Three Cs (public health)
Three Cs (3つの密 Mittsu no Mitsu, lit. "Three 'Close's"), also written Three C's or 3密 (San Mitsu), is a slogan originated by the Japanese government in 2020 in combating the COVID-19 pandemic.
The slogan warns people to avoid three factors that contribute to clusters of infection:
- Closed spaces (密閉) with poor ventilation
- Crowded places (密集) with many people nearby
- Close-contact settings (密接) such as close-range conversations
and especially the combination of them.
The Three Cs were announced by the office of the Prime Minister of Japan on Twitter on March 17, 2020. This followed work by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare on how to prevent superspreader events and other clusters (クラスター), including the February 25th, 2020 establishment of a Cluster Countermeasures Group within the ministry.
Use beyond Japan
On July 16, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) posted a recommendation to "Avoid the Three Cs", in terms very similar to those used in English by the Japanese government.
- "3つの"密"を避けて外出を…新型コロナで厚労省が新たな注意喚起を公表". FNNプライムオンライン (in 日本語). Retrieved 2020-04-18.
- "Avoid the "Three Cs"!" (PDF). Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Retrieved 2020-09-30.
- 首相官邸(災害・危機管理情報) (2020-03-17). "【注意喚起】#新型コロナウイルス に関するお知らせ". Twitter @kantei_saigai (in 日本語). Retrieved 2020-04-18.
- "「3つの密」、誕生の背景とは？ - 押谷・東北大教授（厚労省クラスター対策班）｜医療維新 - m3.comの医療コラム". www.m3.com (in 日本語). Retrieved 2020-05-15.
- @WHO (2020-07-16). "Avoid the 3 Cs. There are certain places where #COVID19 spreads more easily: (1) Crowded places (2) Close-contact settings (3) Confined and enclosed spaces" (Tweet). Retrieved 2020-09-30 – via Twitter.
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