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Human cause death in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries

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Human cause death in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries describes death from causes which are human-made, in the periods twentieth and twenty first centuries, and details numbers of deaths, either for a one year period, or for a period in history, in which the causes of death are by human only, not by disease or natural disaster. All figures are approximate due to rounding up or down of official or calculated figures.

The periods twentieth and twenty first centuries are described as belonging to the period known as contemporary history,[1] after an early conceptualization made by the Institute of Contemporary History, based in the Netherlands, during the 1930s.[2]

Tobacco (1990, 2010, 2015, 2017)[edit]

Tobacco is a natural substance which is indigeneous to North and South America [3] and is addictive. [4] [5] The Global Burden of Disease Study found 5 million deaths minimum worldwide are atrributable to smoking tobacco per year since 1990; this is a minimum of 140 million people who have died by causes attributable to tobacco smoking from 1990 to 2018. [6] The figures for deaths are presumed for all countries of the world unless indicated otherwise:


1990: estimated 1.0606 million, of 44 countries in the developed world (Peto et al 1996) [7]

2010: approximately 6 million (Oxfam) [8]

2015: estimated at more than 6 million (Britton 2017;Global Burden of Disease Study) [9] 6.4 million deaths attributed to tobacco smoking (Global Burden of Disease Study) [10]

2017: 7 million (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), national public health institute of the United States) [11][12]

Alcohol (2011)[edit]

The figure is for death by alcohol, in conventionally accepted alcoholic drinks or otherwise, for the year 2011, and are all world: 2,5 million (Oxfam) [8]

Road traffic accidents (2010, 2018)[edit]

Road traffic accidents (per year, all world) - 1.209 million (Oxfam, for 2010) [8] 1.35 million (WHO, 2018) [13] 1.25 million (WHO) [14]

Illegal drugs[edit]

Premature death from illegal drugs, including cocaine and heroin are for all world - minimum of 190,900,[15] of a total of approximately 450,000, 160, 000 by drug-addiction, 118, 000 by opiate use (WHO, 2015)[16]

China (2014)[edit]

49, 000 deaths [17][18]

European Union (2000 - 2010)[edit]

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction estimates for the described period found a figure of 70, 000 drug-overdose deaths. [19][18]

England and Wales (2015)[edit]

The cause of death being drug poisoning was found to be the cause in 3,674 situations of death. [18]

War[edit]

Second world war (1939 - 1945)[edit]

Civilian deaths caused by mens rea killing including policy of the political group of Germany the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei[edit]

The number of deaths are for people who were not members of military organisations (civilians), who were killed by members of the military of the third reich (or other allied groups) of the second world war, the cause of death is given as either lethal gases in gas chambers or injuries from bullet wounds:[20]

The Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (known usually as the Nazi party) were a governing political party within Germany during the second world war. In the assessment of data of number deaths, death by mens rea killing, for the purposes of a pre-determined goal of eliminating members of a certain population (known as genocide), and responses to groups as a militant punishment for breach of law (known as reprisals [21]) is included:

Deaths in the previous Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were 7.4 million. [22]

  • people of jewish ethnicity - 6 million;
  • people of the Soviet Union - 7 million;
  • of Poland 1,8 million;
  • Serbians - 312,000,
  • disabled people - maximum of 250,000;
  • Romani gypsies - 196,000–220,000;
  • repeat crime offender and those designated "asocials" - at least 70,000;
  • Jehovah's Witnesses - about 1,900.

Third reich of the Nazi party during the second world war (beginning 1941) by gun-shot or asphyxiation by gas (people of Jewish ethnicity) - approximately (less than) 2.7 million (source: United States Holocaust memorial museum). [23]


Nuclear device use in Japan (1945)[edit]

The military of the United States used two nuclear devices, detonated at two cities of Japan during 1945:[24]

  • Hiroshima - 80, 000 dead from heat produced by the nuclear blast, an additional 112,020 dead from radiation poisoning and other lethal factors resulting from the initial blast.
  • Nagasaki - 70,000 + died from the heat produced by the nuclear blast.

2010[edit]

By use of weapons in the context of war - 63, 910 (Oxfam, figure for 2010) [8]

Suicide[edit]

United states (2016)[edit]

Suicide, figures are for the United States only - 22, 938 [25]

Homicide[edit]

All cause[edit]

United States (2016)[edit]

Homicide (in Britain the term homicide is known as murder) figures are for deaths within the United States only - 14, 415 (2016) [25]

Gun deaths[edit]

United States (1968 - 2016)[edit]

The total number of gun deaths for the year 1968 to 2016 within the United States is 1'567'451 [26][27]

Terrorism (2010)[edit]

Terrorism is a term to describe hostile action by militant individuals or groups of militant individuals, against civilians; figures are for all world: - 13, 186 (Oxfam, figure for 2010) [8]

Killed by police services[edit]

In the situation of death by police services, death is presumed to have occurred predominantly from gun-shot injuries, [28] other causes of death include by weapons manufactured by Axon enterprises incorporated known as tazer guns [29] and restraint. [30]

Shot by police services[edit]

United States (2016-2019)[edit]

In the United States possession of guns is legally possible and officers of the police are empowered to carry guns.

According to the Washington Post, the number dead per year by shot from police officers is:[31][32]

  • 2019 : 270 (to April 20th)
  • 2018 : 992
  • 2017: 987
  • 2016: 963
killed and were at the time of their fatal shooting, in possession of a gun or knife (2015-2017)[edit]

Data is taken from a report by The Washington Post: [32]

  • 2017:735
  • 2016:693
  • 2015:734
killed while not carrying a gun (2015-2017)[edit]

The number of people who were killed by injuries by bullets fired by police services, in situations where the dead was found to be unarmed (that is to not be in possession of a gun at the time of the individuals fatal shooting). : [32]

  • 2017: 68
  • 2016: 51
  • 2015: 94

shot, found to be innocents (2005)[edit]

Shot by the police services, found to be non-criminals after death - 1 known of (in London, England, 2005) [33]

Tazer gun[edit]

United States (1983 - 2017)[edit]

In cases where death involved use of a weapon designed by Axon Enterprises (previously Tazer Enterprises), the organisation Reuters scrutinized public records [34] and found, as a direct result or as contributory factor of use of Tazer gun 153 deaths occurred (a proportion of approximately 25% of the dead had either a diagnosed mental disorder of neurological disorder.) [29]

Britain (2016)[edit]

There is one incident of a death which occurred after the use of a tazer gun (approximately 90 minutes after the use) during August of 2016.[35]

by restraint[edit]

By restraint, is to use force to physically immobolize and control the movements of:

Death by restraint and Pava spray (a type of incapacitant) - 1 death (in Wales, Britain) [30]

Airplane accident (2006 - 2019)[edit]

Airplane accidents involve occasions principally where the aircraft is caused to fall down from the sky and crash, but includes in addition occasions where the craft is not airborne and crashes on take-off, while on the runway. Data for deaths for accidents is, for 2019: 157 dead, 2018: 525+, one passenger survived (six incidents), [36][37] 2017: 0 (no incidents),[37] 2016: 339 (five incidents) [38] [37], 2015: 513 (three incidents),[37] 2014: 950 (six incidents) [39][37] 2013: 99 (two incidents), 2012: 271 (two incidents), 2011: 195 (three incidents), [37] 2010: 747 (six incidents) [40][37] 2009: 695, one passenger survivor (five incidents) [37][41][42] 2008: 310 (three incidents), 2007: 568 (five incidents), 2006: 561 dead, 50 survive (four incidents) [43][37]

Space exploration programs[edit]

United States (1986, 2003)[edit]

Accidents resulting in deaths while crafts were in flight account for 14 deaths of astronauts of the United States program. Seven deaths were caused outbound during January 28, 1986, and another seven inbound during February the 1st 2003. [44]

United Socialist Soviet Republics (1967)[edit]

The first known death (of one individual) of the USSR program occurred on the April 24 1967. [44]

Death penalty[edit]

Enactment in all countries with the penalty[edit]

Of the 195 existing countries of the world [45] 89 countries have the death penalty as part of their law, during 2017, of those 89, 53 are with jurisdiction to enforce the law in practice. During 2017 and 2016, 23 countries (for both years) are known to have enacted the law to kill members of their countries by the penalty (source: Amnesty international). [46]

United States of America[edit]

The death penalty exists in law in both jurisdictions of each state, in which the penalty is law, and in addition to federal law, that is by enaction of the government of the United States (based in Washington D.C.). [47]

Methods for execution used are of five types:[48]

  • hanging this is the first type of execution used in the history of execution in the United States, and is the method used until the 1890's
  • electrocution by electric chair was created within New York during 1888, and used to perform the first execution by this method during 1890.
  • gas chamber was first used in the United States, a method that was invented within the country, during 1924.
  • lethal injection as a method, was first used in the United states during 1977, and is the method in use in the present.
  • firing squad was reauthorized during 2015, for use if chemicals for lethal injection are found to be unavailable

by federal law (1988 - 2019)[edit]

The number of people executed by the federal death penalty in the United States for the period 1988 to 2019 is 3. [49]

Saudi Arabia (2007 - 2019)[edit]

By death penalty of the Saudi government: [50]

  • 2019 - 59
  • 2018 - 149
  • 2017 - 146+
  • 2016 - 153 or 154 or 154+
  • 2015 - 158
  • 2014 - 90+
  • 2013 - 79+
  • 2012 - 79+
  • 2011 - 82+
  • 2010 - 26 or 27
  • 2009 - 69+
  • 2008 - 102+
  • 2007 - 143+

Mental Health services[edit]

Britain (2012/2013 - 2016/2017)[edit]

The Agenda alliance for women and girls at risk, [51] using data gathered by the organisation known as Care Quality Commission ( responsible for ensuring adequate levels of care in hospitals of Britain), found that in a four to five year period (2012/2013 to 2016/2017) 32 deaths of women involved the use of force by restraint techniques performed by mental health service workers. [52]

other accidental deaths[edit]

  • meat-blender accident - 1 (known of incident of) [53]
  • electrocuted by earphones - 1 known of incident of (in Malaysia)[54]
  • chainsaw kick-back - 1 known of incident of (in England, Britain) [55]
  • electrocuted by improvised apparatus for use as sexual stimulation - 2 known deaths (in North America) [56]
  • as a result of injuries caused by a dumbwaiter - 1 known incident of (in Wisconsin, North America) [57]

Sources[edit]

  1. https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/postgraduate/courses/taught/history/contemporary-history.aspx
  2. https://www.history.ac.uk/makinghistory/resources/articles/contemporary_history.html
  3. https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/trade_environment/health/htobacco.html
  4. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/nicotine-dependence/symptoms-causes/syc-20351584
  5. https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(17)30819-X/fulltext
  6. GBD 2015 Tobacco Collaborators Smoking prevalence and attributable disease burden in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet.
  7. Peto, Lopez, Boreham, Thun, Heath Jr, Doll (January 1996) - Mortality from smoking worldwide Abstract British Medical Bulletin, Volume 52, Issue 1, retrieved April 20, 2019
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 https://ourworldindata.org/terrorism
  9. John Britton (April 5, 2017) - Death, disease, and tobacco The Lancet using GBD 2015 Tobacco Collaborators Smoking prevalence and attributable disease burden in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet.
  10. GBD 2015 Tobacco Collaborators Smoking prevalence and attributable disease burden in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet.
  11. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/index.htm retrieved April 19, 2019
  12. https://www.who.int/tobacco/global_report/2017/en/ retrieved April 19, 2019
  13. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/12/07/death-road-traffic-accidents-kill-malaria-hiv-tb/
  14. file:///C:/Users/GGA/Downloads/CBP-7615.pdf (Briefing paper 7615, 23 April 2018) Library of the House of Commons of the government of the United Kingdom
  15. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) ‘2017 World Drug Report; Penington Institute (2019) - [1] retrieved April 19, 2019
  16. Substance abuse World Health Organisation retrieved April 19th, 2019
  17. Business Insider, June 24, 2015. www.businessinsider.com/r-china-says-economic-losses-from-drug-abuse-hit-81-billion-a-year-2015-6?IR=T
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Penington Institute (2019) - fact sheet retrieved April 19, 2019
  19. European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, ’Perspectives on Drugs: Preventing overdose deaths in Europe’. www.emcdda.europa.eu/topics/pods/preventing-overdose-deaths
  20. [2] Jewish Virtual Library
  21. International Committee of the Red Cross - IHL Database retrieved April 20, 2019
  22. Russian national academy of sciences (Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к) - Reasons why a very high number of people died during the second world war historyhit retrieved April 20, 2019
  23. Overview United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  24. Michelle Hall (August 6, 2013) - By the Numbers: World War II's atomic bombs CNN retrieved April 20, 2019
  25. 25.0 25.1 British Broadcasting corporation (27 October 2018) news BBC News retrieved April, 2019
  26. Louis Jacobson (Nicholas Kristof) August 27th, 2015 - statement politifact retrieved April 21, 2019
  27. Alpers, Philip, Amélie Rossetti and Daniel Salinas. 2019 Guns in the United States: Total Number of Gun Deaths. Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney retrieved April 21, 2019
  28. Olga Khazan (May 8, 2018) In One Year, 57,375 Years of Life Were Lost to Police Violence The Atlantic retrieved April 20, 2019
  29. 29.0 29.1 August 22, 2017 Reuters finds 1,005 deaths in U.S. involving Tasers, largest accounting to date Reuters retrieved April 20, 2019
  30. 30.0 30.1 Steven Morris (January 24, 2019) Police restraint caused or contributed to death of teacher – inquest the Guardian retrieved April 20, 2019
  31. Democracy dies in darkness Washington Post retrieved April 20, 2019
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 John Sullivan, Zane Anthony, Julie Tate and Jennifer Jenkins (Edward "Ted" Mellnik) ( January 6, 2018) Investigations Washington Post retrieved April 20, 2019
  33. Haroon Siddique (30 March 2016) European court of human rights will rule on whether Met officers should have faced charges over Brazilian’s death. The Guardian retrieved April 20, 2019
  34. report by Reuters retrieved April 20th, 2019
  35. "Ex-Aston Villa footballer Dalian Atkinson threatened to kill his father before being tasered by police, brother reveals". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
  36. https://edition.cnn.com/2018/02/11/europe/russia-plane-crash/index.html
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 37.5 37.6 37.7 37.8 https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-10785301
  38. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-36330879
  39. https://www.independent.co.uk/travel/news-and-advice/mh370-missing-plane-search-malaysia-airlines-flight-boeing-777-new-crash-site-identified-a7897586.html
  40. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/ethiopia/7111155/British-investigators-say-Ethiopian-Airlines-plane-crash-similar-to-earlier-disaster.html
  41. https://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/05/world/europe/france-air-crash-report/index.html
  42. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-indonesia-crash/indonesia-says-98-killed-in-military-plane-crash-idUSTRE54J0WC20090520
  43. http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/08/22/russia.crash/
  44. 44.0 44.1 Seth Borenstein (November 1, 2014) - news phys.org retrieved April 21, 2019
  45. Department of State, 4250, United States government retrieved April 20th, 2019
  46. (12 April 2018) news Amnesty International retrieved April 20th, 2019
  47. https://criminal.findlaw.com/criminal-procedure/capital-punishment-at-the-federal-level.html retrieved April 20th, 2019
  48. Description Death penalty information center
  49. https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/federal-death-penalty retrieved April 19th, 2019
  50. https://www.deathpenaltyworldwide.org/country-search-post.cfm?country=saudi+arabia retrieved April 19th, 2019
  51. https://weareagenda.org/ retrieved April 20th, 2019
  52. Agenda alliance & Women in Mind mental health campaign (03 July 2018) news Mental Health today retrieved April 20, 2019
  53. Lucy Ponting (29 September 2009) £160,000 fine for meat blender death Health and Safety at Work retrieved April 19, 2019
  54. Gavin Butler (10 december 2018) - article of Vice retrieved April 19, 2019
  55. Tristan Kirk (15 November 2017) Tree surgeon killed when chainsaw 'kicked back' screamed 'I'm dead' during horror The London Evening Standard retrieved April 20, 2019
  56. Ditto EW 3rd - Electrocution during sexual activity. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1981 Sep;2(3):271-2. retrieved April 20, 2019
  57. (10 December 2014) tragedy in restaurant Sky News retrieved April 20, 2019

References[edit]


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