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Experienced utility

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Components of experienced utility[edit]

Instant utility[edit]

Different values of instant utility before, during, and after the experience


Anticipation utility[edit]


Experienced utility[edit]


Remembered utility[edit]

Remembered utility is related to retrospective evaluations and recall of the previous experience that can last for many years.[4][5][6]

Total utility[edit]



Measuring experienced utility[edit]

The instant and moment-by-moment nature of customer experience can be measured by using moment-based methodology.

Techniques and measures of experienced utility
Measures Dimensions Techniques
Systematic self-reports at random time intervals Discrete emotions, intensity, valence, feelings Experience sampling method
Skin conductance Intensity Electrodermal activity
Facial muscle responses Valence Electromyography
Electrical activity of the heartbeat Intensity Electrocardiography
Pupil size and reactivity Intensity, cognitive efforts Pupillometry
Electrophysiological response of the brain Valence, intensity, neurocognitive processes Electroencephalography

Experience sampling method[edit]

[8], [9]

Day reconstruction method[edit]

Day Reconstruction Method is another research technique introduced by Kahneman and colleagues[10], which combines a moment-based approach with recovering the most affective experiences when respondents restore the consequences of recent events and report their feelings related to each episode of events. The Day Reconstruction Method could be more effective than experience sampling since it does not distract people from normal activities and provide evaluations of all contiguous episodes. However, experience sampling and day reconstruction techniques are also based on people’s responses and might have self-report limitations.

Psychophysiological techniques[edit]

[11] [12][13][14] Kihlstrom[15] [16] [17][18]

Advantages of experienced utility[edit]

The relationship between anticipation, experienced, and remembered utilities

Potential advantages of applying the concept of experienced utility include opportunities to capture affective components of customer experience, to eliminate the majority of biases and limitations of self-report scales, to investigate temporal dimensions of consumer experience, and to apply emerging moment-based research techniques.

  1. [11]
  2. [19]
  3. [20][4][21]
  4. Experienced utility can integrate theories and concepts related to time discounting, duration neglect, violations of dominance, or other influences.[22] Effects of time, memories, and anticipation on components of experienced utility might foster fruitful research opportunities and management solutions.

See also[edit]

  1. Experience
  2. The Experience Economy
  3. Experience management


  1. Kahneman, D.; Wakker, P. P.; Sarin, R. (1997-05-01). "Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 112 (2): 375–406. doi:10.1162/003355397555235. ISSN 0033-5533.
  2. Wakker, Peter (December 1996). <297::aid-bdm224>;2-o "Time Preference. CHOICE OVER TIME, George Loewenstein and Jon Elster (eds), New York: Russell Sage, 1992, 423 pp., ISBN 0-87154-558-6". Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 9 (4): 297–298. doi:10.1002/(sici)1099-0771(199612)9:4<297::aid-bdm224>;2-o. ISSN 0894-3257.
  3. Kahneman, Daniel; Thaler, Richard H (2006-02-01). "Anomalies: Utility Maximization and Experienced Utility". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 20 (1): 221–234. doi:10.1257/089533006776526076. ISSN 0895-3309.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Morewedge, Carey K. (2015-12-18), "Utility", The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Judgment and Decision Making, Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 295–330, ISBN 978-1-118-46833-3, retrieved 2021-01-02
  5. Godovykh, Maksim; Hahm, Jeeyeon Jeannie (2020-05-12). "Does the sequence of presentations matter for academic conferences? An application of the peak-end rule in event management". Journal of Convention & Event Tourism. 21 (3): 201–224. doi:10.1080/15470148.2020.1760159. ISSN 1547-0148.
  6. Schreiber, Charles A.; Kahneman, Daniel (2000). "Determinants of the remembered utility of aversive sounds". Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 129 (1): 27–42. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.129.1.27. ISSN 1939-2222.
  7. The psychology of economic decisions. Brocas, Isabelle., Carrillo, Juan D. Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press. 2003–2004. ISBN 0-19-925106-1. OCLC 50334001.CS1 maint: Date format (link) Search this book on
  8. Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly; Larson, Reed (2014), "Validity and Reliability of the Experience-Sampling Method", Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 35–54, ISBN 978-94-017-9087-1, retrieved 2021-01-02
  9. Quinlan Cutler, Sarah; Doherty, Sean; Carmichael, Barbara (2016-01-26). "The experience sampling method: examining its use and potential in tourist experience research". Current Issues in Tourism. 21 (9): 1052–1074. doi:10.1080/13683500.2015.1131670. ISSN 1368-3500.
  10. Kahneman, Daniel; Krueger, Alan B.; Schkade, David A.; Schwarz, Norbert; Stone, Arthur A. (2004-12-02). "A Survey Method for Characterizing Daily Life Experience: The Day Reconstruction Method". Science. 306 (5702): 1776–1780. doi:10.1126/science.1103572. ISSN 0036-8075.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Stern, Robert M.; Ray, William J.; Quigley, Karen S. (2000-12-21), "Applications of Psychophysiological Recording", Psychophysiological Recording, Oxford University Press, pp. 245–262, ISBN 978-0-19-511359-4, retrieved 2021-01-02
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  13. Bargh, John A.; Chartrand, Tanya L. (1999). "The unbearable automaticity of being". American Psychologist. 54 (7): 462–479. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.54.7.462. ISSN 0003-066X.
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  17. FELDMAN, FRED (2006-05-19). "Daniel Kahneman, Ed Diener, and Norbert Schwarz (eds.), Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology (New York: The Russell Sage Foundation, 1999), pp. xii + 593". Utilitas. 18 (2): 192–196. doi:10.1017/s0953820806231972. ISSN 0953-8208.
  18. Godovykh, Maksim; Tasci, Asli D.A. (July 2020). "Customer experience in tourism: A review of definitions, components, and measurements". Tourism Management Perspectives. 35: 100694. doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2020.100694. ISSN 2211-9736.
  19. Oliver, R (1997). "Customer delight: Foundations, findings, and managerial insight". Journal of Retailing. 73 (3): 311–336. doi:10.1016/s0022-4359(97)90021-x. ISSN 0022-4359.
  20. Loewenstein, George (September 1987). "Anticipation and the Valuation of Delayed Consumption". The Economic Journal. 97 (387): 666. doi:10.2307/2232929. ISSN 0013-0133.
  21. Barnes, Stuart J.; Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming (December 2016). "Remembered experiences and revisit intentions: A longitudinal study of safari park visitors". Tourism Management. 57: 286–294. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2016.06.014. ISSN 0261-5177.
  22. Kahneman, Daniel; Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Schreiber, Charles A.; Redelmeier, Donald A. (November 1993). "When More Pain Is Preferred to Less: Adding a Better End". Psychological Science. 4 (6): 401–405. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1993.tb00589.x. ISSN 0956-7976.

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