Physiological active compounds

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--Auric talk 10:53, 8 September 2019 (UTC)

Physiological active compounds are any substances that cause an effect on plants, animals or humans function/activities. Pharmacologically and physiologically, all organism possesses some specific receptors that have specific ligand. Physiologically active compounds are the ligands to these receptors and by binding to them they work as an agonist to activate the receptors. The response to this activation would change how the cell functions depending on the selectivity, specifity and potency of the compound.[1]

Constituent elements[edit]

 Most of the chemicals either natural or synthesised are producing some kind of response on the body. If their mechanism of action becomes clear then we can classify them into different functional groups. it mostly done by their functional groups and compounds constituents.

Examples[edit]

physiologically active compounds can produce chemical effects on Many plants and humans for manipulation of their functions. The major classes of physiologically active compounds are described below, with examples of their structural properties that they contain.[2]

Humic Substances[edit]

Humic Substances are originally found in coastal regions and sea waters in which each of them have different components ratio. Humic substances are the major organic compound of soil where the residue of the decayed plant and animals found. They have major roles as fertiliser and help plant growth. Furthermore, they play many important roles as a bio-catalyst or bio-Stimulants. The nature of Humic substances is naturally acidic. One of the resources of this substance is from sedimentation layers which been located on the earth crust but due to pales of soil it is now close the outermost crust of the earth.[3] [4]

Siderophores[edit]

Main alive producers of physiological active compounds are fungi and bacteria whom scavenge iron from soil to produce minerals. Siderophores have been related to have pathogenic effects on both plants and animals[5] Siderophores are organic compounds with small molecular masses that are produced by microorganisms and plants growing under low iron conditions. In resent years their potential use for environmental sciences have gathered attentions of many experts in these fields. The primary function of these compounds is to chelate the ferric iron [Fe(III)] from different terrestrial and aquatic habitats and thereby make it available for microbial and plant cells [6]


Plant growth regulators[edit]

Known as PGR are inject to plants either by spraying or applies to seeds to manipulate its characteristics. They also are known as plant hormones as its major constituent is nitrogen, ethylene, auxins, and forchlorfenuron. They can be effective to regulate resistance and stunt growth, ripening fruits, accelerating rooting, yields of crops, stem length, larger fruits[8][9] they are mostly produced by the plants itself and when the natural and synthetic plants hormone use in these ways call Plant Growth regulators [10]


Allelopathics[edit]

Allelpathics are the released substances, directly or indirectly through decomposition of residues just like Humic substance. They can be made from cover crops or dead crop residues.[11] or when plant goes under secondary metabolism from various tissues such as leaching from aerial parts [11]

Vitamins[edit]

Vitamins are well known for their importance and effect on body and plant. they are naturally available in food. Vitamins role is vital but the amount needed for body is very small. Some physiological effects by vitamins are: energy production, blood-cell making and homeostasis.[12] they have to be gain in diet as a supply as they are not naturally produced by body. Each vitamin related to specific coenzyme presents in different metabolic pathways [13]

Antibiotics[edit]

Natural antibiotics are also well known from millennia. They have been produced from plant extract, essential oils and other foods. They only on bacteria obviously because they are alive and viruses or not consider as live organism as they lack DNA and they inject themselves into host organism[14]. The bioactivity of antibiotics screened and their importance on physiology is highly regarded. Studies on such a cabal behaviour of the microorganisms promise insight into the complications of the microb physiology and are very likely to provide some lead in controlling the emergence and subsequent diffusion of resistance of antibiotics. Antibiotics available in the market are either made by fermentation or are derived via semi-synthetic route using the existing antibiotic backbone structure [15]


Extracellular Soils enzymes[edit]

These substances are not representing in global biogeochemical models however they have an important role is catalysing innumerable reaction in soils that have biogeochemical significance to hydrolase substrates in for microbes to ease absorption[17] most of the nutrient and carbon cycling process in natural environments occurs through the activity of extracellular enzymes released by microorganisms. Thus, to measure activity of extracellular enzymes can give information into the ecosystem level, such as organic matter decomposition or nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization. Assays of extracellular enzyme activity in environmental samples typically involve putting the samples to colorimetric or fluorometric substrates and following the rate of substrate hydrolysis [18]


microbial and soil fauna stimulants[edit]

microbial and soil fauna stimulants are applied to improve crop production and nutrition quality of agricultural food products. They are mostly included in agricultural management practices to decrease chemical input, increasing productivity and recovering the natural equilibrium in agro-ecosystems[19]


Natural insecticides pr herbicides insecticides[edit]

Unlike pesticides only target insects like wasp killer. Most invasive species become established in an area after a disturbance of soils. This is why you can observe multiple invasive species along the roadways and ditches. Each time pesticides or herbicides are used, it extensively affects the plant community and creates an additional unsettle that allows for invasive species to be introduced and take hold. The more herbicides that are used to kill harmful species, the more disturbances are made for new invasive species to establish themselves. This is an ongoing, cyclic process that in the end introduces more chemicals into the air and water. There are other ways to fight invasive species without spraying chemicals[20]


Major research institutes[edit]

  • Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute
  • UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research

References[edit]

  1. Nigrelli, Ross F.; Ruggieri, George D.; Mierzwa, Ronald A.; Stempien, Martin F.; Chib, Joginder S. (1978-02-01). "Physiologically Active Substances from Marine Sponges V: Isolation of Physiologically Active Compounds from the Sponge Verongia archeri". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 67 (2): 264–265. doi:10.1002/jps.2600670238. ISSN 0022-3549. PMID 340639.
  2. "Angiosperms: Division Magnoliophyta: General Features". Encyclopædia Britannica (volume 13, 15th edition). 1993. p. 609.
  3. Haviland, John B. (2013-12-31). "Introduction". Where do Nouns Come From?. 13 (3): 245–252. doi:10.1075/gest.13.3.01hav. ISSN 1568-1475.
  4. George R. Harvey; Stuermer, Daniel H. (August 1974). "Humic substances from seawater". Nature. 250 (5466): 480–481. Bibcode:1974Natur.250..480S. doi:10.1038/250480a0. ISSN 1476-4687.
  5. Neilands, J. B. (1995-11-10). "Siderophores: Structure and Function of Microbial Iron Transport Compounds". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (45): 26723–26726. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.45.26723. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 7592901.
  6. Ahmed, E; Holmström, S J M (May 2014). "Siderophores in environmental research: roles and applications". Microbial Biotechnology. 7 (3): 196–208. doi:10.1111/1751-7915.12117. ISSN 1751-7915. PMC 3992016. PMID 24576157.
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named USDAingredients
  8. "What is a Plant Growth Regulator (PGR)? - Definition from MaximumYield". www.maximumyield.com. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  9. Corporation, Grains Research and Development. "Plant growth regulators". Grains Research and Development Corporation. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  10. "What are Plant Growth Regulators?". www.cfs.gov.hk. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Allelopathy - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  12. Services, Department of Health & Human. "Vitamin B". www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  13. Blanco, Antonio; Blanco, Gustavo (2017-01-01), Blanco, Antonio; Blanco, Gustavo, eds., "Chapter 27 - Vitamins", Medical Biochemistry, Academic Press, pp. 645–687, ISBN 9780128035504, retrieved 2019-05-24
  14. GIS. "All about Antibiotics". Gastrointestinal Society. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  15. Sengupta, Saswati; Chattopadhyay, Madhab K.; Grossart, Hans-Peter (2013-03-12). "The multifaceted roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in nature". Frontiers in Microbiology. 4: 47. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00047. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 3594987. PMID 23487476.
  16. "File:Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance.jpg", Wikipedia, retrieved 2019-05-24
  17. "Soil Enzymes - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  18. Jackson, Colin R.; Tyler, Heather L.; Millar, Justin J. (2013-10-01). "Determination of Microbial Extracellular Enzyme Activity in Waters, Soils, and Sediments using High Throughput Microplate Assays". Journal of Visualized Experiments (80). doi:10.3791/50399. ISSN 1940-087X. PMC 3938205. PMID 24121617.
  19. Woo, Sheridan L.; Pepe, Olimpia (2018-12-04). "Microbial Consortia: Promising Probiotics as Plant Biostimulants for Sustainable Agriculture". Frontiers in Plant Science. 9: 1801. doi:10.3389/fpls.2018.01801. ISSN 1664-462X. PMC 6288764. PMID 30564264.
  20. US EPA, OAR (2014-07-03). "Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)". US EPA. Retrieved 2019-05-24.

Literature[edit]


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