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Coordinates: 4°N 72°W / 4°N 72°W / 4; -72


Republic of Colombia

República de Colombia  (Spanish)
Flag of Colombia
Coat of arms
Motto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish)
("Freedom and Order")
Location of Colombia (dark green) in South America (grey)
Location of Colombia (dark green)

in South America (grey)

and largest city
4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583°N 74.067°W / 4.583; -74.067

Official languagesSpanish
Recognized regional languagesEnglish (in San Andrés and Providencia)
64 other languages [a]
Ethnic groups
(2018 census[1])
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Iván Duque Márquez
Marta Lucía Ramírez
Chamber of Representatives
Independence from Spain
• Declared
20 July 1810
• Recognized
7 August 1819
• Last unitarisation
• Secession of Panama
4 July 1991
• Total
1,141,748 km2 (440,831 sq mi) (25th)
• Water (%)
2.1 (as of 2015)[3]
• 2020 estimate
Neutral increase 50,372,424[4] (28th)
• Density
42.23/km2 (109.4/sq mi) (173rd)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
$940.589 billion[5] (31st)
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
$351.281 billion[5] (38th)
• Per capita
Gini (2019)Negative increase 51.3[6]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.767[7]
high · 83rd
CurrencyColombian peso (COP)
Time zoneUTC−5[b] (COT)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+57
ISO 3166 codeCO
  1. ^ Although the Colombian Constitution specifies Spanish (Castellano) as the official language in all Colombian territory, other languages spoken in the country by ethnic groups – approximately 68 languages – each is also official in its own territory.[8] English is also official in the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.[9]
  2. ^ The official Colombian time[10] is controlled and coordinated by the National Institute of Metrology.[11]

Colombia (/kəˈlʌmbiə/ (About this soundlisten) kə-LUM-bee-ə, /-ˈlɒm-/ -⁠LOM-;[12] Spanish: [koˈlombja] (About this soundlisten)), officially the Republic of Colombia,[lower-alpha 1] is a transcontinental country spanning South America and an insular region in North America. It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, Ecuador and Peru to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west, and Panama to the northwest. Colombia comprises 32 departments and the Capital District of Bogotá, the country's largest city. It covers an area of 1,141,748 square kilometers (440,831 sq mi), with a population of 50 million. Colombia's rich cultural heritage reflects influences by various Amerindian civilizations, European settlement, African slaves, and immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Spanish is the nation's official language, besides which over 70 languages are spoken.

Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since at least 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and the Tairona. The Spanish landed first in La Guajira in 1499 and by the mid-16th century colonized parts of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santa Fé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from the Spanish Empire was achieved in 1819, with what is now Colombia emerging as the United Provinces of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903, leading to Colombia's present borders. Beginning in the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security, stability, and rule of law, as well as unprecedented economic growth and development.[13][14]

Colombia is one of the world's seventeen megadiverse countries, and has the second-highest level of biodiversity in the world.[15] Its territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, highlands, grasslands, and deserts, and it is the only country in South America with coastlines and islands along both Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Colombia is a member of major global and regional organizations including the United Nations, the WTO, the OECD, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, the Andean Community, and a NATO Global Partner. Its diversified economy is the third-largest in South America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects.[16][17]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named grupos étnicos
  2. "Religion affiliations in Colombia 2018". Statista.
  3. "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  4. "¿Cuántos somos?". Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE). Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "World Economic Outlook Database: Colombia". International Monetary Fund. April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  6. "GINI index (World Bank estimate) – Colombia". World Bank. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  7. "2019 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  8. Colombian Constitution of 1991 (Title I – Concerning Fundamental Principles – Article 10)
  9. "LEY 47 DE 1993" (in español). Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  10. "The official Colombian time" (in español). Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  11. "Decreto 4175 de 2011, artículo 6, numeral 14" (in español). Presidencia de la República de Colombia. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  12. Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John, eds. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-15255-6. Search this book on
  13. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Enough Already!
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  15. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Biodiversity of Colombia
  16. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named GDP
  17. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named strongmacroeconomicmanagement
  1. IPA transcription of "República de Colombia": Spanish pronunciation: [reˈpuβlika ðe koˈlombja].

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