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List of political ideologies

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In social studies, a political ideology is a certain set of ethical ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class or large group that explains how society should work and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order. A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used. Some political parties follow a certain ideology very closely while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without specifically embracing any one of them. The popularity of an ideology is in part due to the influence of moral entrepreneurs, who sometimes act in their own interests. Political ideologies have two dimensions:

  1. Goals: how society should be organized.
  2. Methods: the most appropriate way to achieve this goal.

An ideology is a collection of ideas. Typically, each ideology contains certain ideas on what it considers to be the best form of government (e.g. democracy or autocracy) and the best economic system (e.g. capitalism or socialism). Sometimes the same word is used to identify both an ideology and one of its main ideas. For instance, "socialism" may refer to an economic system, or it may refer to an ideology which supports that economic system. The same term may also be used to refer to multiple ideologies, and that is why political scientists try to find consensus definitions for these terms. For instance, while the terms have been conflated at times, "Communism" has come in common parlance and in academics to refer to Soviet-type regimes and Marxist-Leninist ideologies, whereas "Socialism" has come to refer to a wider range of differing ideologies distinct from Marxism-Leninism. [1] Political ideology is a term fraught with problems, having been called "the most elusive concept in the whole of social science".[2] However, ideologies tend to identify themselves by their position on the political spectrum (such as the left, the centre or the right), though this is very often controversial. Finally, ideologies can be distinguished from political strategies (e.g. populism) and from single issues that a party may be built around (e.g. opposition to European integration or the legalization of marijuana). There are several studies that show that political ideology is heritable within families.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

The following list is strictly alphabetical and attempts to divide the ideologies found in practical political life into a number of groups and each group contains ideologies that are related to each other. The headers refer to names of the best-known ideologies in each group. The names of the headers do not necessarily imply some hierarchical order or that one ideology evolved out of the other. They are merely noting that the ideologies in question are practically, historically and ideologically related to each other. One ideology can belong to several groups and there is sometimes considerable overlap between related ideologies. The meaning of a political label can also differ between countries and that parties often subscribe to a combination of ideologies.

Contents

Anarchism and Left-libertarianism[edit]

  • Political internationals: International of Anarchist Federations (Synthesis anarchism), International Union of Anarchists (Anarcho-communism), International Workers' Association (Anarcho-syndicalism), Anarkismo.net (Platformism and Especifismo)

Left-libertarianism[edit]

Anarchism[edit]

Classical[edit]
  • Individualist anarchism
    • Egoist anarchism
      • Illegalism
        • Expropriative anarchism
    • Existentialist anarchism
    • Philosophical anarchism
  • Mutualism
  • Social anarchism
    • Anarcho-communism
      • Magonism
        • Neozapatismo
    • Anarcho-syndicalism
    • Collectivist anarchism
      • Russian nihilist movement
        • Narodnik agrarian populism
Post-Classical[edit]
  • Anarcha-feminism
  • Anarchism without adjectives
    • Synthesist anarchism
  • Anarcho-pacifism
  • Green anarchism
    • Anarcho-naturism
    • Anarcho-primitivism
    • Communalism
      • Democratic confederalism
      • Libertarian municipalism
      • Social ecology
    • Veganarchism
  • Insurrectionary anarchism
  • Panarchism
  • Platformism
    • Especifismo
    • Makhnovism
  • Religious anarchism
    • Buddhist anarchism
    • Christian anarchism
      • Diggers
      • Tolstoyan movement
    • Islamic anarchism
    • Jewish anarchism
Contemporary[edit]
  • Anarcho-transhumanism
  • Anti-fascism
    • Antifa movements
  • Black anarchism
  • Crypto-anarchism
  • Free-market anarchism
    • Agorism
    • Left-wing market anarchism
    • Anarcho-capitalism
  • National anarchism
  • Post-anarchism
  • Postcolonial anarchism
  • Post-left anarchy
  • Queer anarchism
Regional variants[edit]
  • Africa
  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • Catalonia
  • China
  • Cuba
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • France
  • French Guiana
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • India
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Korea
  • Mexico
  • Monaco
  • New Zealand
  • Poland
  • Puerto Rico
  • Rojava
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Singapore
  • South Africa
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Transnistria
  • Turkey
  • Ukraine
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam

Classical liberal radicalism[edit]

  • Georgism
    • Geolibertarianism

Libertarian Marxism[edit]

  • Autonomism
  • Council communism
  • Luxemburgism
  • Situationism

Other[edit]

  • Inclusive Democracy
  • Participism
  • Syndicalism
    • DeLeonism
    • Sorelianism
    • Wobblyism

Conservatism and Right-libertarianism[edit]

  • Political internationals: International Democrat Union (Conservatism), International Monarchist League (Monarchism and Constitutional monarchism), International Alliance of Libertarian Parties (Right-libertarianism)

Traditional conservatism[edit]

  • Cultural conservatism
  • Fiscal conservatism
  • National conservatism
  • Paternalistic conservatism
    • Compassionate conservatism
    • Progressive conservatism
      • One-nation conservatism
      • Red Toryism
        • Tory socialism
  • Paleoconservatism
  • Reactionism
    • Irridentism
    • Monarchism
      • Absolute monarchism
      • Constitutional monarchism
    • Neo-feudalism
    • Neoreactionary movement
    • Reactionary modernism
    • Segregationism
    • State religion
      • Antidisestablishmentarianism
      • Caesaropapism
      • Dominionism
      • Theocracy
      • Theonomy
    • Ultramontanism
  • Social conservatism
    • Anti-abortion movements
    • Antifeminism
    • LGBT rights opposition
  • Theoconservatism
    • Christian Right
  • Traditionalist conservatism

Right-libertarianism[edit]

General[edit]

  • Autarchism
  • Beltway libertarianism
  • Christian libertarianism
  • Classical liberalism
    • Neoclassical liberalism
    • Neoliberalism
  • Consequentialist libertarianism
  • Free-market anarchism
    • Agorism
    • Anarcho-capitalism
  • Fusionism
  • Georgism
    • Geolibertarianism
  • Green libertarianism
  • Libertarian conservatism
  • Libertarian feminism
  • Libertarian paternalism
  • Libertarian transhumanism
  • Minarchism
  • Natural-rights libertarianism
  • Neo-libertarianism
  • Objectivist libertarianism
  • Paleolibertarianism
  • Panarchism
  • Propertarianism
  • Voluntaryism

Regional variants of right-libertarianism[edit]

  • Libertarianism in South Africa
  • Libertarianism in the United Kingdom
  • Libertarianism in the United States

Other[edit]

  • Alt-lite
  • Anti-environmentalism
    • Climate change denial
    • Environmental skepticism
  • Anti-immigration movements
  • Anti-unionism
  • Authoritarian conservatism
    • Illiberal democracy
      • Abeism
      • Bolsonarism
      • Dudaism
      • Dutertism
      • Erdoganism
      • Orbanism
      • Putinism
      • Trumpism
  • Bioconservatism
  • Black conservatism
  • Christian democracy
  • Civic conservatism
  • Communitarianism
  • Conservative corporatism
  • Conservative feminism
  • Conservative liberalism
  • Fusionism
  • Green conservatism
  • LGBT conservatism
  • Liberal conservatism
  • Libertarian conservatism
  • Neoconservatism
    • Straussianism
  • Neoliberalism
  • Neo-nationalism
  • Right-wing populism
  • Social Darwinism

Regional variants of conservatism[edit]

American[edit]

  • Conservatism in Latin America
    • Conservatism in Brazil
      • Bolsonarism
    • Conservatism in Colombia
  • Conservatism in North America
    • Conservatism in Canada
    • Conservatism in the United States
      • Black conservatism in the United States
      • New Right
      • Old Right
      • Republicanism
      • Tea Party movement
      • Trumpism

Asian / Pacific[edit]

  • Conservatism in Australia
  • Conservatism in China (PRC)
  • Conservatism in Hong Kong
  • Conservatism in Japan
    • Abeism
    • Neoconservatism in Japan
  • Conservatism in the Philippines
  • Conservatism in South Korea

European[edit]

  • Conservatism in France
    • Bonapartism
      • Neo-Bonapartism
    • Gaullism
    • Legitimism
    • Ultra-royalism
  • Conservatism in Germany
    • Conservative revolutionary movement
    • Neue Rechte
  • Conservatism in Hungary
    • Orbanism
  • Conservatism in Poland
  • Conservatism in Russia
    • Putinism
      • Chekism
        • Nashism
      • Eurasianism
      • Neo-Sovietism
        • Neo-Stalinism
  • Conservatism in Serbia
  • Conservatism in Spain
    • Carlism
    • Falangism
  • Conservatism in the United Kingdom
    • Andism
    • British neoconservatism
    • Thatcherism
    • Toryism
      • Blue Toryism
      • High Toryism
        • Powellism
      • Red Toryism
        • Tory socialism

Middle Eastern / Indian[edit]

  • Conservatism in India
  • Conservatism in Pakistan
  • Conservatism in Turkey
    • Erdoganism
      • Conservative democracy
      • Neo-Ottomanism

Religious variants of conservatism[edit]

  • Christian right
    • Christian fundamentalism
    • Traditionalist Catholicism
  • Hindu fundamentalism
  • Islamic fundamentalism
    • Islamism
  • Jewish fundamentalism

Environmentalism and Ecologism[edit]

  • Political internationals: Global Greens (Green politics), World Ecological Parties (Light green environmentalism)

Light green environmentalism[edit]

  • Free market environmentalism
    • Eco-capitalism
      • Sustainable capitalism
    • Green libertarianism
  • Green conservatism
    • Fiscal environmentalism
  • Green liberalism

Bright green environmentalism[edit]

  • Car-free movement
  • Climate movement
  • Conservation movement
  • Ecomodernism
    • Ecological modernization
    • Prometheanism
    • Technogaianism
  • Positive environmentalism

Deep green environmentalism[edit]

  • Anti-consumerism
    • Degrowth
  • Anti-globalization movement
    • Alter-globalization
  • Anti-nuclear movement
  • Bioregionalism
  • Ecocentrism
  • Eco-communalism
  • Green anarchism
    • Anarcho-primitivism
    • Inclusive Democracy
    • Social ecology
      • Green municipalism
  • Radical environmentalism
    • Animal rights movement
    • Earth liberation

Other[edit]

  • Ecofeminism
  • Eco-nationalism
    • Green Zionism
  • Green left
    • Eco-socialism
  • Green politics
  • Localism

Regional variants[edit]

  • Australia
  • New Zealand
  • South Africa
  • Switzerland
  • United States

Religious variants[edit]

  • Christian environmentalism
    • Ecotheology
    • Evangelical environmentalism
  • Islamic environmentalism
  • Jewish environmentalism
  • Maori environmentalism
  • Spiritual ecology

Feminism and Identity politics[edit]

  • Political internationals: International Council of Women (Feminism), Minority Rights Group International (Minority rights), Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (Self-determination and Indigenous rights)

Age-related rights movements[edit]

  • Children's rights movement
  • Elder rights movement
  • Intergenerational equity
  • Youth rights movement

Disability-related rights movements[edit]

  • Disability rights movement
    • Deaf rights movement
    • Neurodiversity movement
      • Autism rights movement
      • Mad pride movement
      • Psychiatric survivors movement
  • Fat acceptance movement
    • Fat feminism

Feminism[edit]

General[edit]

  • Analytical feminism
  • Anarcha-feminism
  • Antifeminism
  • Conservative feminism
    • Anti-abortion feminism
    • Individualist feminism
  • Cultural feminism
  • Cyberfeminism
  • Difference feminism
    • New feminism
  • Ecofeminism
    • Vegetarian ecofeminism
  • Equality feminism
  • Gender feminism
  • Labor feminism
  • Lesbian feminism
  • Liberal feminism
    • Equity feminism
  • Libertarian feminism
  • Lipstick feminism
    • Neofeminism
  • Marxist feminism
  • Material feminism
  • Maternal feminism
  • Postmodern feminism
  • Radical feminism
    • Women's liberation movement
  • Separatist feminism
  • Sex-positive feminism
  • Social feminism
  • Socialist feminism
    • Marxist feminism
  • Standpoint feminism
  • State feminism
  • Transfeminism

Chronological variants[edit]

  • Protofeminism
  • First-wave feminism
  • Second-wave feminism
  • Third-wave feminism
  • Fourth-wave feminism
  • Postfeminism

Ethnic variants[edit]

  • Black feminism
    • Hip-hop feminism
    • Womanism
      • Africana womanism
  • Chicana feminism
  • French feminism
    • Post-structural feminism
  • Indigenous feminism
    • Native American feminism
  • Kurdish feminism
  • Postcolonial feminism
    • Global feminism
    • Third-world feminism
    • Transnational feminism
  • White feminism

Regional variants[edit]

African[edit]
  • Congo
  • Ethiopia
  • Ghana
  • Mali
  • Nigeria
  • South Africa
American[edit]
  • Argentina
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Mexico
  • Paraguay
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • United States
Asian / Pacific[edit]
  • Australia
  • China
  • Hong Kong
  • Indonesia
  • Japan
  • Malaysia
  • New Zealand
  • Philippines
  • South Korea
  • Taiwan
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
European[edit]
  • Albania
  • Denmark
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Russia
  • Sweden
  • Ukraine
  • United Kingdom
Middle Eastern / Indian[edit]
  • Bangladesh
  • Egypt
  • India
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Israel
  • Lebanon
  • Nepal
  • Northern Cyprus
  • Pakistan
  • Syria
  • Turkey

Religious variants[edit]

  • Atheist feminism
  • Buddhist feminism
  • Christian feminism
  • Hindu feminism
  • Islamic feminism
  • Jewish feminism
    • Orthodox Jewish feminism
  • Mormon feminism
  • Neopagan feminism
    • Reclaiming
  • Sikh feminism

LGBT social movements[edit]

  • Gay liberation
  • Gay pride
  • Homonationalism
  • LGBT conservatism
  • Queer anarchism
  • Queer nationalism
  • Queer socialism
  • Transfeminism

Men's movement[edit]

  • Antifeminism
    • Men's rights movement
  • Fathers' rights movement
  • Intactivism
  • Incelism
  • Masculism
  • Mythopoetic men's movement
  • Profeminism
    • Men's liberation movement

Racial separatist and supremacist movements[edit]

Black

  • Black nationalism
  • Black separatism

White

  • Alt-right
  • White nationalism
  • White Separatism

Self-determination movements[edit]

African-American

  • African-American self-determination
  • Black anarchism
  • Black capitalism
    • Black conservatism
  • Black feminism
    • Womanism
      • Africana womanism
  • Black power
  • Pan-Africanism

Indigenous peoples

  • Canadian First Nations self-determination
  • Indigenismo
  • Maori self-determination
  • Native American self-determination
    • American Indian Movement
  • Pan-Indianism
  • Self-determination of Australian Aborigines

Latinx American

  • Chicanismo
    • Chicano movement
  • Hispanismo
  • Indigenismo
  • Pan-americanism
  • Panhispanism

Liberalism and Centrism[edit]

  • Political internationals: Liberal International (Liberalism), Pirate Parties International (Pirate politics), Transnational Radical Party (Radicalism), Centrist Democrat International (Christian democracy and Centrism)

Liberalism[edit]

General[edit]

  • Agonistic liberalism
  • Classical liberalism
  • Conservative liberalism
  • Constitutional liberalism
  • Cultural liberalism
  • Democratic liberalism
  • Egalitarianism
  • Green liberalism
  • Muscular liberalism
  • Neoliberalism
  • National liberalism
  • Progressivism
  • Secular liberalism
  • Technoliberalism

Other[edit]

  • Liberal autocracy
  • Liberal conservatism
  • Liberal feminism
    • Equity feminism
  • Liberal socialism
  • Pirate politics
  • Radicalism
  • Whiggism

Centrism[edit]

  • Centre-left politics
  • Centre-right politics
  • Christian democracy
    • Christian corporatism
    • Distributism
    • Ordoliberalism
      • Social market economy
    • Popolarismo
  • Communitarianism
  • Georgism
    • Geolibertarianism
  • Moderate politics
  • Radical centrism
  • Social democracy
    • Nordic model
    • Social corporatism
  • Social liberalism
    • Liberal corporatism
  • Syncretic politics
  • Third Way
  • Welfare capitalism

Regional variants[edit]

African[edit]

  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • South Africa
  • Zimbabwe

American[edit]

  • Latin America
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • Colombia
  • Cuba
  • Ecuador
  • Honduras
  • Mexico
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • United States
    • Democratism
    • Progressivism in the United States
  • Uruguay
  • Venezuela

Asian / Pacific[edit]

  • Australia
  • China
  • Hong Kong
  • Japan
  • New Zealand
  • Philippines
  • South Korea
  • Taiwan
  • Thailand

European[edit]

  • Europe
  • Albania
  • Armenia
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Czech lands
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macedonia
  • Moldova
  • Montenegro
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Ukraine
  • United Kingdom

Middle Eastern / Indian[edit]

  • Cyprus
  • Egypt
  • India
  • Iran
  • Israel
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey

Nationalism and Fascism[edit]

  • Political internationals: The Movement (Neo-nationalism), International Conference of Asian Political Parties (Pan-Asianism and Regionalism), Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (Nationalism and Self-determination)

General[edit]

  • Anti-imperialism
  • Bourgeois nationalism
  • Chauvinism
    • Welfare chauvinism
  • Civic nationalism
  • Corporate nationalism
  • Eco-nationalism
  • Economic nationalism
    • Business nationalism
    • Developmentalism
  • Ethnic nationalism
  • Expansionist nationalism
  • Homonationalism
  • Illiberal democracy
    • Bolsonarism
    • Dudaism
    • Dutertism
    • Erdoganism
      • Conservative democracy
      • Neo-Ottomanism
    • Orbanism
    • Putinism
      • Chekism
        • Nashism
      • Eurasianism
      • Neo-Sovietism
        • Neo-Stalinism
    • Salvinism
    • Trumpism
  • Imperialism
    • Globalism
    • Neocolonialism
  • Jingoism
  • Left-wing nationalism
  • Liberal nationalism
  • National mysticism
  • Nativism
  • Neo-nationalism
  • Pan-nationalism
  • Queer nationalism
  • Religious nationalism
  • Romantic nationalism
  • Territorial nationalism
  • Ultranationalism

Fascism[edit]

  • Alt-right
  • Austrofascism
  • British fascism
  • Chilean fascism
  • Chinese fascism
  • Christofascism
  • Clerical fascism
  • Corporate statism
  • Crypto-fascism
  • Dark Enlightenment
  • Ecofascism
  • Falangism
  • Fascist syndicalism
  • Francoism
  • Homonationalism
  • Hutu Power
  • Integralism
    • Brasilian Integralism
    • Lusitanian Integralism
    • French Integralism
  • Integral nationalism
  • Islamofascism
  • Italian fascism
  • Japanese fascism
  • Legionarism
  • Metaxism
  • Mobutism
  • Nashism
  • National Radicalism
  • Nazism
    • American Nazism (Rockwellism)
    • Slovene Nazism (Siskoism)[11][12]
  • Neo-fascism
  • Neo-Nazism
  • Racial nationalism
  • Reactionary modernism
  • Revolutionary nationalism
  • Rexism
  • Right-wing authoritarianism
  • Strasserism
  • Supremacism
  • Third Position
    • Nouvelle Droite
      • Identarianism
    • Peronism
  • Ustase

Other[edit]

  • National anarchism
  • National bolshevism
  • National communism
  • National conservatism
  • National populism
  • National syndicalism
  • National Liberalism

Religious variants[edit]

  • Christian nationalism
  • Hindu nationalism
  • Jewish nationalism
    • Diaspora nationalism
    • Religious Zionism
  • Muslim nationalism
  • Sikh nationalism
  • Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism

Regional variants[edit]

African[edit]

  • Afrikaner nationalism
  • Algerian nationalism
  • Berber nationalism
  • Congolese nationalism (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
    • Lumumbism
  • Egyptian nationalism
  • Ethiopian nationalism
  • Madagascan nationalism
  • Nigerian nationalism
  • Somali nationalism

American[edit]

  • American nationalism
    • Hawaiian sovereignty movement
    • Independence movement in Puerto Rico
    • Neo-Confederate movement
  • Argentine nationalism
  • Brazilian nationalism
  • Canadian nationalism
    • Quebec nationalism
  • Greenlandic independence

Asian / Pacific[edit]

  • Cambodian nationalism
  • Chinese nationalism
    • Taiwanese nationalism
    • Tibetan nationalism
    • Uyghur nationalism
  • Filipino nationalism
  • Indonesian nationalism
  • Japanese nationalism
  • Karen nationalism
  • Korean nationalism
  • Malaysian nationalism
  • Vietnamese nationalism
    • Degar (Montagnard) nationalism

European[edit]

  • Albanian nationalism
    • Kosovar nationalism
  • Armenian nationalism
  • Austrian nationalism
  • Belarusian nationalism
  • Belgian nationalism
    • Flemish Movement
    • Walloon Movement
  • British nationalism
    • British unionism
    • Cornish nationalism
    • English nationalism
    • Scottish nationalism
    • Ulster loyalism
    • Ulster nationalism
    • Welsh nationalism
  • Bulgarian nationalism
  • Czechoslovak nationalism
    • Czech nationalism
    • Slovak nationalism
  • Estonian nationalism
  • Faroese nationalism
  • Finnish nationalism
  • French nationalism
    • Breton nationalism
    • Corsican nationalism
    • Gaullism
    • Occitan nationalism
  • Georgian nationalism
  • German nationalism
    • Bavarian nationalism
  • Greek nationalism
    • Cypriot nationalism
  • Hungarian nationalism
  • Irish nationalism
    • Irish republicanism
    • Ulster unionism
  • Italian nationalism
    • Padanian nationalism
    • Sardinian nationalism
  • Jewish diaspora nationalism
  • Latvian nationalism
  • Lithuanian nationalism
  • Moldovan nationalism
  • Norwegian romantic nationalism
  • Polish nationalism
    • Silesian nationalism
  • Portuguese nationalism
  • Romanian nationalism
    • Poporanism
  • Russian nationalism
    • Chechen nationalism
  • Spanish nationalism
    • Andalusian nationalism
    • Basque nationalism
    • Canarian nationalism
    • Catalan nationalism
    • Galician nationalism
    • Valencian nationalism
  • Ukrainian nationalism
  • Yugoslav nationalism
    • Bosnian nationalism
    • Croatian nationalism
    • Serbian nationalism
    • Macedonian nationalism
    • Montenegrin nationalism
    • Slovene nationalism

Middle Eastern / Indian[edit]

  • Arab nationalism
    • Baathism
    • Lebanese nationalism
    • Palestinian nationalism
  • Assyrian nationalism
  • Azerbaijani nationalism
  • Indian nationalism
    • Bengali nationalism
    • Dravidian nationalism
    • Punjabi nationalism
  • Iranian nationalism
  • Kurdish nationalism
  • Pakistani nationalism
    • Kashmiri nationalism
  • Sri Lankan nationalism
    • Tamil nationalism
  • Turkish nationalism
    • Kemalism
  • Zionism
    • Christian Zionism
    • Green Zionism
    • Labor Zionism
    • Neo-Zionism
    • Religious Zionism
    • Revisionist Zionism

Unification movements[edit]

  • Anti-globalization movement
    • Alter-globalization
    • Global citizens movement
    • Global justice movement
  • Anti-nationalism
    • Anationalism
    • Antipatriotism
    • Cosmopolitanism
    • Democratic globalization
    • Internationalism
  • Indigenism
    • Indigenismo
    • Pan-Indianism
  • Multiculturalism
    • Interculturalism
    • Pluriculturalism
    • Plurinationalism
    • Polyculturalism
  • Pan-Africanism
  • Pan-Americanism
  • Pan-Arabism
  • Pan-Asianism
  • Pan-Celticism
  • Pan-Europeanism
    • Pan-European nationalism
    • United States of Europe
  • Pan-Germanism
  • Pan-Hellenism
  • Pan-Hispanism
    • Patria Grande
  • Pan-Iberism
  • Pan-Iranism
  • Pan-Irishism
  • Pan-Islamism
  • Pan-Latin Americanism
  • Pan-Latinism
  • Pan-Scandinavianism
  • Pan-Slavism
  • Pan-Somalism
  • Pan-Turanism
  • Pan-Turkism
  • Regionalism

Populism and Direct democracy movements[edit]

  • Political internationals: Pirate Parties International (Pirate politics), The Movement (Right-wing populism)

General[edit]

  • Agrarianism
    • Agrarian reformism
      • Land reform movements
  • Anti-corruption movements
  • Anti-establishmentarianism
  • Anti-particracy movements
  • Cellular democracy
  • Collaborative governance
  • Copyright reform movements
  • Cyber-utopianism
  • Deliberative democracy
  • E-democracy
    • Collaborative e-democracy
    • E-government
    • E-participation
  • Empowered democracy
  • Grassroots democracy
  • Interactive democracy
  • Localism
  • Net neutrality movements
  • Open-source governance
  • Pirate politics
  • Popular democracy
  • Producerism
  • Semi-direct democracy

Left-wing populism[edit]

  • Agrarian socialism
  • Anti-corporation movements
    • Anti-corporate activism
  • Anti-globalization movement
    • Alter-globalization
    • Global justice movement
    • Global citizens movement
  • Anti-nuclear movement
  • Economic democracy
    • Council democracy
    • Industrial democracy
    • Workers' self-management
    • Workplace democracy
  • Egalitarianism
  • Inclusive democracy
  • Labour movement
  • Occupy movement
  • Participism
    • Parecon
      • Participatory budgeting
    • Parpolity
      • Participatory democracy
      • Participatory justice
      • Participatory planning
  • Peace movement
    • Anti-militarism
    • Anti-war movement
  • Radical democracy

Right-wing populism[edit]

  • Alt-lite
  • Alt-right
  • Chauvinism
    • Welfare chauvinism
  • National conservatism
  • Nativism
    • Anti-immigration movements
  • Neo-nationalism
  • Neoreactionary movement
  • Paleoconservatism
  • Penal populism
  • Völkisch movement

Regional variants[edit]

  • Athenian democracy
  • Black Populism movement in the United States
  • Coffee Party movement in the United States
  • Direct Democracy in the United States
  • Euroscepticism
    • Hard Euroscepticism
    • Soft Euroscepticism
  • Five Star movement in Italy
  • Kemalism
  • Populism in Canada
  • Populism in Latin America
    • Bolivarianism
    • Peronism
  • Roman Populares
  • Russian agrarian populism
    • Romanian agrarian populism
  • Swiss semi-direct democracy
    • Landsgemeinde
    • Popular initiative (Switzerland)
  • Tea Party movement in the United States
  • Trumpism in the United States
  • United Kingdom Independence Party
    • Brexit movement

Religious ideologies[edit]

  • Political internationals: Centrist Democrat International (Christian democracy), Muslim Brotherhood (Islamism), Hizb ut-Tahrir (Islamism)

General[edit]

  • Anti-clericalism
  • Clericalism
  • Confessionalism
  • Divine right of kings
  • Feminist theology
    • Thealogy
    • Womanist theology
  • Fundamentalism
    • Atheist fundamentalism
  • Humanism
    • Religious humanism
    • Secular humanism
  • Political religion
  • Progressive Reconstructionism
  • Religious anarchism
  • Religious anti-Zionism
  • Religious apoliticism
  • Religious communism
  • Religious liberalism
  • Religious nationalism
  • Religious pacifism
  • Religious socialism
  • Secularism
    • Disestablishmentarianism
    • Laïcité
    • Secular religion
    • State atheism
  • Spiritual left
  • State religion
    • Antidisestablishmentarianism
    • Theocracy
    • Theonomy

Buddhism[edit]

  • Buddhist anarchism
  • Buddhist feminism
  • Buddhist modernism
    • Engaged Buddhism
    • Humanistic Buddhism
    • Secular Buddhism
  • Buddhist nationalism
    • 969 Movement
    • Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism
  • Buddhist socialism

Christianity[edit]

  • Caesaropapism
  • Christian anarchism
  • Christian communism
  • Christian democracy
    • Christian corporatism
    • Popolarismo
    • Social market economy
  • Christian feminism
  • Christian fundamentalism
  • Christian humanism
  • Christian libertarianism
  • Christian nationalism
    • Christian Zionism
    • National Catholicism
  • Christian pacifism
  • Christian reconstructionism
    • Dominionism
  • Christian socialism
  • Christofascism
    • Clerical fascism
  • Distributism
  • Evangelical left
  • Liberal Christianity
  • Liberation theology
  • Political Catholicism
  • Popolarismo
  • Progressive Christianity
  • Social Gospel
  • Ultramontanism
    • Neo-ultramontanism

Hinduism[edit]

  • Gandhism
  • Hindu feminism
  • Hindu nationalism
  • Hindu revivalism

Islam[edit]

  • Gülen movement
  • Islamic anarchism
  • Islamic democracy
  • Islamic feminism
  • Islamic fundamentalism
    • Islamism
      • Islamic fascism
  • Islamic liberalism
  • Islamic Modernism
  • Islamic nationalism
    • Islamic Zionism
    • Muslim nationalism in South Asia
  • Islamic pacifism
  • Islamic socialism
  • Khilafat movement
  • Panislamism

Judaism[edit]

  • Homaranismo
  • Jewish anarchism
  • Jewish anti-Zionism
  • Jewish Autonomism
  • Jewish democracy
  • Jewish feminism
  • Jewish fundamentalism
  • Jewish humanism
  • Jewish left
    • Bundism
  • Jewish nationalism
    • Halachic state
    • Religious Zionism
  • Kibbutzim
    • Kibbutz Movement
    • Religious Kibbutz Movement

Mormonism[edit]

  • Theodemocracy

Shinto[edit]

  • State Shinto

Sikhism[edit]

  • Khalistan movement

Socialism and Communism[edit]

  • Political internationals: Progressive Alliance (Social democracy and Progressivism), Socialist International (Democratic socialism), Foro de São Paulo (Socialism of the 21st century), World Socialist Movement (Impossibilism), Committee for a Workers' International (Trotskyism), Fourth International (Trotskyism), International Marxist Tendency (Trotskyism), ICMLPO International Newsletter (Maoism), ICMLPO Unity & Struggle (Hoxhaism), International Communist Seminar (Marxism-Leninism), International Meeting of Communist and Workers Parties (Communism), International League of Peoples' Struggle (Marxism-Leninism-Maoism)

Evolutionary socialism[edit]

  • Democratic socialism
  • Ethical socialism
  • Fabian socialism
  • Labourism
  • Liberal socialism
  • Municipal socialism
  • Progressivism
  • Reformism
  • Social democracy
    • Nordic model
    • Social corporatism

Revolutionary socialism[edit]

  • Blanquism
  • Democratic socialism
  • Libertarian socialism
    • Inclusive Democracy
    • Libertarian Marxism
      • Autonomism
        • Operaismo
      • Left communism
        • Council communism
        • Bordigism
        • Luxemburgism
      • Open Marxism
      • Orthodox Marxism
        • Impossibilism
          • De Leonism
          • World socialism
        • Instrumental Marxism
        • Kautskyism
      • Situationism
      • Socialisme ou Barbarie
      • Solidarity (UK)
    • Participism
    • Social anarchism
      • Anarcho-collectivism
      • Anarcho-communalism
        • Democratic confederalism
        • Libertarian municipalism
        • Social ecology
      • Anarcho-communism
        • Magonism
          • Neozapatismo
      • Anarcho-syndicalism
  • Syndicalism
    • Sorelianism
    • Wobblyism
  • Western Marxism
    • Austromarxism
    • Frankfurt School
    • Freudo-Marxism
    • Marxist humanism
    • Neo-Marxism
      • Analytical Marxism
      • Conflict theories
        • Dependency theory
        • Social conflict theory
        • World-systems theory
      • Gramscianism
        • Neo-Gramscianism
      • Structural Marxism
    • Post-Marxism

Communism[edit]

  • Marxist communism
    • Leninism
      • Marxism-Leninism
        • Castroism
        • Goulash communism
        • Guevarism
          • Foco
        • Ho Chi Minh Thought
        • Hoxhaism
        • Husakism
        • Juche
        • Khrushchevism
        • Mao Zedong Thought
          • Maoism (Third Worldism)
          • Mao-Spontex
          • Marxism–Leninism–Maoism
            • Gonzalo Thought
            • Marxism–Leninism–Maoism–Prachanda Path
          • Socialism with Chinese characteristics
            • Deng Xiaoping Thought
            • Scientific Outlook on Development
            • Xi Jinping Thought
        • Revisionism
        • Stalinism
          • Anti-revisionism
          • Neo-Stalinism
          • Socialism in One Country
        • Titoism
          • Đilasism
          • Rankovićism
      • Trotskyism
        • Orthodox Trotskyism
        • Pabloism
        • Posadism
        • Third camp
          • Shachtmanism
    • Other
  • Non-Marxist communism
    • Anarchist communism
    • Communard movement
    • Kibbutz movement
    • Primitive communism
    • Religious communism
      • Christian communism
        • Diggers
        • Hutterites
        • Shakers
        • United Order
      • Islamic communism
      • Mazdakism

Other[edit]

  • Agrarian socialism
  • Authoritarian socialism
  • Centrist Marxism
  • Eco-socialism
  • Economic democracy
    • Council democracy
    • Industrial democracy
    • Workers' self-management
    • Workplace democracy
  • Guild socialism
  • Market socialism
    • Ricardian socialism
    • Veblenian socialism
  • Proto-socialism
    • Chartists
    • Communards
    • Diggers
    • Jacobins
    • Levellers
    • Radicals
  • Scientific socialism
  • Right-wing socialism
    • Tory socialism
  • Socialist feminism
  • Socialist nationalism
  • State socialism
  • Utopian socialism
    • Fourierism
    • Owenism

Regional variants of socialism[edit]

  • African socialism
  • American progressivism
  • American socialism
    • African-American leftism
  • Arab socialism
    • Nasserism
    • Tunisian socialism
  • Australian socialism
  • Bangladeshi socialism
  • Brazilian socialism
  • British socialism
  • Burmese socialism
  • Canadian socialism
  • Caribbean socialism
  • Catalan socialism
  • Chilean socialism
  • Dutch socialism
  • French socialism
  • Hong Kong socialism
  • Indian socialism
    • Gandhian socialism
    • Naxalism
    • Nehruism
  • Indonesian socialism
  • Iranian socialism
    • Mazdakism
  • Korean socialism
  • Kurdish socialism
  • Israeli socialism
  • Latin American Socialism of the 21st century
    • Argentine Kirchnerism
    • Bolivian Movement for Socialism
    • Brazilian Lulism
    • Venezuelan Bolivarianism
      • Chavism
  • Melanesian socialism
  • Mexican socialism
    • Magonism
      • Neozapatismo
  • New Zealand socialism
  • Nicaraguan socialism
  • Pakistani socialism
  • Russian Narodnik socialism
    • Socialist Revolutionary Party
  • Scandinavian socialism
    • Popular socialism
  • Tanzanian socialism
  • Third-Worldism
    • Third World Socialism

Religious variants of socialism[edit]

  • Buddhist socialism
  • Christian socialism
  • Islamic socialism
  • Jewish socialism

Regional variants of communism[edit]

African[edit]

  • Communism in Angola
  • Communism in Benin
  • Communism in the Republic of the Congo
  • Communism in Ethiopia
  • Communism in Madagascar
  • Communism in Mozambique
  • Communism in Somalia
  • Communism in South Africa

American[edit]

  • Communism in Canada
  • Communism in Chile
  • Communism in Colombia
  • Communism in Cuba
  • Communism in Grenada
  • Communism in Peru
  • Communism in the United States

Asian / Pacific[edit]

  • Communism in Australia
  • Communism in Cambodia
    • Khmer Rouge
    • Salvation Front
  • Communism in China
    • Left communism in China
  • Communism in Indonesia
    • Communism in Sumatra
  • Communism in Korea
  • Communism in Laos
  • Communism in Mongolia
  • Communism in the Philippines
  • Communism in Thailand
  • Communism in Vietnam

European[edit]

  • Communism in Albania
  • Communism in Bulgaria
  • Communism in Czechoslovakia
  • Communism in France
  • Communism in Germany
    • Spartacus League
  • Communism in Greece
  • Communism in Hungary
  • Communism in Italy
  • Communism in Poland
  • Communism in Portugal
  • Communism in Romania
  • Communism in Russia
  • Communism in Spain
  • Communism in the United Kingdom
  • Communism in Yugoslavia

Middle Eastern / Indian[edit]

  • Communism in Afghanistan
  • Communism in India
    • Communism in Kerala
  • Communism in Iran
  • Communism in Israel/Palestine
  • Communism in Nepal
  • Communism in Pakistan
  • Communism in Turkey
  • Communism in Yemen
    • Communism in South Yemen

See also[edit]

  • Ideology
  • List of communist ideologies
  • List of forms of government
  • List of ideologies named after people
  • Political international
  • Political party


References[edit]

  1. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/slavic-review/article/state-of-socialism-a-note-on-terminology/4C742B00BE0D00ED3F0BE855097DE5F7#
  2. D. McLellan, Ideology, University of Minnesota Press, 1986, p. 1.
  3. Bouchard, T. J., and McGue, M. (2003). Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences. Journal of Neurobiology, 54 (1), 44–45.
  4. Cloninger, et al. (1993).[citation not found]
  5. Eaves, L. J., Eysenck, H. J. (1974). Genetics and the development of social attitudes. Nature, 249, 288–289.
  6. Alford, (2005).[citation not found]
  7. Hatemi, P. K., Medland, S. E., Morley, K. I., Heath, A. C., Martin, N.G. (2007). "The genetics of voting: An Australian twin study". Behavior Genetics, 37 (3), 435–448.
  8. Hatemi, P. K., Hibbing, J., Alford, J., Martin, N., Eaves, L. (2009). "Is there a 'party' in your genes?". Political Research Quarterly, 62 (3), 584–600.
  9. Settle, J. E., Dawes, C. T., and Fowler, J. H. (2009). "The heritability of partisan attachment". Political Research Quarterly, 62 (3), 601–613.
  10. Anonymous Conservative. The Evolutionary Psychology Behind Politics.
  11. "Program - Gibanje Zedinjena Slovenija". Gibanje Zedinjena Slovenija (in slovenščina). Retrieved 2018-11-01.
  12. "Anti-migrant paramilitary group springs up in Slovenia". DailySabah. Retrieved 2018-11-01.

Notes[edit]

This article "List of political ideologies" is from Wikipedia. The list of its authors can be seen in its historical. Articles copied from Draft Namespace on Wikipedia could be seen on the Draft Namespace of Wikipedia and not main one.


External links[edit]

Useful notes on political ideologies


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