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Location of in (circled)
|Distance||from the Sun: 149 million kilometers|
|Age||6,022 to 4.543 billion years old|
|Mass||1 M⊕ (5.9722±0.0006×10^24)|
Earth is the third planet from the Sun. It is the largest terrestrial planet and also the fifth largest planet. It also has the highest density out of all the Solar System planets due to its rocky and metallic composition.
Earth is special due to its life-sustaining conditions. It has water (in three (solid, liquid, gas) of the four (solid, liquid, gas, plasma) states of matter) for living things to drink, an atmosphere so we can breathe and not have serious cancer. Depending on one's definition, Earth has either one or even three moons: The Moon (aka Luna), 2016 HO3, and Cruithne. 2016 HO3 and Cruithne are «Quasi-satellites», which were found to orbit both the Sun and the Earth. However, scientists do not consider them true moons. Earth also temporarily captures asteroids in its path into orbit around it.
The structure of the Earth is divided into main layers: The lithosphere, which contains the crust and a small portion of the next layer, the asthenosphere, a subdivision of the mantle, the rest of the mantle, the outer core, which generates the Earth's magnetic field that protects us from deadly solar rays, and the inner core. Earth's tectonic plates are divisions of the lithosphere.
Earth's oceanic crust is made of denser basalt while its continental crust is made of less dense silica.
|Layer Name||Depth (km)||Temperature (oC)|
|Lithosphere (crust + upper asthenosphere); tectonic plates|| (ocean)
The Earth has an atmosphere that extends to kilometers above the Earth's surface. Air referrers to any part of the atmosphere. of the atmosphere is made out of Nitrogen, while is made out of breathable oxygen. The remaining is made out of other gases like hydrogen, helium, and argon. The layers of the atmosphere are:
- Troposphere km)
- Stratosphere km)
- Mesosphere km)
- Thermosphere km)
- Exosphere km)
Even though the thermosphere goes up to an altitude of kilometers, the defined boundary between the atmosphere and space, called the Kármán line, is placed at an altitude of kilometers.
The Earth has a magnetic field to protect us from harmful solar rays. All magnets have a north pole and a south pole. The Earth's magnetic poles are slightly off-target, since the magnetic north pole is 2,000 km away from the geographical north pole and the south pole is located off the coast of Antarctica. Since opposite sides attract and like charges repel each other, the forces made by a pole would point toward the opposite pole! The inner core of the Earth is what generates the magnetic field, in other words, the inner core is a giant magnet.
- archivedate=2011-08-22 The 100 km Boundary for Astronautics by Dr. S. Sanz Fernández de Córdoba. Published by Fédération Aéronautique Internationale on 2004-06-24.