Independence of Azerbaijan
For the first time, Azerbaijan gained independence on May 28, 1918, proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, which lasted only 23 months. Independence of country was restored 91 years later, by the adoption Constitutional Act on the Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan on October 18, 1991.
Major achievements of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
Main article: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
On May 30, 1918- Radiogramma on the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was sent to Istanbul, Berlin, Vienna, Paris, London, Rome, Washington, Sofia, Bucharest, Tehran, Madrid, Moscow, Stockholm, Tokyo and other capitals.
June 4, 1918 - signing of the Peace and Friendship Treaty between the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the Ottoman Empire.
June 17, 1918 - The Azerbaijani National Council, which held its first meeting in Ganja, decided to stop its activities, taking into account the situation in the country. The control of legislative and the executive power was given to the Council of Ministers until the new parliament was called.
June 24, 1918 - The first flag of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was adopted. the flag depicting the white crescent and eight-pointed star on a red background was declared a temporary symbol of the Republic under the decision of government.
November 7, 1918 - A decision on the establishment of the Ministry of Defense was adopted.
November 9, 1918 - The first flag was approved by the Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
November 19, 1918 - The Azerbaijani National Council adopted the law on formation of the Parliament.
August 11, 1919 - The law on Citizenship of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was adopted.
September 30, 1919 - The State Bank was opened.
- A military-defense agreement between Azerbaijan and Georgia was signed on June 16, 1919.
- On November 12, British Prime Minister Lloyd George announced the recognition of Azerbaijan and Georgia independence during his speech at the UK Parliament. On January 11, 1920, the Supreme Council of Allied Powers declared de facto recognition of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic with the suggestion of the British Foreign Secretary Lord George Curzon in Paris Peace Conference.
- Thomson, commander of the British troops, recognized Independence of Azerbaijan on November 17, 1918.
The Republic of Azerbaijan
The Republic of Azerbaijan gained its second independence after 70 years in 1991. The Declaration on the Restoration of the State Independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted at the extraordinary session of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Republic of Azerbaijan
Azərbaycan Respublikası (Azerbaijani)
|Establishment||30 August 1991 (declared)|
18 October 1991 (independence)
25 December 1991 (completed)
|ISO 3166 code||AZ|
on August 30, 1991.( Decision No. 179-XII) The act “On state independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan ” came into force on October 18. The first president of the Republic of Azerbaijan was elected Ayaz Mutalibov, who resigned on March 6, 1992. Until the holding of new elections, the interim presidents were Yaqub Mamedov and Isa Qambar. Abulfaz Elchibey was elected the president of Azerbaijan Republic in the presidential election on June 7, 1992.
A year later, the protest led by Colonel Surat Huseynov against the presidential elections in Ganja began on June 4, 1993. The situation in Azerbaijan became worse.The government could not prevent these protest and Meanwhile, President Elchibey invited Heydar Aliyev, the chairman of the Nakhchivan Supreme Soviet, to Baku to assist in creating stability in the country. Heydar Aliyev arrived in Ganja and met with Surat Huseynov. The chairman of the National Assembly, Isa Gambar resigned on June 10, and five days later, Heydar Aliyev was elected as the new chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan. He became a president of Azerbaijan on June 24 of the same year and Heydar Aliyev appointed Suret Huseynov as a Prime Minister of Azerbaijan. One year later, on October 4, 1994, Süret Huseynov was arrested for attempting a coup d'etat in Ganja.
At the beginning of 1993, 116 countries of the world recognized the state independence of Azerbaijan. Diplomatic relations with 70 countries were created.
- On 5 February 1991, the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan adopted a resolution recognizing the flag of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic which adopted on 9 November 1918 as the state flag of Azerbaijan.
- The Azerbaijani March written in 1918, which was not officially adopted in the ADR, was proclaimed as a national anthem on May 27, 1992.
- National emblem, which was not officially adopted in the Democratic Republic, was proclaimed as an official symbol of the Republic of Azerbaijan with some changes on 19 January 1993.
- The Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan was adopted on November 12, 1995.
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