieved 6 July 2011.the University of Michigan
- John Dowson (1872). A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language. LONDON: Trübner & Co. p. 264. Retrieved 6 July 2011.Oxford University
- John Thompson Platts (1874). A grammar of the Hindūstānī or Urdū language. Volume 6423 of Harvard College Library preservation microfilm program. LONDON: W.H. Allen. p. 399. Retrieved 6 July 2011.Oxford University
- John Thompson Platts (1892). A grammar of the Hindūstānī or Urdū language. LONDON: W.H. Allen. p. 399. Retrieved 6 July 2011.the New York Public Library
- John Thompson Platts (1884). A dictionary of Urdū, classical Hindī, and English (reprint ed.). LONDON: H. Milford. p. 1259. Retrieved 6 July 2011.Oxford University
- Ahmad, Rizwan. 2006. "Voices people write: Examining Urdu in Devanagari"
- Alam, Muzaffar. 1998. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." In Modern Asian Studies, vol. 32, no. 2. (May, 1998), pp. 317–349.
- Asher, R. E. (Ed.). 1994. The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4.
- Azad, Muhammad Husain. 2001 . Aab-e hayat (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Works) 1907 [in Urdu]; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001. [In English translation]
- Azim, Anwar. 1975. Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. In Z. Imam (Ed.), Muslims in India (p. 259).
- Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. London, UK & New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-11087-4 (Book), 0415110882 (Cassettes), 0415110890 (Book & Cassette Course)
- Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. 2000. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13540-0 (Book); ISBN 0-415-13541-9 (cassette); ISBN 0-415-13542-7 (book and casseettes course)
- Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960. Indo-Aryan and Hindi (rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay.
- Dua, Hans R. 1992. "Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language". In M. G. Clyne (Ed.), Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012855-1.
- Dua, Hans R. 1994a. Hindustani. In Asher, 1994; pp. 1554.
- Dua, Hans R. 1994b. Urdu. In Asher, 1994; pp. 4863–4864.
- Durrani, Attash, Dr. 2008. Pakistani Urdu.Islamabad: National Language Authority, Pakistan.
- Gumperz, J.J. (1982). "Discourse Strategies". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Hassan, Nazir and Omkar N. Koul 1980. Urdu Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.
- Syed Maqsud Jamil (16 June 2006). "The Literary Heritage of Urdu". Daily Star.
- Kelkar, A. R. 1968. Studies in Hindi-Urdu: Introduction and word phonology. Poona: Deccan College.
- Khan, M. H. 1969. Urdu. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 5). The Hague: Mouton.
- King, Christopher R. 1994. One Language, Two Scripts: The Hindi Movement in Nineteenth Century North India. Bombay: Oxford University Press.
- Koul, Ashok K. 2008. Urdu Script and Vocabulary. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
- Koul, Omkar N. 1994. Hindi Phonetic Reader. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
- Koul, Omkar N. 2008. Modern Hindi Grammar. Springfield: Dunwoody Press.
- Narang, G. C.; Becker, D. A. (1971). "Aspiration and nasalization in the generative phonology of Hindi-Urdu". Language. 47 (3): 646–767. doi:10.2307/412381. JSTOR 412381.
- Ohala, M. 1972. Topics in Hindi-Urdu phonology. (PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles).
- "A Desertful of Roses", a site about Ghalib's Urdu ghazals by Dr. Frances W. Pritchett, Professor of Modern Indic Languages at Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
- Phukan, S. 2000. The Rustic Beloved: Ecology of Hindi in a Persianate World, The Annual of Urdu Studies, vol 15, issue 5, pp. 1–30
- The Comparative study of Urdu and Khowar. Badshah Munir Bukhari National Language Authority Pakistan 2003.
- Rai, Amrit. 1984. A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-561643-X.
- Snell, Rupert Teach yourself Hindi: A complete guide for beginners. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC
- Pimsleur, Dr. Paul, "Free Urdu Audio Lesson"
- The poisonous potency of script: Hindi and Urdu, ROBERT D. KING
[edit | edit source]
|اردو edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Urdu at Curlie
- Urdu language at Encyclopædia Britannica
- Directory of Urdu websites.
- Type in Urdu
- Urdu Tutorials Library
- Urdu Scholarship-Maldonado Garcia
- UrdueBooks Open Source
- Urdu Digital Library
Category:Hindustani language Category:Fusional languages Category:Indo-Aryan languages Category:Language versus dialect Category:Official languages of India Category:Languages of India Category:Languages of Pakistan Category:Languages of Gujarat Category:Languages of Maharashtra Category:Languages of Bihar Category:Languages of Jammu and Kashmir Category:Languages of Jharkhand Category:Languages of Uttar Pradesh Category:Languages of Telangana Category:Languages of West Bengal Category:Subject–object–verb languages Category:Languages drafts
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