Welcome to EverybodyWiki 😃 ! Nuvola apps kgpg.png Log in or ➕👤 create an account to improve, watchlist or create an article like a 🏭 company page or a 👨👩 bio (yours ?)...

Independence of Azerbaijan

From EverybodyWiki Bios & Wiki

For the first time, Azerbaijan gained independence on May 28, 1918, proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, which lasted only 23 months.[1] Independence of country was restored 91 years later, by the adoption Constitutional Act on the Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan on October 18, 1991.[2]

Major achievements of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic[edit]

Main article: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası
1918–1920
Flag of Azerbaijan
Flag
Map of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan.
Map of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan.
CapitalGanja (until Sep 1918)
Baku
Common languagesAzerbaijani
GovernmentParliamentary republic
History 
• Established
1918
• Disestablished
1920
ISO 3166 codeAZ

On May 30, 1918- Radiogramma on the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was sent to Istanbul, Berlin, Vienna, Paris, London, Rome, Washington, Sofia, Bucharest, Tehran, Madrid, Moscow, Stockholm, Tokyo and other capitals.

June 4, 1918 - signing of the Peace and Friendship Treaty between the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the Ottoman Empire.

Radiogramma of Fatali Khan Khoyski

June 17, 1918 - The Azerbaijani National Council, which held its first meeting in Ganja, decided to stop its activities, taking into account the situation in the country. The control of legislative and the executive power was given to the Council of Ministers until the new parliament was called.

June 24, 1918 - The first flag of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was adopted. the flag depicting the white crescent and eight-pointed star on a red background was declared a temporary symbol of the Republic under the decision of government.[3]

June 26, 1918 - The decision on establishment of the first National Army was adopted and the foundation of the Azerbaijani National Army was laid.[3][4]

June 27, 1918 - A the decision on carrying out the clerical work in Turkish was adopted.[3][5]

November 7, 1918 - A decision on the establishment of the Ministry of Defense was adopted.[3]

November 9, 1918 - The first flag was approved by the Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.[3]

November 19, 1918 - The Azerbaijani National Council adopted the law on formation of the Parliament.[3]

August 11, 1919 - The law on Citizenship of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was adopted.[3]

August 28, 1919 - A law on establishment of Azerbaijan State Bank was adopted. The Charter of the Azerbaijan State Bank was approved on September 16, 1919.[3][6]

September 1, 1919 - On September 1, 1919, the Azerbaijani parliament passed the law on the opening of Baku State University which is the first university of country.[3][7]

September 30, 1919 - The State Bank was opened.[6]

January 11, 1920 - decision on de facto recognition of Azerbaijan's independence was accepted by the Supreme Council of the Paris peace conference[8][9]

International Conditions and Foreign Policy[3][edit]

  • A military-defense agreement between Azerbaijan and Georgia was signed on June 16, 1919.[10]
  • On November 12, British Prime Minister Lloyd George announced the recognition of Azerbaijan and Georgia independence during his speech at the UK Parliament.[11] On January 11, 1920, the Supreme Council of Allied Powers declared de facto recognition of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic with the suggestion of the British Foreign Secretary Lord George Curzon in Paris Peace Conference.[12]
  • Thomson, commander of the British troops, recognized Independence of Azerbaijan on November 17, 1918.[13][14][15]

The Republic of Azerbaijan[edit]

The Republic of Azerbaijan gained its second independence after 70 years in 1991. The Declaration on the Restoration of the State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted at the extraordinary session of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan

Republic of Azerbaijan

Azərbaycan Respublikası  (Azerbaijani)
Flag of Azerbaijan
Flag
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms
Location of Azerbaijan
CapitalBaku
Official languagesAzerbaijani
Establishment30 August 1991 (declared)
18 October 1991 (independence)
25 December 1991 (completed)
ISO 3166 codeAZ

on August 30, 1991.( Decision No. 179-XII) The act “On state independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan ” came into force on October 18.[5] The first president of the Republic of Azerbaijan was elected Ayaz Mutalibov, who resigned on March 6, 1992. Until the holding of new elections, the interim presidents were Yaqub Mamedov and Isa Qambar.[16] Abulfaz Elchibey was elected the president of Azerbaijan Republic in the presidential election on June 7, 1992.[17]

A year later, the protest led by Colonel Surat Huseynov against the presidential elections in Ganja began on June 4, 1993. The situation in Azerbaijan became worse.The government could not prevent these protest and Meanwhile, President Elchibey invited Heydar Aliyev, the chairman of the Nakhchivan Supreme Soviet, to Baku to assist in creating stability in the country. Heydar Aliyev arrived in Ganja and met with Surat Huseynov. The chairman of the National Assembly, Isa Gambar resigned on June 10, and five days later, Heydar Aliyev was elected as the new chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan. He became a president of Azerbaijan on June 24 of the same year and Heydar Aliyev appointed Suret Huseynov as a Prime Minister of Azerbaijan. One year later, on October 4, 1994, Süret Huseynov was arrested for attempting a coup d'etat in Ganja.[18]

At the beginning of 1993, 116 countries of the world recognized the state independence of Azerbaijan. Diplomatic relations with 70 countries were created.[19]

  • On 5 February 1991, the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan adopted a resolution recognizing the flag of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic which adopted on 9 November 1918 as the state flag of Azerbaijan.[20]
  • The Azerbaijani March written in 1918, which was not officially adopted in the ADR, was proclaimed as a national anthem on May 27, 1992.[21]
  • National emblem, which was not officially adopted in the Democratic Republic, was proclaimed as an official symbol of the Republic of Azerbaijan with some changes on 19 January 1993.[22]
  • The Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted on November 12, 1995.[23]

References[edit]

  1. "Azerbaijan Gains Independence". www.diplomaticsquare.com. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  2. "A Guide to the Republic of Azerbaijan Law Research - GlobaLex". www.nyulawglobal.org. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 "Major achievements of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic" (PDF).
  4. "From the history of the military uniform in Azerbaijan (1918 - 1991)" (PDF).
  5. 5.0 5.1 Zardabli, Ismail bey (2014-08-02). THE HISTORY OF AZERBAIJAN: from ancient times to the present day. Lulu.com. ISBN 9781291971316. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  6. 6.0 6.1 "The history of the bank".
  7. "Baku State University". bsu.edu.az. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  8. "The history of the recognition of Azerbaijan's de facto state independence at the Paris Peace Conference" (PDF).
  9. KAŞIKCI, Halil İbrahim. "The Foundation of the Azerbaijani Democratic Republic - Strategic Outlook". www.strategicoutlook.org (in Türkçe). Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  10. "Azerbaijan and Georgia: Azerbaijan and Georgia: Strategic Partnership for Stability in a Volatile Region" (PDF).
  11. "Visions of Azerbaijan Magazine ::: The Azerbaijani delegation to the Paris Peace Conference". Visions of Azerbaijan Magazine. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  12. "History of recognition of Azerbaijan's de facto state independence at the Paris Peace Conference" (PDF).
  13. Kinvig, Clifford (2006-01-01). Churchill's Crusade: The British Invasion of Russia, 1918-1920. A&C Black. ISBN 9781852854775. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  14. "Azerbaijan Democratic Republic". axc.preslib.az. Retrieved 2018-03-31.
  15. "Realities of Azerbaijan" (PDF).
  16. "Ayaz Mutalibov | president of Azerbaijan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  17. "Abulfaz Elchibey | president of Azerbaijan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  18. "Decree of the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan on measures to prevent the attempts of state coup in the Republic of Azerbaijan and measures to strengthen the Azerbaijani statehood".
  19. "MULTILATERAL COOPERATION AND RELATIONS". sc.supremecourt.gov.az. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  20. President. "Official web-site of President of Azerbaijan Republic - State Symbols". en.president.az. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  21. "History of creation of the National Anthem of the Republic of Azerbaijan". www.azerbaijans.com (in azərbaycanca). Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  22. "Official web-site of President of Azerbaijan Republic - AZERBAIJAN » State Symbols". en.president.az. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
  23. "THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN". azerbaijan.az. Retrieved 2018-04-01.


This article "Independence of Azerbaijan" is from Wikipedia. The list of its authors can be seen in its historical and/or the page Edithistory:Independence of Azerbaijan. Articles copied from Draft Namespace on Wikipedia could be seen on the Draft Namespace of Wikipedia and not main one.