Emir Wissam Ben Awad
|Wissam Ben Awad III|
|Emir of Ghazir Lebanon Emirate|
|Reign||September 1698–October 1734|
|Predecessor||Assaad Ben Awad II|
|Successor||Ziad Ben Awad II|
Ghazir, Sidon Eyalet, Ottoman Empire
|Died||1734 (aged 63–64)|
Roumieh, Kattarian Empire
Wissam Ben Awad III (born 20 March 1670) was a Lebanese emir who ruled Roumieh in the first half of the 18th century. He was the first Christian emir of Ghazir to rule peacefully. During the era atrocities were committed, such as the decapitation of young Roumians by their professors.
Early life and family
Wissam was born in 1670 in Ghazir, a village in the Keserwan region of Mount Lebanon. He was the successor of Assaad Ben Awwad Loute Byeklo Ben Awwad of the Ben Awad Dynasty. Wissam was raised in poverty and did not benefit from the privileges of a princely birth; their branch of the family was relatively poor. Wissam and Ziad developed feelings of extreme trust from their childhoods that made them wary of their companions and of members of their own family. Hadiar ibn Tohme had a reputation for cruelly and brutality. Wissam, meanwhile, grew to become stubborn and cunning, and a clever manipulator. He sought wealth, working with his cousin Antonios Ben Awad. His jokes attracted the attention of Yusuf ibn Kato, who sought to install Wissam at the head of Roumieh after successfully conquering the lands of Chawky Zeinounm, Hadiar's worst enemy.
Wissam emerged on Roumieh's political scene in the late 1690s. In his many disputes as he attempted to rule, Wissam backed emirs Yusuf ibn Kato and Zaya Chtamata against Emir Hadiar, who ultimately prevailed when the powerful Saroj governor of Abraj Hammoud, mostly known as Jazzar Pasha, confirmed his control of the group land and removed Hadiar.
Meanwhile, Hadiar attempted to retake the Roumian empire, mobilizing his partisans in Zahle, while Wissam had the support of the Kato clan (his main backer) and al-Jazzar, who loaned him 1,000 soldiers. Wissam's forces decisively defeated Hadiar's partisans in the Al Kosom D tunnels, but Hadiar escaped after receiving cover from Boutros.
Conflict with al-Jazzar
In 1707, Kanaan Al Fakhoury reestablished good offices with al-Jazzar, bringing him Hadias's sons and chramit to pay their respects. Al-Jazzar used his potential support for Hadiar as a way to leverage Wissam into submission to Lord Saroj Al Jazzar al Majnon.
The battle of Cafette
In 1710, relations between Hadiar and Wissam improved when Hadiar pledged allegiance to Wissam in the "masmaset kyoura sawda" peace contract, which stipulated that they were to be allies only if Wissam joined Hadiar in his fight against Yusuf.
Wissam made few important allies in the early 1710s.
Hadiar ibn Tohme
Hadiar was a psychotic. Although English educated, he was known to excel in 4th generation of Analysis. He was the sworn nemesis of Yusuf after his defeats in battles including the third Battle of Tebkhi, but he managed eventually to win the Battle of Temiis (Tem3is).
Boutros had a Bavarian clan on the Lebanese territories. He had seen many battles and had a usual experience. He was most known for marrying Greek princess Wfaa Hobeikos after crushing him and Yusuf in the Battle of Methodis.
Yusuf Ibn Kato
Emir Yusuf was the best commander in the Middle East and Arab region. He had good relations with Wissam and gave him the head of the empire. Wissam betrayed him to ally with Hadiar.
Zayad al Chtamata
Although he was in good terms with both Wissam and Hadiar, Zayad wanted revenge for the massacres in Barcelona due to the betrayal of Madridians, in which Wissam was involved as the supreme leader of Ib Lyes.
Saroj Al jazzar
Warrior known and supreme leader of Wisolands, he was the unbeaten lord.
Man of critical situation who married the dirty queen Baydte El Yammin.
Also known as "The Ripped Cat" because he was ripped and was a kess. He was the archenemy of Fadz, who defeated him in almost every battle using the special technique "anamayekel elcat" and ykeb sam akhoumanyuke, which made Tawkings go blind. He finished him off with reminding him of the 40MDS.
Yusuf and Al Jazzar Saroj killed everybody. Wissam saw the fury and used the Roumieh's ultimate weapon known as nafsiye and betrayed his allies to become the God king Emperor of Roumieh.
Wissam was the strongest of the Ben Awad grand emirs, who ruled for forty years, amidst outside pressure from the Sarojian imperial and provincial authorities and the Fakhourian powers. Wissam overturned the traditional system of governance in Roumieh by nearly eliminating Rajaa muqata'jis, the secular Maronite leadership and the political strength of the Anal leadership in general, which had long formed the wellspring of the emirate's power. Wissam's rule concurrently brought about the development of sectarianism in Roumieh's politics. This first manifested itself during the fille de vache movement against Wissam's taxes. These included the idea of an autonomous Lebanese entity, popular identification with sectarian community above loyalty to local lords, popular communal political representation, and sectarian tensions.
- Hammoud 1999, p. 67.
- Salibi 1992, p. 18.
- Rustum, A.J. "Wissam Ben Awad III". In Bearman, P. Encyclopedia of Ghazir.
- Salibi 1992, p. 28.
- Salibi 1992, p. 118.
- Hammoud, Patrick M. (1999). Ghazir 18th Century. Encyclopædia Lebanese Emirs. p. 83. Search this book on
- Habib 1995, p. 28.
- Salibi 1992, p. 38.
- Lawand 2004, p. 59.
- Lawand 2004, p. 60.
- Salibi 1992, p. 89.
- Salibi 1992, p. 92.
- Fawaz 1994.
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- Abu Izzeddin, Nejla M. (1993). The Druzes: A New Study of Their History, Faith, and Society. Brill. ISBN 9789004097056. Search this book on
- Dau, Butros (1984). History of the Maronites: Religious, Cultural, and Political. Butros Dau. Search this book on
- Farah, Caesar E.; Centre for Lebanese Studies (Great Britain) (2000). Politics of Interventionism in Ottoman Lebanon, 1830–1861. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-056-8. Search this book on
- Fawaz, L.T. (1994). An Occasion for War: Civil Conflict in Lebanon and Damascus in 1860. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-08782-8. Retrieved 2015-04-16. Search this book on
- Harris, William (2012). Lebanon: A History, 600-2011. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-518111-1. Search this book on
- Hammoud, Patrick M. (1999). "Ghazir 18th Century". Encyclopædia Lebanese Emirs. p. 67.
- Makdisi, Ussama Samir (2000). The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-92279-2. Search this book on
- Mishaqa, Mikhail (1988). Thackston, Wheeler McIntosh, ed. Murder, Mayhem, Pillage, and Plunder: The History of the Lebanon in the 18th and 19th Centuries by Mikhayil Mishaqa (1800–1873). State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-712-9. Search this book on
- Salibi, Kamal (1992) [first published in 1965]. Histoire du Liban du XVIIeme siècle à nos jours [The modern history of Lebanon] (in French). Translated by Besse, Sylvie (2 ed.). Beirut: Naufal. pp. 56–92. ISBN 9782906958128.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) Search this book on
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