Generalized proper time

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Unification through generalized proper time [1] is a proposed unified theory of physics which holds that space and matter both arise from the one-dimensional flow of time.[2]

The theory contrasts with unification schemes including string theory and M-theory where matter fields arise from spatial dimensions additional to the three that we perceive.

The theory proposes a theory of quantum gravity in which gravity is not quantized. General relativity emerges from the theory largely unmodified, while it is postulated that quantum field theory arises as a limiting case of the theory.[3] In the theory, the characteristic feature of quantum mechanics, namely indeterminacy, arises through inherent degeneracy in the mapping between one dimensional time and matter fields embedded in four dimensional space time.[3]

In not quantizing gravity the theory contrasts with loop quantum gravity and string theory which both imply that gravity is quantized. While most professional theoretical physicists assume that such quantization is necessary for a successful physical theory,[4] it has been argued that this belief rests on metaphysical assumptions [4] and that the no-go theorems that have been presented for the necessity of quantizing gravity within a consistent physical theory are not watertight.[4][5]

The theory offers a potential resolution to the measurement problem and other conceptual issues of quantum mechanics. According to the theory, the indeterminism of any interaction is a property of the entire physical arena, including setup of the measurement apparatus.[3] It is argued that wave functions are not physical entities and apparent wave function collapse reflects the change in knowledge of a particular observer, rather than any abrupt physical change.[3] Since quantum field theory is postulated to be a limiting case, other apparent paradoxes of quantum mechanics are likely a result of applying the approximation beyond its domain of validity.[3]

The theory postulates that the Standard Model of particle physics, with three generations of Quarks and Leptons arises from to the properties of the unique and largest Exceptional E 8 Lie Group.[6] However, it differs from the proposed Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything[7] and a subsequent proposal by Garrett Lisi[8] in many respects, for example because according to the theory gravity is not embedded within E 8.[6]


  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Wuetrich, C. "To Quantize or Not to Quantize: Fact and Folklore in Quantum Gravity". Phil. sci. 5: 777–778.
  5. Huggett, N.; Callender, C. "Why Quantize Gravity (Or Any Other Field for that Matter?)". Phil. Sci. 68 (S3): 382–394.
  6. 6.0 6.1
  7. Lisi, A. G. "An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything".
  8. Lisi, A.G. ""An Explicit Embedding of Gravity and the Standard Model in E8".

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