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Federation of Independent Catholic and Orthodox Bishops

From EverybodyWiki Bios & Wiki

The Federation of Independent Catholic and Orthodox Bishops (FICOB) was an interjurisdictional organization of clergy from the Independent Sacramental Movement (ISM). Until it ceased to exist in 1997, FICOB included clergy from the Independent Catholic, Independent Anglican and Autocephalous Orthodox branches of the ISM.

For comparative research, contemporary directories of Independent Catholic clergy and eucharistic communities, and of other Independent Sacramental Movement clergy and communities, are also available online.


FICOB was organized in the 1960s or 1970s by Bishop Herman Adrian Spruit of the Catholic Apostolic Church of Antioch-Malabar Rite (often referred to as the Church of Antioch) and a group of independent prelates. Some of them subconditionally consecrated one another in an attempt to share all lines of apostolic succession. After Spruit's death in 1994, his wife, Meri Louise Spruit succeeded him and served as Matriarch of the Church of Antioch. She came to associate with Brother Harvey Beagle, who was ordained to minor orders in the Church of Antioch. Around 1995, Beagle became the “web acolyte" of FICOB and published FICOB's first online directory of bishops and jurisdictions. Many independent clergy joined the email list created and moderated by Beagle, who shortly thereafter found himself mired in challenges. By the end of 1997, FICOB ceased to exist, but its directories of clergy and jurisdictions were perpetuated by clergy within the movement.

FICOB Directories[edit]

FICOB brought together clergy and published directories of ISM clergy, eucharistic communities, jurisdictions and seminaries. The FICOB website advertised: "While others have chosen to use the name 'Independent Catholic Directories,' we are the original. Also, with over 700 listings of independent missions, parishes, clergy, and bishops, we justly claim to have the most extensive, and up-to-date (though we admit to having some listings which are clearly out of date), database of 'independent movement' listings on the Internet."

After the dissolution of FICOB, Father Alan Kemp maintained the online FICOB directory through April 2001. On the website on which he continued to publish the FICOB directories, he wrote:

A Diversity of Sacramental Religious Expression

While each of the following listings is for clergy and communities which are rooted in the Catholic, Orthodox or Anglican forms of sacramental worship, the independent expressions of these faith traditions represented here is diverse. The listings range from jurisdictions which are very liberal and metaphysical (or even "New Age") to those which are very traditional and conservative. If you are drawn to or rooted in one of these faith expressions, yet are estranged from the mainline churches, you may find a clergy member or faith community here with which you can identify. Clergy in the independent movement are frequently willing to serve when others cannot, including to officiate at marriages and burials. We urge you to use these directories to make contact with an Independent Catholic clergy member or faith community. (Note: We use the term 'Independent Catholic' to include Orthodox and Anglican traditions as well).

An Introduction to the Independent Catholic Directories

This work is based upon the work begun by Fr. Bernard J. Zolnowski, Jr., which was started as a work of love. Since then, it has been completely reorganized into a geographical directory. It is a partial list containing information on clergy in one of the most unique and fantastic religious movements to be found in the whole range of what may be described, in general terms, as the ecclesiastical underworld. The use of the word "underworld" in this context must be taken as connoting ecclesiastical eccentricity rather than roguery or crime (though this is certainly not unheard of in the "independent movement"). The men and women listed here may very well be some of the most dedicated clergy members in the Church today. We say this because the majority hold jobs in the secular world and serve the Lord and their fellow human beings for little or no pay - simply because they were called to love and serve the Lord. They are truly the "tent makers" of our modern times. They stand, as a rule, for Catholicism without acceptance of the universal jurisdiction of the Pope. Many reject clerical celibacy.

In almost every case, the people on this list have taken great pains to obtain ordination or consecration from bishops whose lines of apostolic succession they hope are unquestionable and indisputable.

It is difficult, if not impossible, to classify properly all those churches calling themselves Independent Catholic or Orthodox. Generally these churches are quite small. They tend not to be controlled or affiliated with any of the "mainstream" denominational or ecclesiastical organizations, but even this does not hold true in all cases. Someone has said that most of the Independent Catholics in America are either dissatisfied Anglicans or former Roman Catholics, and there seems to be at least some truth in that.

This list is only a beginning. It is but a small sample and by no means is it a complete listing of every Independent Catholic or Autocephalous Orthodox clergy member in existence. In fact, at best, it must be considered a work in progress. I am very honored to build upon the work begun by the late Fr. Zolnowski, and I invite readers to join with me by submitting directory information on priests and ministers in independent or autocephalous Catholic and Orthodox churches.

Much of what is currently know about FICOB is due to the efforts of preservation by now-Archbishop Alan Kemp, who was ordained to the priesthood in 1997 by Meri Spruit and her successor, Richard Gundrey. Last updated on January 1, 1998, the following FICOB directories were a rich resource for the Independent Sacramental Movement at the time and continue to provide insight into the ISM for contemporary researchers.

FICOB Membership[edit]

The various branches of the Independent Sacramental Movement are extremely fluid. The following directory shares FICOB membership on January 1, 1998. A cross-study in January 2023 revealed that only 20 of the 135 clergy (15%) in the 1998 FICOB directory (marked with an asterisk below) were still even somewhat active in the movement 25 years later.

The directory was published "as a resource about the independent Catholic movement...for the public and members of the Independent Catholic and Old Catholic movements." An April 2001 publication of this directory by Father Alan Kemp includes the following note: "We have never made any effort to verify the authenticity of the credentials of any of the individuals who were listed, nor had we conducted background checks to ascertain that the individuals listed were reputable. Some were not." Father Kemp also shared: "We have made the decision to cease maintaining and publishing our regionalized directories....While we have ceased to maintain our regionalized database, which had 700 listings of independent missions, parishes, clergy, and bishops, we are continuing to maintain a listing of those independent jurisdictions, or denominations, which we believe are healthy enough to be viable. The decision of who to include and who to exclude rests solely with the webmaster. We will, however, make every effort to only include those jurisdictions which appear to be credible. We reserve the right to exclude jurisdictions about which we have legal, moral, or ethical concerns."

The directory noted that Rt. Rev. Stephan A. Hoeller was a Past President of FICOB, and that Most Rev. Perry R. (Joseph Benedict) Sills was a Former Director of the FICOB.

Name Ordained Ministry Community Jurisdiction City State/Province Country
Arnold, Most Rev. Gilbert Bishop The Monastic Hermetic Order of St. Bennet Church of Antioch, Canada Guelth Ontario Canada
Baldwin, Most Rev. Scott, CFC Bishop Home Communities of Francis and Clare San Francisco California U.S.A.
Barberio, Rt. Rev. Jerrery Bishop (Independent Episcopal Bishop) Clifton New Jersey U.S.A.
Bernhardt, Fr. Louis N., O.S.A. Priest Anglican Rite Old Catholic Church San Antonio Texas U.S.A.
Bettendorf, Most Rev. Craig Steven Bishop Evangelical Anglican Church in America Redondo Beach California U.S.A.
Bolinger, Most Rev. William A. Bishop Diocese of the Northwest Catholic Apostolic Church in North America Port Orchard Washington U.S.A.
Bostwick, Most Rev. James Edward, D.D. Bishop Our Lady of Hope Old Catholic Church of America DeForest Wisconsin U.S.A.
Bowman, Most Rev. Robert M. Bishop United Catholic Church Melbourne Beach Florida U.S.A.
Boynton, Most Rev. Lewis R. Bishop Pinellas Park Florida U.S.A.
Brown, Most Rev. Randolph A. Bishop Western Orthodox Old-Catholic Church Minneapolis Minnesota U.S.A.
Brown, Most Rev. Simon Peter, C.C. Bishop Orthodox Catholic Old Roman Church Chicago Illinois U.S.A.
Buckley-Sittinger, Most Rev. Dr. Richard Bishop Free Anglican Church of America North Reading Massachusetts U.S.A.
Bugge, Most Rev. Chearle Bishop Alphington Victoria Australia
Bugge, Most Rev. Frank* Bishop Alphington Victoria Australia
Bussmann, Most Rev. George Bishop Church of the Good Shepherd Minneapolis Minnesota U.S.A.
Cardarelli, Most Rev. Richard Bishop American Apostolic Catholic Church Manchester Connecticut U.S.A.
Careone, Most Rev. Nickolas Bishop Diocese of California Western Orthodox Church in America San Francisco California U.S.A.
Clary, Most Rev. Thomas C., Ph.D., Th.D., FAACS Bishop Free Catholic Church La Jolla California U.S.A.
Clemens, Most Rev. Paul M. Bishop Chapel of St. Francis Church of Antioch Nevada City California U.S.A.
Clouse, Most Rev. Erwin Bishop Reformed Catholic Church of America Desert Hot Springs California U.S.A.
Coffey, Most Rev. Janice Leah Bishop Queen of Heaven Independent Catholic Church Pompano Beach Florida U.S.A.
De Coster, Most Rev. Philippe L. Bishop Secular Oblate of Saint Benedict (Old Roman Catholic Bishop) Parklaan Gent Belgium
Cover, Most Rev. Grant Bishop St. Michaels Abbey American Catholic Church Lewis New York U.S.A.
Crumpton, Most Rev. Marc Francis Bishop Holy Angels Parish Old Catholic Church of America Wauwatosa Wisconsin U.S.A.
Dahl, Most Rev. Daniel J., D.D. Bishop Archangel Sanctuary New Catholic Communion, Apostolic College of the Pacific Honolulu Hawaii U.S.A.
__, H.B. Mar David, II (Robert Ramm) Bishop Ancient Christian Fellowship & Apostolic Episcopal Church Tujunga California U.S.A.
Dawe, Most Rev. R. V. Bernard Bishop Independent Catholic Church International Vallejo California U.S.A.
DeVoy, Most Rev. W. Edwin, D.D. Bishop Diocese of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Catholic Charismatic Church Utica New York U.S.A.
Diederich, Most. Rev. Paul* Bishop Boston Diocese Western Orthodox Church in America Boston Massachusetts U.S.A.
Dittler, Most Rev. Robert* Bishop White Robed Monks of St. Benedict San Francisco California U.S.A.
Dugan, Most Rev. Howard* Bishop Church of the Holy Spirit Church of Antioch Fairfield Iowa U.S.A.
Dunbar, Most Rev. David W. Bishop Our Savior Orthodox Catholic Apostolate Orthodox Catholic Church in Ohio Cincinnati Ohio U.S.A.
Fair, Most Rev. Louis W. Fair* Bishop American Orthodox Church, Hawaii Mountainview Hawaii U.S.A.
Falk, Most Rev. Peter, OPR Bishop Abbot of Port Royal Titularbishop of Carthage Korschenbroich Germany
Fitzpatrick, Most Rev. Christopher W. Bishop Diocese of the Columbias Western Orthodox Church in America Seattle Washington U.S.A.
Foster, Most Rev. Michael C. Bishop Saint Thomas Christian Orthodox Church Colorado Springs Colorado U.S.A.
Frost, Most. Rev. Michael* Bishop The Holy Catholic Church Dannemora New York U.S.A.
Gadelha, Most Rev. Waldecir Bishop Igreja Catolica Ortodoxa do Brasil Potengi Natal Brazil
Garrow, Most Rev. Arthur Bishop Tridentine Old Catholic Church of the Americas San Diego California U.S.A.
Gau, Rt. Rev. Wayne Bishop Celtic Evangelical Church Honolulu Hawaii U.S.A.
Gilbert, Most Rev. John Frederick, Ph.D., D.D. Bishop Rocky Mountain Archdiocese Universal Church Boulder Colorado U.S.A.
Gregg, Most Rev. Leo Bishop Winnipeg Manitoba Canada
Greveling, Most Rev. Hieronymus Bishop Old Episcopalean Catholic Church in the Netherlands Breda Netherlands
Griffin, Most Rev. Richard Sean Deel, Ph.D., D.Min. Bishop American Orthodox Church Lakewood Colorado U.S.A.
Grosch, Most Rev. Lucia Bishop Society of Rosicrucians in America Holy Orthodox Church in America Preston Hollow New York U.S.A.
Gundrey, Most Rev. Richard* Bishop Church of Antioch Santa Fe New Mexico U.S.A.
Hardy, Rt. Revd. John A., MSc, BA* Bishop Diocese of the United Kingdom & Ireland Christ Catholic Church, International London England
Hash, Most Rev. Anthony, ODN* Bishop St. Nicholas, Giver of Gifts Vinton Virginia U.S.A.
__, Most Rev. Gerald Bishop Chicago Illinois U.S.A.
Hefner, Most Rev. Raymond E., Th.D., Ph.D., O.S.L. Bishop Church of Illumination & Spiritual Revelation El Paso Texas U.S.A.
Hicks, Most Rev. Lawrence L., O.S.B., J.C.D. Bishop Byzantine Catholic Church Reseda California U.S.A.
Hill, Most Rev. Evelyn Bishop Apostolic Catholic Community Peoria Arizona U.S.A.
Hoeller, Rt. Rev. Stephan A. Bishop Ecclesia Gnostica Hollywood California U.S.A.
Holman, Most. Rev. Jack Bishop Diocese of Missouri Old Catholic Church of Utrecht-Mathew Succession Holister Missouri U.S.A.
Hugh, Most Rev. Donald E. Bishop Apostolic Episcopal Church, Order of Corporate Reunion Apple Valley California U.S.A.
Hunter, Most Rev. Diana, D.Min. Bishop St. Julian's Without Walls Valley Ford California U.S.A.
Jachimczyk, Most Rev. G. Michael, OSN Bishop Byzantine Catholic Church of America San Antonio Texas U.S.A.
__, Most Rev. Dr. Mar James, SP Bishop Syrian Orthodox Church in America, Orthodox Catholic Church in America Foristell Missouri U.S.A.
Jolly-Gabriel, Most Rev. Donald L. Bishop Independent Catholic Church International San Bernardino California U.S.A.
Keck, Rt. Rev. Herman, Jr. Bishop Chaplin's Association, Adjutant General Office Springfield Missouri U.S.A.
Kelly, Most Rev. Raymond F., D.D., S.S.F.* Bishop Diocese of Fa Catholic Apostolic Church in North America (CACINA) Reston Virginia U.S.A.
Kilarsky, Most Rev. Michael Bishop United American Orthodox Catholic Church of Brazil Cleveland Ohio U.S.A.
Kochones, Most Rev. Mirta Bishop American Orthodox Catholic Church Altadena California U.S.A.
Kochones, Most Rev. Steven Bishop American Orthodox Catholic Church Altadena California U.S.A.
LaCava, Most Rev. Alberto I. Bishop Temple of the Holy Grail Guttenberg New Jersey U.S.A.
Lagona, Most Rev. James Bishop Orthodox Catholic Church in the U.S.A. Buffalo New York U.S.A.
Lane, Most Rev. Richard P., D.Min. Bishop Christian Orthodox Catholic Church San Diego California U.S.A.
Lankenau, Most Rev. Alfred L. Bishop Orthodox Catholic Church of America Indianapolis Indiana U.S.A.
Le Brun, Most Rev. Larry Bishop Church of St. Mary Magdalene Diocese of St. Columba Salinas California U.S.A.
Leeman, Most Rev. Edmund, Ofm Bishop North American Old Roman Catholic Church Forked River New Jersey U.S.A.
Lillie, Rt. Rev. Charles R.* Bishop St. Francis of Assisi American Old Catholic Church Ft. Walton Beach Florida U.S.A.
Lima, Most Rev. Orlando Bishop St. Francis of Assisi American Old Catholic Church Miami Florida U.S.A.
MacHugh, Most Rev. Stephen A. Bishop Apostolic Orthodox Church in America Brant Beach New Jersey U.S.A.
Maier, Most Rev. John Charles, Ph.D., OCR Bishop Old Catholic Order of Christ the King Old Catholic Church (Anglican Rite) Laguna Beach California U.S.A.
Martel, Most Rev. Denis* Bishop Catholic Church of the Americas New Orleans Louisiana U.S.A.
Martin, Most Rev. Robert "Marty" Bishop Holy Catholic Church Oklahoma City Oklahoma U.S.A.
McCormick, Most Rev. Maurice, Ed.D.* Bishop Independent Catholic Church of America and the Caribbean Louisville Kentucky U.S.A.
McGonigle, Most Rev. Paul A., Jr. (Bishop Seraphim) Bishop American Orthodox Catholic Church Wilmington Delaware U.S.A.
Meola, Most Rev. James Bishop Diocese of New Jersey Evangelical Episcopal Church Toms River New Jersey U.S.A.
Mette, __ Bishop Church of Illumination & Spiritual Revelation Palmdale California U.S.A.
Miller, Most Rev. Mark I. Bishop Byzantine Catholic Church Canoga Park California U.S.A.
Milner, Most Rev. Michael Bishop Church of the Resurrection Free Catholic Diocese of St. Paul the Apostle, Inc. Clearwater Florida U.S.A.
Montgomery, Most Rev. Benton Bishop Utica New York U.S.A.
Moody, Most Rev. David* Bishop St. Anthony's Catholic Church Westland Michigan U.S.A.
Parr, Most Rev. Norman Bishop Old Catholic Church in America Alexandria Indiana U.S.A.
Paris, Most Rev. Dennis Bishop (Independent Episcopal Bishop) San Juan Puerto Rico
Partida, Most Rev. Saul Bishop American Orthodox Catholic Church Los Angeles California U.S.A.
Peckenpaugh, Rt. Rev. William, OSFL Bishop Territory of the Northwest Independent Catholic Church of America Silverton Oregon U.S.A.
St. Peters, Most Rev. Donald W. Bishop Byzantine Orthodox Catholic Church Indianapolis Indiana U.S.A.
Poggiani, Most Rev. Connie Bishop Life Center Church of Antioch Santa Monica California U.S.A.
Polomski, Most Rev. Leonard* Bishop American Old Catholic Church Niceville Florida U.S.A.
Pound, Most Rev. Jackie L. Bishop Our Lady of the Angels Houston Texas U.S.A.
Pugin, Most Rev. Michel J., D.D.* Bishop Our Lady of Hope Parish Catholic Apostolic Church in North America (CACINA) Hull Quebec Canada
Raffaele, Most Rev. Joseph Bishop American Orthodox Catholic Church Medford New York U.S.A.
Rankin, Most Rev. James (Elijah) Christopher Bishop Evangelical Catholic Communion of Berkeley San Francisco California U.S.A.
Rankin, Most Rev. John Bishop Shekinah House Church of the Divine Presence Tahleguah Oklahoma U.S.A.
Reeves, Most Rev. John R. Bishop Catholic Church of the Americas Jacksonville Illinois U.S.A.
Rinaldi, Most Rev. John A. Bishop Free Catholic Church San Diego California U.S.A.
Rist, Most Rev. Perry Bishop American Catholic Church Pacifica California U.S.A.
Robinson, Most Rev. Jerome M. (Bishop Pimen) Bishop American Orthodox Catholic Church Wilmington Delaware U.S.A.
Rodriguez, Most Rev. Jorge* Bishop Ecclesia Católica Apostólica Orthdoxa Orange California U.S.A.
Romas, Most Rev. Althira Bishop Grace of Sophia Independent Catholic Church New Order of Glastonbury Lyons Colorado U.S.A.
Rothermel, Most Rev. Frederic M. Bishop Orthodox Catholic Church Phoenix Arizona U.S.A.
Russell, Rt. Rev. Norman H., OSM Bishop Saint John Chrysostom Mission American Catholic Church Pittsburgh Pennsylvania U.S.A.
Salvador, Most Rev. Roland L., D.D. Bishop Our Lady of Victories Catholic Charismatic Church of Canada Fairhaven Massachusetts U.S.A.
Sawyer, Most Rev. Raymond E., Ph.D. Bishop Springdale Arkansas U.S.A.
Schlapps, Most Rev. Fr. Klaus Bishop Priory St. Severin Order of Port Royal Buchloe Germany
Sehorn, Most Rev. F. Wilson (Vladimir) Bishop Diocese of the Southwest Ecumenical Orthodox Christian Church Denver Colorado U.S.A.
Seymour, Most Rev. Helene Bishop Saint Dubricius Order O' Glastonbery Church of Antioch Sun City California U.S.A.
Sieg, Most Rev. Marilyn Bishop Apostolic Catholic Community Peoria Arizona U.S.A.
Shirilau, Most Rev. Mark Bishop Ecumenical Catholic Church Forestville California U.S.A.
Sills, Most Rev. Perry R.(Joseph Benedict), OC, S.T.D. Bishop St. Raphael the Archangel Eucharistic Community/Mission Evangelical Orthodox Catholic Church in America San Jose California U.S.A.
Smith, Most Rev. Albert Bishop Christian Catholic Church (Old Catholic) Springdale Arkansas U.S.A.
Spaeth, Metropolitan Yur, Jr. Bishop Archdiocese of Florida Ecumenical Orthodox Christian Church Chiefland Florida U.S.A.
Spruit, Most Rev. Meri Louise Bishop Church of Antioch Santa Fe New Mexico U.S.A.
Svihus, Most Rev. Richard H., MD Bishop Chico California U.S.A.
Swaringim, Most Rev. Carl T., Ed.D.* Bishop Diocese of Missouri Independent Catholic Church of America St. Louis Missouri U.S.A.
Tancibok, Most Rev. C. Alexis* Bishop American Catholic Community Church Alexandria Virginia U.S.A.
Trees, Rt. Rev. Dr. Douglas L. Bishop Chevaliers de l'Ordre de Notre Dame de Sion Saint James New York U.S.A.
Trivoli-Johnson, Most Rev. G. Stephe, D.S.Th, Ph.D. Bishop Central Orthodox Synod Garden Grove California U.S.A.
Turkington, Most Rev. Brian Bishop Oratory of the Little Way Altamonte Springs Florida U.S.A.
Verzosa, Most Rev. Alexander O., D.D. Bishop Our Mother of Perpetual Help Oriental Catholic Church San Jose California U.S.A.
Walgraeve, Most Rev. Walter Bishop Ecclesia de Templo Church Diocese of Ecclesia de Templo Schoten Belgium
Washington, Most Rev. Augustine Arthur, III Bishop Free Liberal Catholic Church, Free Sacramentalist Communion Seattle Washington U.S.A.
Watters, Most Rev. Ellen M. Bishop Free Church of Antioch Santa Barbara California U.S.A.
Wheeler, Rev. Fr. James Joesph Jude, C.J. Priest St. Andrews Orthodox Mission and Center for Spiritual Direction Company of Jesus Denver Colorado U.S.A.
Wharton, Rt. Rev. Donald Bishop Byzantine - Orthodox Catholic Church Toms River New Jersey U.S.A.
White, Most Rev. Charles* Bishop Church of Antioch Washington District of Columbia U.S.A.
WhiteLight, Most Rev. Roxanne Bishop Agape Peace Fellowship Spokane Washington U.S.A.
Wilkowski, Most Rev. James Alan Bishop Holy Catholic Church: An Independent Catholic Faith Community Chicago Illinois U.S.A.
Wilson, Most Rev. John Bishop St. George's Church, Eastern Orthodox Lawtey Florida U.S.A.
Woods, Most Rev. Dexter Bishop Diocese of Southern California Church of Antioch San Diego California U.S.A.
Worrell, Rt. Rev. Charles E., Sr., Th.D. Bishop Southern Episcopal Church Nashville Tennessee U.S.A.
__, Most Rev. Mathias Mar Yusef Bishop Apostolic Orthodox Church Boerne Texas U.S.A.
Zabrowski, Rev. Robert, O.M., D.D. Bishop Mariavite Old Catholic Church Wyandotte Michigan U.S.A.

FICOB Directory of Independent Catholic Jurisdictions[edit]

FICOB published a Directory of Independent Catholic Jurisdictions. It noted: "Each of the following listings are for independent (i.e. non-canonical) jurisdictions that are rooted in the Catholic, Orthodox, or Anglican forms of sacramental worship. They are quite diverse. The listings range from jurisdictions which are very liberal and metaphysical (or even "New Age") to those which are traditional and conservative."

The following jurisdictions were included in the FICOB directory of January 1, 1998. Leaders of those jurisdictions are listed in parentheses below. The original directory listed a cross (+) before each name.

A cross-study in January 2023 revealed that only 18 of the 62 jurisdictions (29%) in the 1998 FICOB directory (marked with an asterisk below) existed 25 years later.