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Hurricane Norman (2018)

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Template:Infobox Hurricane

Hurricane Norman is a strong tropical cyclone, located in the central Pacific. Norman is the fourteenth named storm, eighth hurricane, and fifth major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season. Norman originated from a broad area of low pressure that developed several hundred miles south-southwest of Mexico on August 25. Over the next three days, the disturbance gradually developed amid favorable conditions before a tropical depression formed on August 28. Twelve hours later, the depression quickly strengthened into Tropical Storm Norman. On August 29, a long period of rapid intensification occurred which resulted in Norman becoming a strong category 4 hurricane the next day. Norman peaked with winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a pressure of 937 mbar (27.67 inHg). After maintaining peak intensity for twelve hours, Norman then weakened due to an eyewall replacement cycle and wind shear. Norman bottomed out with winds at 105 mph (165 km/h) on September 1. Norman maintained category 2 strength for eighteen hours before unexpectedly intensifying back into a category 4 hurricane. Norman achieved its secondary peak of 130 mph (215 km/h) on September 2. Norman maintained its secondary peak for twelve hours before succumbing to the unfavorable conditions. On September 4, Norman crossed over into the central Pacific Ocean as a category 1 hurricane. At 15:00 UTC on September 5, Norman rapidly intensified back into a major hurricane.

Origins, development, and peak intensity[edit | edit source]

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Hurricane Norman originated from a broad area of low pressure that formed several hundred miles south-southwest of Acapulco, Mexico on August 25.[1] The National Hurricane Center (NHC) continued to monitor the disturbance for the next few days as it travelled west to west-northwest.[2] On August 27, the NHC noted the system could become a tropical depression in a day or two as shower and thunderstorm activity continued to increase in organization.[3] At 15:00 UTC on August 28, the NHC declared that Tropical Depression Sixteen-E had formed approximately 420 miles (675 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.[4] The NHC was also forecasting the depression to become a hurricane in a day or two.[5] For the next couple of days, the system moved generally westward under the influence of a strong subtropical ridge that extended west of northern Mexico.[6]

Norman as a tropical storm south-southwest of Baja California

After having been a depression for twelve hours, the system quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Norman with winds of 50 mph (85 km/h).[7] Norman continued to quickly intensify for the next 12 hours, becoming a strong tropical storm at 15:00 UTC on August 29.[8] Amid favorable weather conditions, Norman then began a period of rapid intensification. At 21:00 UTC on the same day, Norman reached hurricane intensity, becoming the eighth hurricane of the season.[9] Norman continued to rapidly intensify, obtaining category 3 status and becoming the fifth major hurricane of the season twelve hours later.[10] At 12:30 UTC on August 30, Norman became the fifth category 4 hurricane of the season.[11] At 15:00 UTC, Norman reached peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 937 mbar (27.67 inHg).[12] Over the course of twenty-four hours during Norman's rapid intensification period, maximum sustained winds increased by 70 knots or 80 mph (130 km/h) which was the fastest increase since Hurricane Patricia. At the same time, Norman also became the most intense hurricane in the East Pacific Basin for 2018.[13]

Secondary peak and subsequent weakening[edit | edit source]

Norman at its secondary peak in the east Pacific on September 2

Norman maintained peak intensity for 12 hours before beginning to weaken.[14] At 03:00 UTC on August 31, Norman turned to the west-southwest due to a deep-layer ridge to the north.[15] Norman initially weakened due to an eyewall replacement cycle before continuing to weaken because of increasing wind shear.[16][17] Norman weakened into a high-end category 3 hurricane at 21:00 UTC on August 31.[18] Over the next twelve hours, Norman continued to weaken, falling below major hurricane strength.[19] Six hours later, Norman bottomed out with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h).[20] Norman maintained that intensity for eighteen hours before unexpectedly intensifying back into a category 4 hurricane on September 2 at 15:00 UTC. Norman achieved a secondary peak with winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) and a pressure of 948 mbar (28.00 inHg).[21] Norman maintained its secondary peak for twelve hours before succumbing to wind shear and dropping sea surface temperatures. Norman weakened to a high-end category 3 hurricane on September 3 at 09:00 UTC.[22] Six hours later, Norman fell below category 3 intensity as it had degraded significantly on infrared and satellite. Norman no longer had a visible eye and the cloud tops in the central dense overcast were warming.[23] At the same time, Norman took a turn to a more westerly direction.[24] On September 4 at 03:00 UTC, the NHC issued its final advisory on Norman as it crossed into the central Pacific as a category 1 hurricane. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) assumed the responsibility of issuing advisories and monitoring the system from that point forward.[25] As Norman entered the Central Pacific Basin, the weakening began to slow. On September 4 at 21:00 UTC, Norman bottomed out with winds of 80 mph (130 km/h).[26]

Re-intensification while approaching Hawaii[edit | edit source]

After having bottomed out as a category 1 hurricane on September 4, Norman began to rapidly intensify the next day, quickly regaining major hurricane status.[27]

See also[edit | edit source]


Others articles of the Topic Tropical cyclones : Tropical cyclones in 2010, Hurricane Florence (2018)
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References[edit | edit source]

  1. Stewart, Stacy. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  2. Stewart, Stacy. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  3. Brown, Daniel. NHC Graphical Outlook Archive. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  4. Avila, Lixion. Tropical Depression Sixteen-E Advisory Number 1. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  5. Avila, Lixion. Tropical Depression Sixteen-E Advisory Number 2. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  6. Berg, Robbie. Hurricane Norman Discussion Number 8. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  7. Pasch, Richard. Tropical Storm Norman Advisory Number 3. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  8. Avila, Lixion. Tropical Storm Norman Advisory Number 5. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  9. Avila, Lixion. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 6. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  10. Berg, Robbie. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 8. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  11. Brown, Daniel. Hurricane Norman Special Advisory Number 9. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  12. Brown, Daniel. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 10. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  13. Brown, Daniel. Hurricane Norman Discussion Number 10. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  14. Zelinsky, David. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 13. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  15. Cangialosi, John. Hurricane Norman Discussion Number 12. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  16. Roberts, Dave. Hurricane Norman Discussion Number 14. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  17. Roberts, Dave. Hurricane Norman Discussion Number 15. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  18. Roberts, Dave. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 15. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  19. Zelinsky, David. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 17. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  20. Stewart, Stacy. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 18. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  21. Avila, Lixion. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 22. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  22. Zelinsky, David. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 25. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  23. Blake, Eric. Hurricane Norman Discussion Number 26. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  24. Blake, Eric. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 26. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  25. Cangialosi, John. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 28. National Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  26. Wroe, Derek. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 31. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  27. Houston, Sam. Hurricane Norman Advisory Number 34. Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 5 September 2018.

External links[edit | edit source]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Weather Service.


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