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List of molecules discovered in the 19th century

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The list of molecules discovered in the 19th century includes a chronological list of molecules discovered in the 19th century.

1800s[edit]

Year of discovery Name of the molecule Discoverer Chemical formula
1803 Dinitrogen trioxide John Dalton N2O3


1810s[edit]

Year of discovery Name of the molecule Discoverer Chemical formula
1810 Chlorine Humphry Davy Cl2
1811 Diatomic Hydrogen Amedeo Avogadro H2
1811 Diatomic Oxygen Amedeo Avogadro O2
1811 Water Amedeo Avogadro H2O

1820s[edit]

Year of discovery Name of the molecule Discoverer Chemical formula
1820 Glycine Henri Braconnot C2H5NO2


1830s[edit]

Year of discovery Name of the molecule Discoverer Chemical formula
1832 Chloral hydrate Justus von Liebig C2H3Cl3O2


1840s[edit]

Year of discovery Name of the molecule Discoverer Chemical formula
1846 Tyrosine Justus von Liebig C9H11NO3

1850s[edit]

The sense developed among chemists that a number of substances were chemically related to benzene, comprising a diverse chemical family. In 1855, August Wilhelm von Hofmann used the word "aromatic" to designate this family relationship, after a characteristic property of many of its members.

August Kekulé was the principal formulator of the theory of chemical structure (1857–58). This theory proceeds from the idea of atomic valence, especially the tetravalence of carbon (which Kekulé announced late in 1857). His idea of assigning certain atoms to certain positions within the molecule, and schematically connecting them using what he called their "Verwandtschaftseinheiten" ("affinity units", now called "valences" or "bonds"),


1860s[edit]

Year of discovery Name of the molecule Discoverer Chemical formula
1865 Benzene August Kekulé C6H6[1][2]


1870s[edit]

Year of discovery Name of the molecule Discoverer Chemical formula
1874 Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) Othmar Zeidler C14H9Cl9
1877 Glutamine Wilhelm Dittmar C5H10N2O3

1880s[edit]

In 1887 Joseph John Thomson discovered the existence of electrons.

Year of discovery Name of the molecule Discoverer Chemical formula
1886 Fluorine Henri Moissan F2
1886 Arginine Ernst Schulze C6H14N4O2


1890s[edit]

Year of discovery Name of the molecule Discoverer Chemical formula
1899 Cysteine Henri Moissan F2

See also[edit]

  • Molecule
  • Lists of molecules
  • List of molecules discovered in the 20th century
  • List of molecules discovered in the 21th century
  • Empirical formula
  • Chemical formula
  • Chemical structure
  • Chemical compound
  • Chemical bond
  • Coordination complex
  • List of drugs by year of discovery
  • List of interstellar and circumstellar molecules
  • Timeline of chemical element discoveries
  • Diatomic molecule
  • Atomic model
  • History of molecular theory

References[edit]

  1. Kekulé, F. A. (1865). "Sur la constitution des substances aromatiques". Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de Paris. 3: 98–110. On p. 100, Kekulé suggests that the carbon atoms of benzene could form a "chaîne fermée" (a closed chain, a loop).
  2. Kekulé, F. A. (1866). "Untersuchungen über aromatische Verbindungen (Investigations of aromatic compounds)". Liebigs Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie. 137 (2): 129–36. doi:10.1002/jlac.18661370202.


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