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10x Genomics, Inc. is an American company incorporated in 2012 that develops and manufactures integrated systems for whole genome sequencing, exome sequencing and single cell transcriptomics. Its headquarters are located in Pleasanton, California.
10x Genomics was founded in 2012 by Serge Saxonov, Ben Hindson and Kevin Ness, who previously worked at Quantalife. The company raised $110 million in equity through two rounds of investment in 2015 and 2016. 10x Genomics made its public début at the JP Morgan Healthcare Conference in San Francisco in 2015. In November 2016, 10x Genomics was identified as one of the key players in the next generation sequencing (NGS) global market.
The 10x platform uses a method based on emulsion PCR in order to produce Linked-Reads or single-cell data. The 10x Chromium System utilizes "GemCode" technology for massively-parallel partitioning of high molecular weight DNA fragments (HMW-gDNA) or of whole single-cells into micelles, along with an adapter molecule and a barcode sequence. Within each micelle the gel bead dissolves, delivering reagents that barcode smaller fragments of genomic DNA or single-cell derived messenger RNA within the micelle. Each of the smaller fragments retain the barcode sequence which is used to identify its parent micelle, which map to the genomic HMW-gDNA molecule or to the single cell transcriptome from which they are originally derived. After amplification, the emulsion is broken and the fragments are pooled, where it undergoes a standard library preparation. After DNA sequencing, there are different analytical pipelines for genome and single-cell transcriptome analysis. In the case of genomic DNA, the reads are aligned and linked to form a series of fragments covering around 50kb, called a Linked-Read.
The GemCode technology is similar to the Long Fragment Read (LFR) technology of Complete Genomics and is also similar to the synthetic long-read (SLR) technology offered by Illumina. In contrast to Illumina's SLR platform, the GemCode approach does not yield full coverage of each input HMW-gDNA molecule. Instead, the Linked-Reads from a single micelle are dispersed across the original HMW-fDNA molecule; however, improved read coverage arises through the process being applied to very large numbers of uniquely identifiable micelles.
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