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List of discoveries by disciplines

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List of discoveries by disciplines includes entries which fulfill the criteria of belonging to science (i.e. including Astronomy, Biochemistry, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Cognitive Science, Paleobotany, Paleontology), and the humanities (i.e. including Archaeology, Social Anthropology, Human Geography, Social and Cultural Geography, Classical Archaeology, Egyptology, Greek Archaeology, History of Art, Forensic Anthropology, American Studies, Writings);[1]

The word discovery is understood to indicate, or has a meaning, that encompasses notions of contrive, conceive of, design,[2] detection,[3] develop[2] devise, discernment,[3] to find,[4] identification, invention, locating and location of,[3] origination,[3][2] pioneer,[2] realization[5] unearthing.[3] The basis of fulfillment of the criteria of discovery is, an object or thing, or information,[6][4] existing prior to the location (object) or comprehension of (information), but not previously known of,[6] that causes the learning of something not previously understood.[7] Although the emphasis for discovery is being, in relation to the time and individual, or group of individuals, relevant to entries, the first time in history the change from unknown to known occurred,[8] the determination for discovery includes also objects or information lost at some prior time in humanities history and subsequently recovered at a later time.[9]

Observations, experiments, explorations [10] and serendipity,[11] are all possible routes to the moment of the realization[disambiguation needed] of a discovery. [10]

Contents

Anthropology[edit]

Anthropology has four aspects: Archaeological, Biological, Linguistic, Sociocultural.[12]

Archaeological[edit]

19th century[edit]

  • Extinct human ancestry
  • 1823, a non-complete skeleton of a human, with red ochre applied to the surface of the bones, with beads and ornaments, cave of[13] the Gower Peninsula of Wales[14] – William Buckland (at the time first Reader in Geology of the University of Oxford)[13]

21st[edit]

  • Origins of Holocene European people.
  • published 2011, February, only evidence existing within the British Isles, and the oldest directly dated examples known, of activity of alteration of human skulls, dated to approximately 14,700 BP, 14,450 BCE, to make drinking cups (from Gough's Cave, Somerset) – Bello, Parfitt, Stringer[15]
  • 2015, July, identification of four bodies discovered 2010 in a 1608 church of Jamestown as, Reverend Robert Hunt, Captain Gabriel Archer, Sir Ferdinando Wainman, and Captain William West – Douglas Owsley et al.[16]
  • 2018, January 26, a find at Mislya cave within Israel, suggests the homo sapiens species moved from Africa at the minimum time of approximately 175,000 years B.C., previous evidence from archaeology suggested a time of emigration from Africa of 88,000 to 118,000 years B.C[17] – Israel Hershkovitz, of the Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, et al.[18]
  • 2019, August, stone tools (projectile points formally similar to upper Paleolithic period within Japan), charcoal remains and animal remains dated to between 14, 500 and 13,300 B.C.E. found within the precinct of Idaho at the Cooper’s Ferry site, near a tributary of the Columbia River – Loren Davis (Oregon State University in Corvallis) Davis, Madsen, Becerra-Valdivia, Higham,Sisson, Skinner, Stueber, Nyers, Keen-Zebert, Neudorf, Cheyney, Izuho, Iizuka, Burns, Epps, Willis, Buvit[19]

Biological[edit]

The subjects of biological anthropology are the evolution and ecology of humans and non-human primates[20]

19th[edit]

Finds made in Trinil Java during 1891 and 1892 by Marie Eugène François Thomas Dubois were the first of hominid fossils to accepted as evidence of evolution of the human species[21]

20th[edit]

  • 1955, December, the number of diploid chromosomes for the species human, being 46;[22] (from the 1920s[22][23] the number of chromosomes was repeatedly established instead as 48[22]) — Joe Hin Tjio and Albert Levan,[22][23] University of Lund, Sweden[22]
  • 1987, Mitochondrial Eve – Cann, Stoneking, and Wilson[24][25]

21st[edit]

2019, June 5, (published),[26] DNA of individuals genetically close to Native Americans,[27] from within remains dated to about 28,980 B.C., from within Siberia, – Eske Willerslev et al.[26]

Linguistic[edit]

19th[edit]

Historical relatedness of languages and the existence of the Indo-European languages deriving from Proto-Indo-European

Sociocultural[edit]

6th century B.C.E.[edit]

c.592,[28] nibbhāna[29] (including;[30] bodhi[31][32] (enlightenment[32]), cattari ariya saccani[33][34] (the four noble truths[34]), anitya, &, pratītyasamutpāda[35]) — Siddharth Gautama[36] (consequently known within Buddhism as the Buddha)

15th A.D.[edit]

sometime after the 1st and before the 6th of November, 1492, the use of[37][38] tobacco by Native Americans[39][40][41] – Rodrigo de Jerez and Luis de Torres[37][42][38]

19th[edit]

sometime before December 28[43] during the year 1896, the birthplace of[44] Prince Gautama[45] (the Lumbini garden[43]) – Alois Anton Führer[44][46][47][48][49] and General[44] Khadga Shamsher[47] Rana,[44][50] Governor of Palpa[44]

20th[edit]

  • Culture and tool use among chimpanzees
  • 1945, May, the corpses of two individuals within a bomb crater outside a bunker in Berlin (an examination of March and July 2017 (Charlier, Weila, Rainsarda, Poupona, Brisard[51])[52] confirm teeth of one of the corpses, previously kept in Russian Archives, are the teeth of Adolf Hitler,[53] the fuhrer of Nazi-era Germany[54]) – a soldier or soldiers of the Soviet army[52]

21st[edit]

  • 2001, October, a tree[55] (Pyrus calleryana[56] – Callery pear) afterwards known as the Survivor Tree, is discovered at the site of the World Trade Center attack,[55] the last living organism recovered[57] (the last living person discovered was during September 12, 2001[58] sometime after 09:00 hours[59])
  • 2006, James Fallon[60] (a neuroscientist), while studying people who had committed murder, those diagnosed with schizophrenia, and the genetics of those with Alzheimer's, discovers his brain is psychopathic – James Fallon[61]
  • 2016, sometime after August, Yoshida Shoin's (1830–59) tanto, a member of the closing generation of the samurai class, is discovered within the United States – by Timothy Arai (after meeting with Akira Kurosawa)[62]
  • 2017, 7 June,[63] deaths of approximately 80% of the population of Aztecs,[64] during the early contact period, occurring within Mexico, during 1545–1550 CE, caused by enteric fever — Vågene, Herbig, Campana, et al[63]
  • 2018, October 29, the identification of a biomolecular history of Nicotiana use amongst northwestern North America indigenous hunter-gatherer populations prior to the post-1790's introduction of Nicotiana tabacum by European first contact settlers and traders — Tushingham, Snyder, Brownstein, Damitio, Gang[65]

Archaeology[edit]

Eastern Asian[edit]

Chinese[edit]

20th century[edit]

China's 100 major archaeological discoveries in the 20th century

Western Asian[edit]

4th century A.D.[edit]

325/326/327, the tomb of Jesus of Nazareth,[66] in Golgotha[67] – Helena Augusta (of Drepanum[67]), the mother of the Roman Emperor, Constantine,[66][67] the first emperor to accept Christianity[68]

19th[edit]

  • sometime during the period 1897–99, bevel-rim bowls, Susa, Iran – Jacques de Morgan[69][70]
  • 1896,[71] an inscription (pertaining to a decree[72] proxenia[73][72]) at the site of the ancient place Troy, showing the name of the town Scepsis[72] – Walther Judeich (Hisarlik)[71]

20th[edit]

  • 1963, Göbekli Tepe, on the edge of the Harran plain of Turkey[74] – Robert Braidwood[75] (University of Chicago[74]), Halet Çambel[75] (University of Istanbul[75])
  • 1978, pendant, identical to amulet found by Neshama Spielman during 2019, found in Nahal Iron, in northern Israel[76]

21st[edit]

  • a little before, or, 2004,[77] artifacts of the[75] neolithic age and of before the existence of skills for the creation of pottery-ware,[77] Göbekli Tepe site, south-east Turkey[77] — Klaus Schmidt[75]
  • 2004, earliest archaeological evidence of cats within human society, from within approximately 9,300 B.C.E Shillourokambos Cyprus – Vigne et al.[78][79][80]
  • 2010, the Göbekli Tepe totem pole – Köksal-Schmidt, Klaus Schmidt[81]

Northern African[edit]

Egyptian[edit]

18th[edit]

1799, July, Rosetta stone, in a fortress in a dilapidated condition, within Rachid, Egypt – Pierre-François-Xavier Bouchard[82]

19th[edit]
  • 1801, the sarcophagus, from the Serapeum (discovered 1851[83]), made for Nakhthorheb (c.341 BC) the last of the ethnically aboriginal rulers of ancient Egypt to rule ancient Egypt – Edward Daniel Clarke[84]
  • 1828, the Metternich stele,[85] Alexandria,[86] due to the fact of a Franciscan order monastery being constructed at the location[87]
  • 1851 (Mariette was sent by the Louvre to Egypt August 1850, first archaeological campaign began the 19th of November 1851[70]), the Serapeum[83] temple complex[84] at the Memphis necropolis of northern[84] Saqqara, Egypt.[83] The complex included a temple grounds with cartouches of Nakhthorheb with an ellipse of statues of Greek poets and philosophers[84] – Auguste Mariette (assistant in the Louvre)[83]
  • 1893, the Tomb of Mereruka, Vizier of King Teti of the 6th Dynasty (ca. 2330 B.C), Sakkara – Jacques de Morgan[70]
  • 1898, the Narmer Palette[88] (of Narmer, c.2950 First Dynasty of ancient Egypt[89]) within Kom el-Ahmar[89] (Nekhen[89]) – James Edward Quibell[88] & Frederick Green[89] (Somers Clarke, Green and Quibell discovered the deposit group containing the palette[90])
21st[edit]
  • 2010 and afterwards, after a survey and examination of the catacombs of Anubis within Saqqara, Egypt, researchers estimate as many as 8,000,000 mummified animals (thought mostly dog) were within the catacombs — Steven Mills, Scott Williams, Hendrikje Nouwens[91]
  • 2014, the mummy of an elite woman with tattoos, in Deir el-Madina, Egypt[92]
  • 2016, 14th – early 13th century B.C.E. amulet inscribed with he name of a pharaoh Thutmose III, Jerusalem – Neshama Spielman (aged 12)[76]
  • 2018
    • August – two sandstone reliefs showing the figure of Ptolemy V, Mit Rahina,[93] 20 km south of Cairo[94] in the Demerdash basin area, Egypt (at the same site as the discovery of September 25)[92]
    • September
      • 2 – a Neolithic period village within the Nile Delta, Egypt[92]
      • 5 – a cemetery located in the proximity of the pyramid of Senusret I, Egypt[92]
      • 16 – a sphinx statue in the Temple of KomOmbo in Aswan, Egypt[92] – Egyptian archaeological mission working on the project of reducing the groundwater level in the Temple of KomOmbo[93]
      • 18 – a late period tomb containing a largely undamaged mummy, Egypt[92]
      • 20 – 20 Graco-Roman period tombs, Egypt[92]
      • 25 – a very large building,[92] Mit Rahina[93] in the Demerdash basin area, Egypt[92]
      • 27 – two mummified corpses in two tombs, Egypt[92]
    • October
      • 1 – a painting of King Seti I and a painting of King Ptolemy IV, Egypt[92]
      • 25 – Ramses II era royal celebration hall, Egypt[92]
    • November
      • 6 – fragments at the Temple of the Sun in Matariya, Egypt[92]
      • 10 – tombs of modern dynastic era and ancient era, within the Saqqara necropolis, Egypt[92]
      • 14 – a grave of a woman and fetus Kom Ombo, Aswan, Egypt[92]
    • December
      • 7 – a burial well in the al-Khalwa area, Fayoum, Egypt[92]
      • 13 – cemetery of Gebel el-Silsilain, Egypt, discovered by an archaeological mission from Sweden[92]
      • 15 – an unlooted tomb within the area of the most ancient pyramids in Egypt (2,500 BC to 2,350 Fifth dynasty) discovered by the team of or by Mustafa Abdo (chief of excavation)[95][92]
      • 30 – coffins in Tel el-Deir in Damietta, Egypt, discovered by a team affiliated to the Ministry of Antiquities of Egypt[92]

Ukrainian, Russian, Georgian[edit]

19th[edit]

1871,[96] Gontsy in the Ukraine, the first paleolithic site discovered within eastern Europe – G.S. Kyriakov, F.I. Kaminski[97]

20th[edit]

  • 1969, archaeological identification of sites of the Upper Paleolithic within the European area of Russia has located more than 1000 locations[98]
  • 1980, Upper Paleolithic site, at Zaraysk, Russia[99]

21st[edit]

2016, mining pits and sites for the working of obsidian, Koyundağ, Lesser Caucasus (Georgia) – Biagi & Nisbet (Ca' Foscari University of Venice), Gratuze (University of Orléans)[100]

United Kingdom of Britain[edit]

21st[edit]

2004, monuments of the Viking people within Sherwood Forest of Nottingham, England – Stuart Reddish and Lynda Mallett[101]

Art[edit]

19th century[edit]

  • 1820, April[102] 8,[103] statue of Venus de Milo,[102] with two herms[104] on the island of Milos, firstly by a farmer who had gone to a field[102] – Giorgos (variously rendered additionally sometimes instead as Theodoros) Kentrotas (a farmer of Milos); Olivier Voutier (on the island leading excavations for antiquities of Milos for the government of France)[102]
  • 1887(−1889), Azilian decorated pebble culture (existing during the Upper Paleolithic era[105] specifically of the French Pyrenees region, being during approximately 10 to 9,000 BCE[106]) – Édouard Piette[105][107] (Mas d’Azil Cave[105] within the Ariège region of the Pyrenees)[107]

20th[edit]

  • 1900, frescoes including[108] The Last Judgement (painted c.1290[109]) by Pietro Cavallini, discovered in the Saint Cecilia church in Rome[108][110] during renovations to the choir[109]
  • 1940, September 12,[111] Lascaux cave[112] near to Montignac[111][112] – Marcel Ravidat, Jacques Marsal, Simon Coencas and Georges Agniel[111]
  • 1978, Hsiao Hou – Liu Chia-Liang[113]
  • 1994, the earliest created known cave art (during 1994), of at least about 38,000 B.C.; Lubang Jeriji Saléh cave in the East Kalimantan province of Indonesian Borneo – Luc-Henri Fage[114]
  • sometime during the years 1997–99, 26 cm x 16.4 cm dessin Michelangelo (of sometime during the years 1494–1504[115]) marked with the mark of Jonathan Richardson Snr (18th century artist and connoisseur) bound within a book within a room in Castle Howard, Yorkshire[116] – Julian Stock, whose employment at the time was at Sotheby's as consultant for Old Masters,[117] and was at the castle for the purposes of an insurance evaluation[116]

21st[edit]

  • 2000, frescoes by Pietro Cavallini in Santa Maria Aracoeli[108]
  • 2016:
    • February, a painting (therefore the 25th extant) by Hieronymous Bosch, discovered within a museum in Kansas City[118]
    • April, an additional version of the painting Judith Beheading Holofernes by Caravaggio, discovered in an attic in France[118]
    • May, 60 Renaissance period paintings looted from the Bode Museum (Berlin), discovered within the National Pushkin Museum (Moscow)[118]
    • June, Summer Flowers in a Goblet by Paul Gauguin (authenticated by the Wildenstein Institute) discovered within Manhattan – by an auction house of Connecticut[118]
    • July, a 16th-century engraving by Albrecht Dürer discovered in a flea market in the town of Sarrebourg in the Alsace region of France – by a collector[118]
    • September, Meleager and Atalanta (by Jacob Jordaens) discovered to be real not a fake – Bendor Grosvenor[118]
    • November, a painting by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Szene im Café, hidden underneath, Schlittenfahrt im Schnee, (i.e. two canvases on one frame) also by Kirchner[118]
  • 2018
    • 12 September (published), L13, indicating an abstract drawing of[119] 7 red lines (in intersection of other lines), with 2 red lines (not in contact with any other line)[120] of predominantly iron oxide[119] made upon a flake of silcrete rock[121] (recovered from Blombos cave), using ochre crayon, dated to (approximately 71,000 BCE), approximately 30,000 years more ancient than the previously most ancient known a creative act – Luca Pollarolo (discovered at the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, or, the Unité d’Anthropologie/Laboratoire Archéologie et Peuplement de l’Afrique, Geneva, Switzerland)[122]
  • 2018–2019
    • either, toward the latter parts of 2018,[123] or, sometime a little earlier than January the 3rd of 2019,[124] hidden marks in "Untitled (1981)", created by Jean-Michel Basquiat (active in New-York[125]), using X-ray fluorescence and polarized light microscopy – Emily MacDonald-Korth[123] was examining the painting because the owner wanted authentication made for the purposes of an evaluation[124]

Astronomy/Cosmology[edit]

13th century B.C.E.[edit]

nova (located near to Antares), China – inscribed onto bone[126]

3rd[edit]

  • The calculation of the circumference of the Earth by Eratosthenes
  • sometime during the period 310 to 230, the planets revolve around the Sun, not the Earth,[127] the heliocentric system[128] with the moon revolving around the earth[129] the earth orbiting on an inclined axis[130] – Aristarchus of Samos[127] (flourit ~270 B.C.E)[131]

2nd[edit]

  • sometime after 190 and before 120 B.C., discovery of the precession of the equinoxes, calculated at 46" for the annual precession – Hipparchus of Rhodes[132][133]
  • c. 190 BC - (date of discoverers death not known)[134]c. 150 BC,[130] tides on Earth being caused by the Moon – Seleucus of Seleucia[130][134]

2nd C.E.[edit]

185 CE, supernova, China – Book of Later Han[135]

16th[edit]

Explicit heliocentric model by Nicolaus Copernicus

17th[edit]

  • autumn 1609,[136] the mountains of the moon – Galileo Galilei[137]
  • 7 January 1610, the moons of Jupiter and the phases of the planet Venus – Galileo Galilei[138]
  • towards the latter months of 1610,[139] Sunspots, discovered firstly[140][139] – by two separately active astronomers, Thomas Harriot,[141][142][143][144] Galileo Galilei[139]
  • Titan is discovered by Christiaan Huygens
  • Discovery of four satellites of Saturn, by Giovanni Domenico Cassini

18th and 19th[edit]

19th[edit]

  • 1801, January 1, Ceres – Giuseppe Piazzi[146]
  • 1868, August 18, a new emission spectrum of the sun – J. N. Lockyer[147]

20th[edit]

Synopses[edit]

  • Pluto is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh
  • Universe beyond our galaxy
  • Expansion and age of the universe, based on Hubble's law
  • Cosmic microwave background radiation
  • Accelerating universe
  • exoplanets

Details[edit]

  • 1912, September 17, the first radial velocity of a spiral type galaxy[148][149] (designated: M31[148][150]) – Vesto Slipher[148][151]
  • 1907 – 1921, approximately 2'400 variable stars,[152] – Henrietta Swan Leavitt[151]
  • 1916, theoretical existence of gravitational waves – Albert Einstein[153]
  • 1925,[154] hypothesis that the universe is expanding based on observation of stars and galaxies being in motion away from the earth in every direction and the rate of motion being greater in relation to the greater distance of astronomical structure – Edwin Hubble[155]
  • 1963,[156] radiowave source 3C 273, later defined as a quasi-stellar radio source,[157] a quasar,[156] – Maarten Schmidt (using Mt. Palomar Observatory)[157]
  • 1972, clouds of the planet Venus are droplets of sulphuric acid[158]

21st[edit]

  • 2002, October[159] 17th[156] (published), discovery of orbital information for the closest star (which was designated as S2[156]) of a number of stars in orbit to the probable existing black-hole (located at Sagittarius A*) at the centre of the Milky Way – Schödel, Ott, Genzel, Hofmann, Lehnert, Eckart, Mouawad, Alexander, Reid, Lenzen, Hartung, Lacombe, Rouan, Gendron, Rousset, Lagrange, Brandner, Ageorges, Lidman, Moorwood, Spyromilio, Hubin, Menten,[159]
  • 2012, November, 13.3 billion l.y. distant galaxy MACS0647-JD, at the time the furthest observed object from earth – Marc Postman and others of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey (CLASS) (NASA Hubble space telescope and Spitzer space telescope)[160]
  • 2015, 05:51 hrs Eastern standard time (09:51 UTC) September 14, Confirmed existence of gravitational waves detected, due to an event at an astronomical distance of approximately 1.3 billion years ago – Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington (at LIGO facilities), both within the United States,[161][162]
  • 2017, October 19, the first known object of interstellar origin to pass through the solar system 1I/2017 U1[163] – Robert Weryk[164] of the University of Hawaii[163]
  • 2018, November 14 (published), evidence from photometric and spectroscopic signalic returns (including measurements spanning an approximate 20 years period) suggests with almost absolute certainty the existence of a planet orbiting Barnard's star, the closest star not within a system of other stars (α Centauri system is closer), to the sun – Ribas, Tuomi, Reiners, Butler, Morales, Perger, Dreizler, Rodríguez-López, González Hernández, Rosich, Feng, Trifonov, Vogt, Caballero,Hatzes, Herrero, Jeffers, Lafarga, Murgas, Nelson, Rodríguez, Strachan, Tal-Or, Teske, Toledo-Padrón, Zechmeister, Quirrenbach, Amado, Azzaro, Béjar, Barnes, Berdiñas, Burt, Coleman, Cortés-Contreras, Crane, Engle, Guinan, Haswell, Henning, Holden, Jenkins, Jones, Kaminski, Kiraga, Kürster, Lee, López-González, Montes, Morin, Ofir, Pallé, Rebolo, Reffert, Schweitzer, Seifert, Shectman, Staab, Street, Suárez Mascareño, Tsapras, Wang, Anglada-Escudé (Red Dots,[165] CARMENES)[166]
  • published 2019, April 18, HEH+ – Güsten et al.[167]

habitable zone exoplanets[edit]

List of potentially habitable exoplanets

From within the period 2007 to 2017 (approximately) the number of exoplanets (all planets, not only habitable zone planets) discovered is within the range of thousands.[168]

  • 2016 May to 2017, February 21 (published), the TRAPPIST-1 exoplanets system included 3 habitable zone (hz) planets[169] of a total of 7, all of which could exist with liquid water — Gillon (University of Liège), Triaud, Demory, Jehin, Agol, Deck, Lederer, de Wit, Burdanov, Ingalls, Bolmont, Leconte, Raymond, Selsis, Turbet, Barkaoui, Burgasser, Burleigh, Carey, Chaushev, Copperwheat, Delrez, Fernandes, Holdsworth, Kotze, Van Grootel, Almleaky, Benkhaldoun, Magain & Queloz[170]
  • 2016, August 24, planet Proxima b orbiting Proxima Centauri , the closest star, (1.295 parsecs[171]), to the solar system – Anglada-Escudé, Amado, Barnes, Berdiñas, Butler, Coleman, de la Cueva, Dreizler, Endl, Giesers, Jeffers, Jenkins, Jones, Kiraga, Kürster, López-González, Marvin, Morales, Morin, Nelson, Ortiz, Ofir, Paardekooper, Reiners, Rodríguez, Rodrίguez-López, Sarmiento, Strachan, Tsapras, Tuomi & Zechmeister[172]
  • 2018, May 31 (paper received at publisher), ("..with high statistical confidence..") the spectroscopic signature of water in the atmosphere of K2-18b a habitable zone planet orbiting a 34pc distant M2.5 class dwarf star – (All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript), Tsiaras (performed the data analysis and developed HST analysis software Iraclis), Waldmann (developed atmospheric retrieval software Tau-REx), Tinetti (contributed to the interpretation of the results), Tennyson & Yurchenko (coordinated the ExoMol project)[173]
  • published 2019, June 18, 2 planets in the hz in orbit of Teegarden's Star (distance from Earth – approximately 12.5 light years) – Mathias Zechmeister et al.[174]

Autopsies[edit]

The autopsy report made of the death of Caesar is the root cause of the word forensics, by the fact of the pre-existing Latin language word forensis, a word that indicates forum[175] (i.e. the Roman Forum[176]) The first Roman forum to be created was the Imperial forum of Julius Caesar,[177] constructed on an area previously used to bury[178] the ashes of the cremated dead, from at least during the 8th century BCE,[179] from within the population of individuals inhabiting the[178] Collis[180] or Mons Palatinus,[181] (the mount, or, the hill[182] Palatine[178]) thought,[183] by tradition originating from Virgil,[184] Livy and Dionysius,[185] to at least the seventeenth century (within the English language),[186] the first[183] mount[182] (of the Septemontium,[182] the word indicating the seven mounts the city of Rome was known by during the earliest times[187]) of the area later to become Rome, to be inhabited[183] From the time of Caesar[188] until the 13th century, few autopsies were ever undertaken.[189]

1st century B.C.E.[edit]

44 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar,[190][191] the physician who examined the corpse stated he found a stab wound (one of twenty-three) was the cause of death[190] – Antistius[190][191]

5th A.D.[edit]

456, Princess Takukete, findings of the laparotomy were noted as being, fluid, and a solid particle (described as a "stone"). The dissection was the first recorded in the history of Japan.[192]

17th[edit]

1670,[193] 30 June, Henriette, Duchesse d’Orléans (aged 26 years[194] and fourteen days[193]), (the sister-in-law of Louis XIV) (daughter of Charles I[195]), was found to be due to cholera morbus caused by bile existent in a corrupt and boiling state, this itself the cause of subsequent gangrene (is total cessation of functioning of a body part caused by the part ceasing to receive blood, or by bacterial infection[196]) of her entrails-lower abdomenal parts — French doctors[194]

18th[edit]

1760, 25 October,[197] "in the trunk of the aorta we found a transverse fissure on its inner side, about an inch and a half long, through which some blood had recently passed under its external coat and formed an elevated ecchymosis" (Nicholls) (subsequently determined by modern assessment as:) cardiac tamponade causative to acute A-type[198] dissecting aneurism of the aorta, was the found cause of death for George II[199][200] — Frank Nicholls[197]

20th[edit]

1993, November 1 at 10:00 hours, the death of River Phoenix (during the early hours of the morning of October 31, 1993) was found to be due to[201] accidental cause of acute multiple drug intoxication,[202][203] being the effects of cocaine, heroin,[201] benzodiazepines,[202] cannabis (marihuana) and ephedrine[201] — D. Anderson: (present in the blood: free Codeine (o.39 ug/ml), free Morphine (1.7 ug/ml) Desmethyldiazepam (0.05 ug/ml), Diazepam (0.19 ug/ml); present in the stomach: Codeine (o.o3 mg), Morphine (0.20 mg), Benzoylecgonine (4.6 ug/ml), Cocaine (100.8 ug/ml)); J. Anderson: (present in the blood: Cocaine (7.8 ug/ml))), L. Chwa: (marihuana metabolite); R. Budd: (present the blood: Ephedrine (0.37 ug/ml) and Pseudoephedrine (1.29 ug/ml)), present in the urine: Pseudoephedrine, Benzoylecgonine, Morphine)[202]

21st[edit]

2012, 13 November,[204] in the case of Whitney Houston (died, 11 February 2012) the mode of death was accidental, the cause was found to be drowning (in the water of a bath[205]) because of cocaine use[206] and atherosclerosis[207] of the heart.[206] The toxicological analysis[208] found, cocaine (0.57 ug/mL & 0.61 ug/mL; Benzoylccgonine 7.3 ug/mL: D. Anderson) in addition, the presence of cocaethylene (<0.03 ug/ml: D. Anderson)[206] (a product of the metabolism of cocaine with ethanol (alcohol)[209]), marijuana (Carboxy-THC 49 ng/ml, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) <2.5 ng/ml: S. Brooks), Ibuprofen (5.1 ug/mL: O. Pleitez), alprazolam (85 ng/mL; S. DcQuinlana)[206] (a sedative-hypnotic; benzodiazepine[210]), cyclobenzaprine (0.09 ug/mL)[206] (a centrally acting muscle relaxant,[211] related by chemical structure to first-generation anti-depressants[212]), and diphenhydramine (0.33 ug/mL)[206] (an antihistamine which also causes drowsiness and sleepiness[213])

Biochemistry[edit]

Synopsis[edit]

Dideoxy method of DNA sequencing — Frederick Sanger

19th century[edit]

  • 1889, nicotine paralyses,[214] blocks (selectively) electrical conduction of,[215] the nerve cells in sympathetic ganglia[214][215] (that nicotine arrests the transmission of nerve impulses from the pre-ganglionic to the post-ganglionic nerve fibre[215]) — John Newport Langley & W. Lee Dickinson (pupil of Langley)[214]
  • sometime after 1890 and before 1898, heroin (synthesized by C.R. Wright, 1847[216]) — H Dreser[217]

21st[edit]

  • 2018, December, six[218] chemical compounds[219] existing in relatively small quantities[220] only in strains of cannabis with greater amounts of CBD (cannabidiol[221]) (or CBDA (cannabidiolic acid[222])), and three[218] chemical compounds[219] existing in relatively small quantities[220] only in strains of cannabis with greater amounts of THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol[223]) — Mudge, Murch, Brown[218]
  • 2019, April 11, in (an) experiment(s) using mice, an artificially introduced inhibitor of the enzyme choline kinase induced mitophagy of mitochondria damaged by stress or exposure to bacterial toxins, additionally causing reduction of NLRP3 inflammasome levels — Karin, Benjamin Hildyard and Wanda Hildyard, Sanchez-Lopez[224]
  • 2019, April 24 (in print), for mice in a neonatal state exposed to nicotine, nicotine causes glutamatergic neurons, if re-exposure to nicotine in adulthood, to become dopaminergic neurons, specifically within the ventral tegmental area of the brain — Romoli, Lozadab, Sandovale, Manfredssone, Hnaskocd, Bergb, Dulcis[225]

Biology[edit]

Synopses[edit]

  • Chromosomes in the cell nucleus bear a definite linear arrangement of genes – the Chromosome Theory of Inheritance.
  • Discovery of the essential minerals, nutrients and vitamins in foodstuffs
  • Discovery of the link between arteries and veins by Marcello Malpighi
  • The nervous system acts via electrical impulses
  • Discovery of the structure and function of DNA and RNA
  • Discovery of the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins
  • Discovery of Nerve growth factor by Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen
  • Discovery of restriction endonucleases, later used in genetic engineering, by Daniel Nathans and Hamilton Smith
  • Discovery of the Impermanence of Sexual Phenotypes as to the conclusive statement, by Isidro A. T. Savillo

Human[edit]

Synopses[edit]

  • Discovery of the role of oxygen in respiration by Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier and Jan Ingenhousz
  • Evidence for the evolution of species in the fossil record and DNA sequences

Details[edit]

4th and 3rd centuries B.C.[edit]

circa. 350-260 B.C., pulse within the arteries – Herophilus[226]

17th century A.D.[edit]

circulation of the blood – Harvey[227]

19th[edit]
  • 1854, colloids and crystalloids are separable in an aqueous solution – Thomas Graham[228]
  • 1869,[229][230] February 26,[231] identification of nuclein (subsequently described as Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)) – Friedrich Miescher[229]
20th[edit]
  • 1900,[232] the A,B,O blood group,[233][234] discovered by the fact of the existence of variations in the behaviour of different mixtures of serums and red blood cells from different individuals, where-by some mixtures agglutinated and some did not, there-by demonstrating the existence of variations in the nature of human blood[235] – Karl Landsteiner[232][233] (born 1868, graduated Vienna Medical School 1891[232]) Landsteiner determined his discovery had occurred without prior intention[232]
  • 1908, the AB blood group – Adriano Sturli, a student of Landsteiner, and Alfred von Decastelo[236]
  • 1916, anticoagulant occurring in nature in mammals (first isolated in a dog's liver by)[228] – Jay McLean[237][228] working with the physiologist William Henry Howell at Johns Hopkins Medical School[237]
  • 1944, February 1, genes made of DNA — Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, Maclyn McCarty[238][229][239][240]
  • 1951, Jerky Eye Movement Periods during sleep experimentally observed in the sleep of a boy of post-eight years of age (more than eight less than nine), the son of the discoverer, using (electroencephalograph[241]) and EOG (electro-oculography[242]) technique[243] later described as rapid eye movement (R.E.M.)[244] — Eugene Aserinsky[243]
  • 1955, December, 46 human diploid chromosomes — Joe Hin Tjio & Albert Levan[22]
21st[edit]

published 2019, June 5, evidence for an (conversion of food to energy, being an) alimentary energy supply limit within the human body of approximately 2.5 × BMR as a maximum possible sustained energy expenditure for humans in endurance exercise events, that correspondingly greater expenditure requires utilisation of the body's energy stores – Thurber, Dugas, Ocobock, Carlson, Speakman and Pontzer (Duke University)[245]

Microbiological[edit]

17th century[edit]

  • 1675, Observation of microorganisms - Antony van Leeuwenhoek [246]

19th[edit]

  • The role of microorganisms in causing infectious disease, by Louis Pasteur and Joseph Lister
  • 1864,[247] a method, intended for use within beer and wine, extended to use within milk, of ending the living biological activity of bacteria,[247] termed as pasteurization — Louis Pasteur[248]

20th[edit]

1961,[249] cells existing in a state externally from living organisms are able to replicate only a limited number of times (previously to the discovery, externally existing cells were thought to not undergo ageing), termed subsequently (by Macfarlane Burnet) as the Hayflick limit, the discovery is a subject of biogerontology – Leonard Hayflick[250]

Plant[edit]

18th century[edit]

1771,[251] photosynthesis, Joseph Priestley (1733–1804)[252]

20th[edit]

  • 1906, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides,[253] within Rosh Pina[254] – Aaron Aaronsohn[253]
  • 1910, submerged macrophytes in Lake Biwa — Maeda[255]

Zoological[edit]

  • Observation of microorganisms by Antony van Leeuwenhoek
  • Discovery of the role of oxygen in photosynthesis by Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier and Jan Ingenhousz
  • Former existence of extinct species
  • Evidence for the evolution of species in the fossil record and DNA sequences
  • Discovery of the animal reproduction by Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Discovery of the animal electricity by Luigi Galvani
  • The role of microorganisms in causing infectious disease, by Louis Pasteur and Joseph Lister
  • 1884, an anticoagulant in the saliva of leeches, (subsequently named hirudin) — John Berry Haycraft[256][257]
  • 1909,[258][259] the nature of the carbohydrate group in the nucleic acid of yeast,[259] the three principal elements[229] and order of linkage[258] of nucleic acids,[259][260] (named by Levene, a nucleotide[260]) consisting of a base of nitrogen, sugar (ribose or deoxyribose[260]), a phosphate group[261][229][260] — Phoebus Levene[229]
  • published 2017 March 22, mouse lungs make blood platelets and are a reservoir for cells of bone marrow — Emma Lefrançais, Guadalupe Ortiz-Muñoz, Axelle Caudrillier, Beñat Mallavia, Fengchun Liu, David M. Sayah, Emily E. Thornton, Mark B. Headley, Tovo David, Shaun R. Coughlin, Matthew F. Krummel, Andrew D. Leavitt, Emmanuelle Passegué, and Mark R. Looney[262]


the Atlantic of North America[edit]

20th century[edit]

1995, the royal red shrimp, discovered in an approximately 20-mile-long by approximately half-mile wide area at sea, approximately 100 miles southeast of Stonington — Mr. Bomster and the crew of a fishing boat[263]

North America[edit]

20th century[edit]

1973, August, the snail darter, in Little Tennessee River — by David Etnier[264]

21st[edit]

published 2005, 25 March, soft-tissue vessels and preserved cells exist within the processed bone of a Tyrannosaurus rex — Schweitzer, Wittmeyer, Horner, Toporski[265]

Bering sea of Alaska[edit]

21st[edit]

2016, July 26, a new species of beaked whale, genus Berardius, known to Japanese fishermen as the karasu[266]

the Pacific of South America[edit]

21st[edit]

September 2018, 3 new species of Snailfish, approximately 7.5 kilometres below the surface of the ocean – a team of 40 scientists from 17 different nations[267][268]

Armenia[edit]

19th[edit]

circa 1985, A.abrotanum L.[269]

20th[edit]

1995, A.szovitziana[269]

Australia[edit]

18th[edit]
  • 1750 – 1752, some fishes of the northern sea, including the Aluterus Scriptus (Scribbled Leatherjacket) – Pehr Osbeck[270]
  • 1761 – 1763, a little less than one third, of a little less than 200 species described of the northern shores — Peter Forsskål[270]
  • 1788, Orectolobus Maculatus (the Spotted Wobbegong) and Hemiscyllium ocellatum (the shark Epaulette) – collected by members of the ship of Captain Cook, of which Spöring made drawings, and were described 1788 by Bonnaterre[270]

Austria[edit]

18th[edit]

1758, astacus astacus — Linnaeus[271]

19th[edit]
  • 1803, austropotamobius torrentium — Schrank[271]
  • 1858, austropotamobius pallipes — Lereboullet[271]

China[edit]

20th[edit]

1983, the endangered species Ochotona iliensis (native to the Xinjiang region) living within the Tianshan mountain range — Li Weidong (a conservationist)[272]

Indonesia[edit]

20th[edit]

1910, Varanus komodoensis (the Komodo dragon) — van Steyn van Hensbroek[273]

Indo-Pacific[edit]

21st[edit]

2019, during January to sometime before February 22 (date of publication), Megachile pluto, (is a rediscovery because was previously discovered; Wallace's giant bee, but subsequently unlocatable sometime during 1981 and after) — Robson, Chilton (University of Saint Mary's, Canada), Wyman (Princeton University), Bolt (conservationalistic photography)[274]

Philippines[edit]

21st[edit]

2017, Cirrhilabrus shutmani (the magma fairy wrasse), a species of fairy wrasse (Cirrhilabrus; Temminck & Schlegel (1845)) found at Didicas Volcano, Babuyan Islands in depths of 50 to 70 metres — Tea & Gill[275]

New Zealand[edit]

21st[edit]

May 2014, Mola Teca the Hoodwinker Sunfish off Birdlings Flat near Christchurch, New Zealand, — Marianne Nyegaard (Murdoch University in Australia)[276][277]

Chemistry[edit]

Synopses[edit]

  • Methane by Alessandro Volta
  • The synthesis of urea from inorganic chemicals, by Friedrich Woehler, disproving Vitalism
  • Law of conservation of mass by Antoine Lavoisier
  • Chirality or handedness of asymmetrical molecules, by Louis Pasteur
  • Periodicity of the elements by Dmitri Mendeleev
  • Practical synthesis of ammonia, by Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch
  • X-ray crystallography, allowing for the determination of molecular structures
  • Synthesis of Neoprene and Nylon by Wallace Carothers and colleagues
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the rapid determination of molecular structures in solution.
  • Chromatography for the efficient separation and purification of chemicals.

Details[edit]

18th[edit]

  • sometime during 1771 or[278][279][280] before November 16, 1772[281] sometime 1773[282] "fire air"[283] (oxygen) — Karl Wilhelm Scheele[284]
  • 1784, January 15, hydrogen, and that hydrogen in reaction with oxygen produces 'dephlogisticated air' (water)[285] — Henry Cavendish (1731–1810)[286]

19th[edit]

  • 1856,[287] 3-amino-2,9-dimethyl-5-phenyl-7-(p-tolylamino)phenazinium acetate[288] (the artificial (synthetic) colorant, aniline purple)[287] produced unintentionally whilst attempting to make C20H24N2O2 (quinine) by oxidizing C10H13N (allytoluidine)[288] – William Henry Perkin[289]
  • 1874, Tetra acetyl morphine (diacetylmorphine) — C. R. Wright[290]

20th[edit]

  • 1904[291] sometime after September, radiothorium (isotope thorium-228[291]) — Otto Hahn (PhD thesis made 1901), while working in the laboratory of William Ramsey in London[292]
  • 1918, before March 16, element 91 – Otto Hahn & Lise Meitner[293]

Deaths[edit]

20th century[edit]

  • 1962[294] sometime after midnight of the 5th of August,[295] Marilyn Monroe (within her 36th year) – Brentwood, Los Angeles, United States,[295] by Dr. Ralph Greenson, the doctor responsible for the care of Monroe in a psychiatric capacity, (because Eunice Murray had telephoned the doctor, after being unable to enter through the locked door of the room containing Monroe)[294]
  • 1977, August 16, Elvis Presley (aged within his 42nd year) – Memphis, TN, United States, by Ginger Alden[296][297]
  • 1988, August 12, Jean-Michel Basquiat (within his 27th year)[298] – Great Jones Street in Manhattan, United States, by Kelle Inman (the lover of Basquiat)[299]
  • 1994, April 5, Kurt Cobain (within his 27th year) – within a greenhouse of the home of Cobain, within Seattle of the United States, by an electrician who had arrived at the residence to install an alarm[300]

21st[edit]

2012, 11 February, at approximately 15:55 hours, Whitney Houston (in her 48th year) – Beverly Hilton Hotel, Beverly Hills, California, by the assistant of Houston[206]

Fugitives[edit]

Canada[edit]

21st century[edit]

evidence of the repeating activity of killing (commencing during 1991) was found after the arrestation of[301] Robert Pickton[302] was made during February 5 of 2002, subsequently charged with 6 murders, (Robert claims he killed 49)[301]

China[edit]

21st century[edit]

2003 Yang Xinhai was arrested, subsequently executed for 67 killings during 2004[303]

France[edit]

15th[edit]

1440, October the 26th,[304] Gilles de Rais[305] is condemned to execution[304]

Japan[edit]

21st[edit]

2017, October 31,[306] Takahiro Shiraishi[307] arrested because DNA linked him to 1 murder, of a total of 9[306]

Russia[edit]

20th[edit]

  • 1978, 22 December, 1st victim of[308] 52 killed by[309] Andrey Chikatilo[310] arrested November 20, 1990, executed February 14, 1994[310] active for 4,351 days[311]
  • 1992, 1st victim of[312] Alexander Pichushkin,[309] 2006 June,[313] is arrested[313] and subsequently convicted of 49 killings, (although Alexander states he killed 63)[309]

United Kingdom of Britain[edit]

19th[edit]

1888, August 31, the 1st victim, a prostitute, of Jack the Ripper, is found Whitechapel, London[314]

20th[edit]

1964, October, Ian Brady and[315] Myra Hindley[316] arrested,[315] sentenced May 6 1966[317] for 5 killings (1 aged within her 10th year, 2 in their 12th, 1 in her 16th, 1 in his 17th)[315]

United States[edit]

19th[edit]

1895, July 15, 1st victim (a girl) is found, of[318] Herman Webster Mudgett[316] (born 1861[319]), found guilty for 28 killings (evidence indicates he had killed perhaps as many as 200 people)[318] executed May 7, 1896[320]

20th[edit]

  • 1901, October 29, Honora Kelley is arrested,[321] initially confessing to 11 killings, subsequently confessed to 31,[322] from since about the year 1886[321]
  • 1962, June 14, 1st victim[323] of 13 women killed[324] by the Boston Strangler[316]
  • 1966, August, 1st victim of[325][326] Kenneth Allen McDuff[316]
  • 1974 January 15, the first victim(s) (a mother, father and two of their children) of 10 killed by Dennis Rader (apprehended during the 25th of February , 2005) is found by the parents third child[327][328]
  • 1975, October, hairs found in a vehicle owned by[329] Theodore Robert Bundy[316] are matched to victims,[329] after escaping prison, Bundy is re-arrested 1978, 01:30 hours 15th of February, consequently confessing to 30 killings and subsequently executed[330] January 1989[329]
  • 1975, December 4, 1st victim discovered (the perpetrators part brother, by one parent only) of Donald Gaskins[316][331] sentenced to 10 terms of life imprisonment, and subsequently executed by electric chair for an additional killing while incarcerated[332]
  • 1977, December 29, first individual determined as a victim of[333] Richard Trenton Chase[316] killed, 1978 January 28, Chase is arrested, 29th January, confessed, subsequently sentenced for the deaths of 6 people[333]
  • 1982, July 15, 1st victim found of the serial-killer Gary Leon Ridgway,[334] arrested November 30, 2001, subsequently convicted of 48 homocides (most of whom were prostitutes)[335]
  • 1984, June 28, the first victim of Richard Ramirez is found,[316] information on the registration plate of a stolen vehicle during August 25 1985[336] leads to identification of a fingerprint during August 28,[337] Ramirez is detained by police August 31, during November 7 1989 sentenced for 12 first degree murders and 1 second-degree murder[338]
  • 1989, December 13, 1st victim of Aileen Wuornos found[339] subsequently executed by electrical chair method of execution for the conviction of 6 killings[340]
  • 1991, July 22,[316] the remains of victim(s) are found by Tracey Edwards,[341] a survivor of the serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer, subsequently police are led by Edwards to the evidence of 15 homicides[316] occurring during the latter times of the 1970's and terminating during the former parts of the 1990's[342]

21st[edit]

2010, September, location of Osama bin Laden, killed[343] Abbottabad, Pakistan,[344] May 2, 2011 (May 1 within the United States) – Central Intelligence Agency of the United States government (location), United States Navy Seal(s) (death)[343]

Geography/Geology[edit]

15th[edit]

the New World, 1492, Columbus[345][346]

16th[edit]

  • Continental drift, put forward by Flemish geographer – Abraham Ortelius
  • 26 September 1513, the Pacific ocean – Vasco Nunez de Balboa[347]

19th[edit]

  • 1852, the mountain Chomolungma (Tibetan language),[348] (designated Peak XV by Andrew Waugh circa 1847; subsequently Mount Everest,[349] Sagarmatha, within the Nepalese language,[348] named 1960[350]) is determined to be the highest peak in the Himalayas – chief computater to Waugh, Radhanath Sikhdar[351][352]
  • 1871, prior to March 11, Stainton cavern – quarry workers (Barrow in Furness, England)[353]
  • 1884-6, the presence of gold in the Witwatersrand[354] Basin[355] of South Africa – Jan Gerrit Bantjes (1884),[354] George Walker or George Harrison (1886, Main Reef Series)[356]

20th[edit]

  • Geologic time scale, proposed by British geologist Arthur Holmes
  • Great age of the Earth, finally discovered by C. C. Patterson
  • 1967[357][358] &/ 1968,[359] oil wells in Ecuador's Oriente – Texaco[360] Gulf[359]
  • 1981, the Titan Cave System near Castleton (the Peak District in Derbyshire, England)[361]

21st[edit]

  • published 2019 July 24, subterranean[362] petroleum[363][362] and natural gas[364][362] in a basal sand zone of the Goru formation[365][362] within the Sanghar District of Sindh province of Pakistan,[362] – Oil and Gas Development Company Limited[362][366] of Islamabad Pakistan[362]

Mathematics[edit]

5th century B.C.[edit]

incommensurability[367] (incommensurable straight line proportions[368]) — Hippasus (of Metapontum)[367] (5th century B.C)[368]

7th century A.D.[edit]

628[369] 1st discovery[370] (Harriot 1601,[371] Snell 1619) of the theorum of the area and diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral — Brahmagupta[370]

18th[edit]

1743, the mathematical relationship of the oscillatory trigonometric functions cosine and sine to the complex exponential function,[372] in the equation e^(ix)= cosine(x)+ isine(x),[373] in which e (the complex exponential function) is the basis of natural logarithms equalling 2.718 2818, and i = (the square root of) − 1,[372] – Leonard Euler[373][374]

19th[edit]

before 1903 and after the 21st of January of the year 1889,[375] chaotic motion — Henri Poincaré[376]

21st[edit]

  • 2002-2003, proof of the conjecture put forward by Henri Poincaré (Poincaré's conjecture) — Grigory Perelman[377]
  • December 7, 2018, (commencing since 1996, the 51st Mersenne Prime) the current most numerous prime number known; 282,589,933-1 (M82589933), having 24,862,048 digits — Patrick Laroche (Ocala, Florida), a participant in the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS)[378]

Medicine[edit]

19th[edit]

  • 1805, morphine — Friedrich Sertürner[379]
  • 1882, paraldehyde, (first isolated 1829;[380] Wildenbusch [379]), used as a hypnotic [380] — Vincenzo Cervello [379][381][382]
  • prior to May 11 of [383] 1857, Potassium bromide [384] (isolated 1826; A J Balard [385]) an anticonvulsant and sedative — Charles Lockock[386]
  • 1861,[387] (9,) chloral hydrate[388] ((Chloral) trichloroacetaldchydc [389] synthesis discovered; 1832 by Liebig[390]), medicinal action – Rudolf Bucheim[391][387] (1861[387]), Oskar Liebreich[391][387] (1869[387])
  • 1897, Acetylsalicylic acid[392] (subsequently sold by the brand-name Aspirin since 1899[393]) – Arthur Eichengrün, led the first creation by providing direction, Felix Hoffmann (who had studied under Adolf von Baeyer prior to sometime during 1894[394]) physically produced for the first time the chemical[395]

20th[edit]

  • 1928,[396] sometime during or after September 3[397] penicillin extracted from Penicillium notatum mould — Alexander Fleming (Oxford, England)[396]
  • October 4, 1971 (tested on monkeys), August 1972 (tested on 21 people), artemisinin (an anti-malarian) — Tu Youyou (having prior to experimentation examined traditional recipes written by Ge Hong)[398][399]
  • prior to 1996, after 1990, daptomycin (Cubicin viz. Cubist Pharmaceuticals)[400] (part of the A21987C [401][402] family of antibiotics (lipopeptide antibiotics) [401]) (first isolated within Eli Lilly from Streptomyces roseosporus[401] during the decade 1980s' [403]) antibiotic — Francis P "Frank" Tally, et elia [400]

Paleoanthropology[edit]

19th century[edit]

  • 1829,[404] 2 scull-caps of[405] homo neanderthalensis[406] (with associated fauna), within a cave[405] designated Awir II[407] of Engis, Belgium[405] – Philippe-Charles[408] Schmerling[404]
  • 1833,[409] bones of[408]homo neanderthalensis,[410] within caves[408] located in a Dinantian lime-stone cliff[405] close to Liège – Schmerling[408]
  • 1848,[404] sometime before 3rd of[411] March, first skull of[407] homo neanderthalensis[406] found[407] (a female[412]) within Forbes Quarry[413] Gibralter[407] – ((military prisoner(s)[411]) Edmund Henry Réné Flint[407]
  • 1856[404] August,[414] a calotte and 15 post-cranial bones of[415] homo neanderthalensis[406] from within a Feldhofer cave[414] on the south valley walls of the[416] Neander valley[404][417][418] of western Germany[414] – individuals working to remove limestone from the cave, Wilhelm Beckershoff (one of two founders of the Actiengesellschaft für Marmorindustrie Neanderthal) supervising the quarrying[414]
  • 1866, mandible of[405] homo neanderthalensis[405][406] La Naulette, Lesse valley – Édouard Dupont[405]
  • 1886, June, July, skeletal remains of neanderthalensis found in the opening of the Betche aux Rotches (westerly of Namur) – Max Lohest (a geologist) Marcel De Puydt (an archaeologist), Julien Fraipont (a palaeontologist)[419]
  • 1891, August, October,[420] a molar (3rd) (August), and skullcap of homo erectus[21] found in Trinil, Java – Eugene Dubois[421]
  • 1892, August, left femur of homo erectus (classified by Dubois (1894) as Pithecanthropus (via Ernst Haeckel (1868)), Trinil, Java, – Eugene Dubois[21]

20th[edit]

  • 1932, homo helmei (Florisbad) — Thomas Frederik Dryer (approximately 45 km north of Bloemfontein, South Africa)[422]
  • 1967, homo sapiens, Omo 1, Omo 2 — Richard Leakey (near Omo River, Ethiopia)[423]
  • 1967–68, fragments of hominid (caves of the south coast of South Africa) — J. Wymer & R. Singer (Klasies River Mouth)[424]
  • 1974, Lucy (Dinknesh) — Donald Johanson & Thomas Gray[425][426][427]
  • 1976, L.H. 18 (Ngaloba Beds) — Day, Leakey, Magori (Laetoli, northern Tanzania)[428]
  • 1978, crania-1 from Apidema, Mesa Mani[429][430]
  • 1980, crania-2 from Apidema, Mesa Mani[429]
  • 1984, August 22, a close to complete skeleton of homo ergaster (approximately of 1.5 million years ago) — Kamoya Kimeu[431]

21st[edit]

  • 2003, homo sapiens (Bouri Formation) dated to within approximately 160,000 and 154,000 years ago — Clark, Beyene, WoldeGabriel, Hart, Renne, Gilbert, Defleur, Suwa, Katoh, Ludwig, Boisserie, Asfaw, White (Afar Rift, Ethiopia)[432]
  • 2005, method-argon re-dating for Omo 1, Omo 2 (40Ar/39Ar; of feldspar crystals, from pumice clasts within tuffs below and above the level where the fossils were found indicate the age of the fossils is closer to the median within the range 184,000 to 202,000 years of age (for crystals below the fossils)), is dated to an age of 190,000 to 200, 000 years of age, indicating the two finds are the most old (for finds dated by reliable methods) yet discovered for homo sapiens — McDougall, Brown, Fleagle[433]
  • 2008,[434] method-radiocarbon-dating techniques[434][435] dating of Buckland 1823 generates an age of approximately 31,000 to 32,000 B.C.[13] (the Mid-Upper Paleolithic[434][13])
  • 2015, homo naledi — Lee R Berger[436]
  • 2017, June (published), a crania of a homo sapiens of sometime within the range of 281,000 to 349,000 years of age (ageing was achieved by method-thermoluminescence), of an individual alive during the Middle Stone Age of Africa, places the origination of the evolution of the homo variation sapiens to sometime within an approximate range of 81,000 to 149,000 thousand years prior to the previously determined time of evolution — Hublin, Ben-Ncer, Bailey, Freidline, Neubauer, Skinner, Bergmann, Le Cabec, Benazzi, Harvati, Gunz (Jebel Irhoud, Morocco)[437]
  • 2018, January 26 (published), a hemimaxilla[17] containing dentes, of a homo sapiens alive between approximately 175,000 to 192,000 years B.C, Misliya Cave, Israel, at the time the most anciently existing homo sapiens externally to Africa – Hershkovitz, Weber, Quam, Duval, Grün, Kinsley, Ayalon, Bar-Matthews, Valladas, Mercier, Arsuaga, Martinón-Torres, Bermúdez de Castro, Fornai, Martín-Francés, Sarig, May, Krenn, Slon, Rodríguez, García, Lorenzo, Carretero, Frumkin, Shahack-Gross, Bar-Yosef Mayer, Cui, Wu, Peled, Groman-Yaroslavski, Weissbrod, Yeshurun, Tsatskin, Zaidner, Weinstein-Evron[18]
  • 2019, June, two milk teeth, at the Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site (2001), Siberia – Willerslev[438]
  • 2019, July 25, U-series radiometric dating of homo sapiens crania Apidema-1, discovered within Greece (1978), finds the crania is from a time of approximately 208,000 B.C.[439] belonging to the more recent era of the Middle Pleistocene period[439][440] – Harvati, Röding, Bosman, Karakostis, Grün, Stringer, Karkanas, Thompson, Koutoulidis, Moulopoulos, Gorgoulis, Kouloukoussa[439]

Paleobotany[edit]

21st[edit]

  • 2007, a Carboniferous period (~ 300 million years ago) forest, in a coalmine, Illinois USA[441] – William Dimichele, Howard Falcon-Lang, W. John Nelson, Scott D. Elrick, Phillip R. Ames[442]

Paleontology[edit]

19th century[edit]

1822,[443] teeth (subsequently named Iguanadon)[444] — Mary Ann Mantell & Gideon Mantell[443] (Wealdon beds, Tilgate Forest of West Sussex, England[445])

20th[edit]

  • 1902, Tyrannosaurus rex — Barnum Brown (Hell Creek, Montana, United States)[446][447]
  • 1924, first specimen of Australopithecus found,[448] Australopithecus africanus,[449] the skull of a[448] juvenile – operatives of the Northern Lime Company, E. G. Izod - Rand Mines Limited (actual fossil), Raymond A Dart (identified species)[449]
  • 1992,[450] (& 1993), described 1994 as[451] Ardipithecus ramidus[450] ramidus (genus Ardipithecus, belongs to the family Hominidae defined by Gray, 1825), and subsequently found to be approximately 4'39 million years of age[451] — Timothy White (Ethiopia)[450]

21st[edit]

  • 2002, the most oldest fossil (estimated as approximately 125 million years of age, discovered within the Yixian Formation) of a mammal with a placenta (eutherian), alive sometime during the Lower Cretaceous. Skeletal features similar to arboreal (habitats on trees and tree branches) and scansorial (climbs) mammal fossils, and dissimilar to the terrestrial (land bound) or cursorial (with the behaviour of running) features of all other known Cretacean eutherians — Ji, Luo, Yuan, Wible, Zhang, Georgi (northeastern China)[452]
  • 2013 June (published); the most oldest fossil (not including older partially complete) of a close to complete fossil skeleton of a primitive haplorhine primate alive during the most ancient years of the Eocene period (approximately 55,000,000 years ago,[453] discovered on a lake bed[454]), subsequently found to orient as the base of all known members of the tarsiiform clade — Ni, Gebo, Dagosto, Meng, Tafforeau, Flynn, Beard[453] (Hubei Province, central[454] China)[453]
  • 2014, currently (for all fossils found up to and including 2014) the most ancient known fossil within the world of a panthera, dated to a period of time of, (less ancient within this period) the Miocene period (being 23.03 to 5.3 million years ago), to, (more ancient within this period) the Pliocene period (being 5.3 to 2.6 m.y.a.) — Tseng, Wang, Slater, Takeuchi, Li, Liu, Xie (discovered within southwestern Tibet)[455]
  • 2016,[456] a close to complete crania of[457] Australopithicus anamensis[456] dated to approximately 3,800,000 years of age (figure is rounded) at the time the most old specimen of the species Australopithicus (hominins)[458] — Yohannes Haile-Selassie,[456] Melillo, Vazzana, Benazzi, Ryan[457] (Woranso-Mille in Ethiopia)[456]
  • 2017 May (published), NMMNH P-54500, an incomplete crania and additional postcrania (i.e. skeletal parts additionally to the crania) of Torrejonia wilsoni. The first discovery of postcrania for the palaechthonid (only one other taxa of the palaechthonid group is known of, from fossil finds of more than only dental fossils), became the most anciently existing find (from the most ancient years of the Palaeocene period (approximately 62,000,000 years ago, found within the Nacimiento Formation) of the plesiadapiforms group (primitive euarchontan mammals of the Palaeocene and Eocene periods within modern North America, Europe and Asia) with three members, fossils of primate, fossil finds similar to modern tree-shrews, and finds similar to modern colugos, (P-54500 was found amongst the remains of one M. pungens, and one Acmeodon secans (a eutheria mammal)) — Williamson,[459] Williamson and Williamson[460] & Chester, Bloch, Silcox, Sargis (San Juan Basin of New Mexico)[459]

Pathology[edit]

5th-4th century B.C.E.[edit]

Hippocrates of Cos[461] born (c.)460 B.C.[462] and died c. 375,[463][464] who received teaching from his father and Herodicos Selymbria,[464] introduced to thought the concept of disease having cause by wordly[461] natural[465] cause instead of by the provenance[461] of θεοί[466] (gods[461])


On the subject of Hippocrates as provenance of worldy cause superceeding godly cause; explicit to the causative of disease (or death);

Reconsidering the example of Socrates of Alopece, Athens,[467] born 470[468] who chose execution and proceeded to execution 399 BC,[469] for the charge and guilt found through trial, for impiety (and corrupting the young);[470] impiety,[471] (or even atheism[472]), and death causative to conium maculatum[469] were known of at a time earlier than 399 BC;[471][473] (actual execution by[474] Κώνειον (kṓneion)[475] is known of from 404[474])

(2nd) – 1st century B.C.E.[edit]

sometime after perhaps 106 BCE (aged 10) and prior to 27 BCE (year died), the surmised existence of[476][477] animalia quaedam minuta, quae non possunt oculi consequi...atque efficiunt difficilis morbos[478] (germs) — Marcus Terentius Varro[476][477] (116–27 BCE[476])

18th century[edit]

1761, first suggestion tobacco (snuff) causes cancer – John Hill (a doctor):[479][480] "...The acrimony of Snuff is able to produce in those parts with which it immediately or accidentally comes into contact, swellings and excresecences, which, in some kinds, require the severest operations of the surgeons to extirpate them; and in others becomes fatal..."[481]

20th[edit]

  • 1929, causal link of tobacco to cancer – Fritz Lickint[482][483][484][485][486][487][488]
  • 1981, inhalation of the fumes of tobacco by non-smokers by others smoking (second-hand smoke) is associated with lung cancer – Hirayama[489]
  • 1983,[490] (months of the beginning of the year; Pasteur Institute, Paris) a virus (human immunodeficiency virus), from laboratory cultured T lymphocytes sourced from within a biopsy specimen from a lymphadenopathic human lymph-node, because lymphadenopathy was considered at the time to be one of a number of states of pathology indicating the future existence of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) within medical patients (AIDS was first recognized during 1981); a strain of the HIV virus identified from virus isolated in a specimen taken from a patient with Kaposi's sarcoma in Paris, (months towards the finish of 1983; National Institutes of Health, Bethesda) enabling characterization of HIV as the cause of AIDS, sometime during 1984 — Gallo et al. (Bethesda) & Montagnier et al. (Paris)[491]

21st[edit]

published 2013, the risk of secondhand smoke exposure as a cause of subsequent development of coronary artery calcification is the same or a greater risk than well-established risks (high cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes) – Harvey Hecht et alia[492]

Philosophy[edit]

4th century B.C.E.[edit]

at some time after 367 B.C.E (when he re-located to Athens from Stagira, aged in his 17th year, and joined the Academy of Plato,[493] was producing writings certainly during the year 357 B.C.E.[494]) and (arbirarily) before 322 (died[495]), deductive[496] syllogism - Aristotle[497] of Stagira[493]

Although Aristotle is today with the associative attribution[498] for an ipso facto existing syllogism,[499] Platonic thought of Plato made precedents sufficient to find the orign of the Aristotlian exposition of syllogistic thinking from earlier positions in thought of his teacher.[498]

Physics[edit]


6th century B.C.[edit]

  • sometime after c. 570 (died c.495 BC), the concordant intervals of the musical scale are expressed in the proportions 1:2, for an octave, 3:2 for a fifth, 4:3 for the fourth — Pythagoras[500][501]

3rd century B.C.[edit]

Between 290 and 211 BC, the ratio between the volumes of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder is the same as their respective surface areas — Archimedes[502]

circa 1st A.D.[edit]

  • sometime circa 1st century A.D., huo yao (meaning fire chemical), the formulation of gunpowder, China[503]

17th century[edit]

  • July 1601[504] – Snell's law[371] (the sine law of refraction)[504] — by Thomas Harriot[371]
  • During the summer-time of the year 1666,[505] the first aspect of the[506] principle of universal gravitation[505]Isaac Newton, observed an apple (variety Flower of Kent) falling from a tree in his garden[505]


  • Principle of relativity by Galileo Galilei
  • Pendulum clock by Christiaan Huygens
  • The wave theory of light, published in the Treatise on Light by Christiaan Huygens
  • Newton's laws of motion by Galileo Galilei, Christiaan Huygens and Isaac Newton
  • Classical mechanics and inverse square law of gravity (Newton's law of universal gravitation) by Isaac Newton

18th[edit]

  • Kinetic energy is proportional to mass × velocity squared by Émilie du Châtelet, based on experiments by Willem 'sGravesande.
  • +/- Electric charges and their conservation, by Benjamin Franklin
  • Mechanical energy equivalent of heat, by Count Rumford and others.

19th[edit]

  • Phenomena of Electromagnetism, discovered by Hans Christian Ørsted and Michael Faraday
  • Laws of Electromagnetism, developed by Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell
  • Experiments on Diffraction done by Augustin-Jean Fresnel provide evidence for the wave theory of light
  • Electromagnetic waves, predicted by James Clerk Maxwell, discovered by Heinrich Hertz
  • The Michelson–Morley experiment demonstrates that light is not carried by Aether
  • Radioactivity by Henri Becquerel and others.
  • 1897[507] (before April 30[508]), the particle known as the electron[507] by experiments investigating the nature of the discharge of electricity[509] using a Crookes[510] vacuum tube[509] — Joseph John Thomson[511][508]

20th[edit]

The belief amongst a group of physicists, Maxwell, Kelvin and Michelson at a time of about the end of the 19th and beginning of the twentieth century, was that all the laws of nature were already discovered.[512]

Synopses[edit]

  • The theory of electrons and the Lorentz ether theory by Hendrik Lorentz
  • The discovery of the Zeeman effect by Pieter Zeeman
  • Photon, theoretically proven by Albert Einstein
  • Quantum theory to account for the photoelectric effect by Enrico Fermi, Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Albert Einstein, and others.
  • The discovery of superconductivity by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
  • Transuranium element by Enrico Fermi.
  • Technetium, discovered by Emilio G. Segrè
  • The theories of special and general relativity by Albert Einstein
  • The demonstration of time dilation as a real physical phenomenon by Albert Einstein
  • Ultra short radio waves by J. C. Bose
  • Discovery of parity nonconservation by Chien-Shiung Wu
  • asymptotic freedom (particle physics)[513]
  • the Brout–Englert–Higgs mechanism (particle physics)[513]

Details[edit]

  • 1905, sometime before September 27, "If a body gives off the energy L in the form of radiation, its mass diminishes by L/c2" (E=mc2) – Albert Einstein[514][515]
  • 1908, 10 July, liquid helium — Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (Leiden University)[516]
  • 1912, X-ray diffraction in crystals — Laue[517]
  • 1926, the statistical laws governing fermions — Enrico Fermi[518]
  • 1928, after the season of summer of the year, the possibility of the fissure of the nuclei of an atom (described 1939 or after as nuclear fission), posited as being possible, as it is in nature to divide a droplet of liquid (subsequently described as the liquid-droplet model of the nucleus) — Гео́ргий Анто́нович Га́мов (Gyorgy Gamow)[519]
  • 1930, 2 August, experimental discovery of the particle predicted by the theory of relativistic quantum mechanics postulated by Paul Dirac, an electron with a positive charge — Carl Anderson[520][521]
  • 1932, the neutron — J. Chadwick[522]
  • 1934, nuclear fusion of a heavy isotope, of hydrogen, (deuterium), with deuterium, and tritium with deuterium – Mark Oliphant, Harteck, Rutherford[523][524]
  • 1934, a heavy isotope of hydrogen, subsequently named tritium, and an isotope of helium, helium3 – Mark Oliphant[524]
  • 1937,[525] the existence of barium[526] as a product of neutron bombardment of uranium,[527] thus indicating (11 February 1939[528]) the existence of a new nuclear reaction (indicated September 10, 1934, Noddack et al.[529]) subsequently the term fission was chosen as a description for the reaction[530] (Frisch & Meitner)[528][527] — Fritz Straßmann[525][531][532]
  • 1945, the fact of microwaves causing the heating of food — Percy Spencer[533][534]
  • 1972, an accurate measurement for c, (the speed of light), being 299 792 456.2 metres a (per) second (m/s), +/- 1.1 m/s — NBS[535] (National Bureau of Standards,[536] today known instead as the National Institute of Standards and Technology[537]), Boulder, Colorado, United States[535]
  • 1974, first astronomical indication of gravitational waves (located at a pulsar star orbiting a neutron star) — Joseph Taylor, Jr. & Russell Hulse[162]

21st[edit]

  • 4 July 2012,[538][513] Confirmed existence of the boson particle, postulated by Higgs, Englert, Guralnik, Hagen, Kibble,[538][513][539] (thus completing the Standard Model[540]), at the Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire (The European Council for Nuclear Research)[540][541] — (theoretical discovery, François Englert, Peter Higgs[538] Gerald Guralnik, C. Richard Hagen, and Thomas Kibble[539])
  • 2014, October 9, sub-atomic particle Ds3*(2860)ˉ – Timothy Gershon (University of Warwick) et al[542]
  • December 2014,[543] experimental obtainment of proof of[544] the Weyl semimetal state using synchrotron radiated light[545] in tantalum arsenide[543][544] (the Weyl fermion was theorized by Hermann Weyl during 1929)[543] — Hongming Weng, Chen Fang, Zhong Fang, B. Andrei Bernevig, and Xi Dai
  • 12 February 2015, Weyl Fermion Semimetal and Topological Fermi ArcsXu, Belopolski, Alidoust, Neupane, Zhang, Sankar, Huang, Lee, Chang, Wang, Bian, Zheng, Sanchez, Chou, Lin, Jia, Hasan[546]
  • September 2016,[547] a new phase of matter, the time crystal,[548] — Christopher Monroe et al. (Norman Yao et al.), being the confirmed existence of speculation by Frank Wilczek sometime circa 2012[547]
  • published July 20, 2017, the Majorana fermion (prostulated by Ettore Majorana) — Kang Wang, Shoucheng Zhang et al., Jing Xia et al., Kai Liu et al.[540][521]
  • published April 18, 2019, HEH+ — Güsten et al.[167]
  • 05:51 hrs Eastern standard time (09:51 UTC) September 14, 2015, Confirmed existence of gravitational waves detected in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington (at LIGO facilities), both within the United States, of an event at an astronomical distance of approximately 1.3 billion years ago.[549][162]

Psychopathological[edit]

Psychopathology, the term, created by Hermann Emminghaus (1878), commenced as a scientific discipline from a publication by Karl Jaspers (1913)[550]

21st century[edit]

  • published 2011, the perception of the existence of a mind was found to exist in two perceptive dimensions — Gray, Gray, Wegner[551]
  • 2011 [552] - 2012, hypothesized existence of an identifiable fundamental factor [553] which indicates the existence of an increased likelihood within all individuals of developing any of all of the more usually found disorders [554] — Lahey et alia[552]
  • 2014,[553] the p-factor[555] (General Factor of Psychopathology[556]): the existence of psychopathology in any one individual being correlatable to certain knowable traits, or identifiable behaviours or characteristics in individuals[555] — Caspi et alia[557]

Technological[edit]

18th[edit]

1765, separate condenser — James Watt [558]

20th[edit]

  • 1907 (at some time during the year),[559] the tuyères thermopropulsives[560] after 1945 (Maurice Roy (fr)) known as the statoreacteur[560][561] a combustion subsonique (the ramjet)[562] – R. Lorin[563][564]
  • 1930, the supersonic combusting ramjet (the turbojet[565]) — Frank Whittle[566]
  • 1940, February,[567] Pu-239 isotope (isotope of plutonium)[568] a form of matter existing with the capacity for use as a destructive element[569] (because the isotope has an exponentially increasing[568] spontaneous[570] fissile decay[571]) within nuclear devices — Glenn Seaborg[567]
  • 1950, the Toroidal chamber with axial magnetic fields (Toroidalnaya Komneta s Magnetiymi Katushkami – Tokamak) — И́горь Евге́ньевич Тамм (Igor E. Tamm) and Андре́й Дми́триевич Са́харов (Andrei D. Sakharov)[572]

Writings[edit]

4th century CE[edit]

during 317 to 322, the pseudo Kong Anguo, individuals (previously, or, subsequently) acquianted with the court of (or in the mileau of attendandants to the court of) Emporer Yuan (of China)[573]

15th century[edit]

  • sometime after 1414 and before the spring of 1417, Epitoma rei militaris by Vegetius, Institution oratoria by Quintilian, during the Council of Constance at the library of Saint Gallen – rediscovered by Poggio Bracciolini,[574] a secretary serving Pope John XXIII,[575] (Bracciolini was engaged in research with Cencio de Rustici and Bartolemeo di Montepulciano)[574]
  • spring of 1417, Astronomica by Manilius, De rerum natura by Lucretius,[576] the Punica (poem) produced by Silius Italicus[574] – rediscovered by Poggio Bracciolini during the Council of Constance,[576] at libraries in Fulda within Germany.[574]
  • summer of 1417, Silvae produced by Statius – rediscovered by Poggio Bracciolini[574]

19th[edit]

  • 1844, the Codex Sinaiticus, one of two of the most ancient editions of the Bible of the religion of Christianity in history, which includes a complete New Testament; part of which was discovered initially (by Tischendorf) in a basket of parchments intended for destruction by burning, at Mount Sinai monastery – by Konstantin von Tischendorf[577][578] (who had travelled from Leipzig[579]).
  • 1850, 1853, clay tablets (originally collected by Ashurbanipal) showing the standard version of the Epic of Gilgamesh, discovered in Kuyunjik – Austin Henry Layard and Hormuzd Rassam[580]
  • including or after 1881[581] and before 1912 (Budge),[582] the papyrus of Nestanebetisheru, adoring Re-Harakhty,[583][581] from probably within a tomb[581] near Deir el-Bahri[583]
  • 1892, the Ghāndāri Dhammapada (partially complete[584][585]) discovered near to Khotan[586]

20th[edit]

  • 1928,[587] the Chester Beatty Medical papyrus, made during the time of the Nineteenth dynasty[588] (c. 1295- 1186 B.C.),[589] in a place known in ancient history as Pa Demi (the village), or Set-Ma’at, known today as[590] Dayr al-Madīnah[591][592] Thebes,[593] – discovered by Bernard Bruyère[594][595]
  • 1935, the most ancient (March 2012 source) text of the New Testament (a part of St John's Gospel), thought written at a time during the period 100 to 150 AD.[596] – identified by Colin H. Roberts (excavated by Bernard P. Grenfell 1920)[597]
  • 1945, December, gnostic Jabal-al Tarif cliff manuscripts, (south Egypt) – nomadic herders[598]
  • 1970, a papyrus containing the most ancient known copy of biblical writing, a version of the Book of Leviticus in Hebrew,[599] dated to the second half of the first or early second century CE (Yardeni[600] by paleographical analysis[601]) possibly the second century (Carbon 14 method),[601] third–fourth centuries CE (Longacre) (Carbon 14 method)[600] discovered within the ancient synagogue located within[601] Ein Gedi – discovered by a delegation of archaeologists including Yosef Porath[599][601]
  • 1972 (entries to this year are not placed within chronology as the relevant information is unavailable):
    • Sana‘a Palimpsest, one of the most ancient known manuscripts of the Qur’an, dated to the 1st to 2nd century AH (7th century CE), discovered within the Great Mosque of Sana's, Yemen[602]
    • 傳世文獻 (chuanshi wenxian), transmitted texts, in the form of manuscripts detailing tactics for a military from the time of the Han dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE), discovered in Yinqueshan, Linyi, Shandong province, China[603]
    • a previously unknown of version of the Chinese military classic, 憑-發 (ping-fa; the Art of Warfare) written by[604] 孫子[605] (Sun-Tzu), the find, including parts of five chapters previously not conventionally known of, was contained as part of an enterrement at a time determined to be within the years 140 to 118 B.C.E. (B.C.); the previous most oldest version was made using a text from the period 960 – 1279 C.E. (A.D.); Yin-ch'üeh shan, the Shantung Province, China[604]
  • 1993, 800 bamboo lengths with writing upon, approximately one tenth of the writing the most ancient extant ever discovered of the Tao Te Ching ( 道德經[606]) created during the 6th B.C. (a proportion of the complete text), the remaining parts of the writing was writing by disciples of Confucius ( 儒家[607]), discovered in a tomb dated to 4 B.C., in the proximity of a watercourse in Guodian, China[608]

21st[edit]

  • 2015, the earliest use of the expletive f---, to an English court document of September 1310 – Paul Booth (Keele University, England)[609]

See also[edit]


Other articles of the topic Science : Light descriptions of the phenomenon according to the latest physics, Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods, /r/science, OhChouette, Catrin Rutland, Franck Zal, List of Muslim scientists
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  • History of science
  • List of Chinese discoveries
  • List of famous experiments
  • List of French inventions and discoveries
  • List of multiple independent discoveries
  • Obsolete scientific theories
  • Timeline of historic inventions

Bibliography[edit]

criteria: "stemmed projectile points" (from Loren G. Davis, David B. Madsen, Lorena Becerra-Valdivia et al (2019) | (Anthropology archaeological: 21st))

Mounir Ajam (January 18, 2015) – Why You Should Stop Calling It The Middle East, published by Business Insider

The Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom of Britain – https://www.rcpath.org/discover-pathology/what-is-pathology.html


Famous anthropology finds, Arizona State University

Kelly Lipscomb – Toledo, Castilla-La-Mancha & the Path of Don Quixote (use criteria "native name for Forbes Quarry Gibraltar" to access no page number) Hunter Publishing Inc, 5 June 2011, ISBN 1556508468 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., ISBN 9781556508462 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png.


Russell L Ciochon, Frank Huffman – Java man, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, Publisher: Springer International Publishing July 2018, pp.1-8

Van Den Tweel, J. G.; Taylor, C. R. (2010). "A brief history of pathology: Preface to a forthcoming series that highlights milestones in the evolution of pathology as a discipline". Virchows Archiv : An International Journal of Pathology. 457 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1007/s00428-010-0934-4. PMC 2895866. PMID 20499087.


Cartledge, Paul (2009). Ancient Greek Political Thought in Practice. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511801747. ISBN 9780511801747. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png in, Socrates was guilty as charged, published by University of Cambridge

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  49. JP O’Malley (4 September 2018, 06:49) – (Vladimir) Putin grants authors partial access to secret Soviet archives on Hitler's death, Times of Israel, (photograph: Russian State Archives), "...Brisard says.“He confirmed that these teeth are from someone from the same time period in which Hitler died, and that they are similar to dental X-rays of Hitler's teeth that are currently held in archives in Berkeley, California...", Retrieved 2019-09-05
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  480. Robert N Proctor (2012) — The history of the discovery of the cigarette–lung cancer link: evidentiary traditions, corporate denial, global toll Tobacco Control 2012;21:87–91. "By the 1920s, however, surgeons were encountering the malady with increasing frequency, and started puzzling over what might be responsible. Smoking was commonly blamed, along with...In the middle decades of the 20th century, four distinct lines of evidence converged to establish cigarette smoking as the leading cause of lung cancer..."
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    • George Gamow Atomic Heritage Foundation "summer of 1928...There, he proposed his “liquid drop” model of atomic nuclei, which served as the basis for the modern theories of nuclear fission and fusion...", Retrieved 2019-08-30
    • Eamon Harper — https://physics.columbian.gwu.edu/george-gamow "...Bohr offered Gamow a 1928–29 fellowship at the Theoretical Physics Institute of the University of Copenhagen. There Gamow invented what was to become known as the liquid-drop model of the nucleus. Later, Bohr and the American theorist John A. Wheeler used the model to explain the phenomenon of nuclear fission..." Columbian College of Arts and Sciences (2000 reprint), Retrieved 2019-08-30
    • Joseph C. Pitt — Perspectives on Science: Historical, Philosophical, Social, University of Chicago Press 1994,: "The Birth of the Liquid-Drop Model In June 1928 twenty-four-year-old ..." c.f. https://physics.columbian.gwu.edu/george-gamow: "...Gyorgy Antonovich Gamow was born in Odessa, Ukraine, in 1904...", Retrieved 2019-08-30
    • Scientific American Science Desk Reference – Page 148 (search criteria "George Gamow fission 1928" in google books, 6th page of returns, source is shown at ninth on page) Scientific American Wiley, 30 September 1999 "Russian physicist George Gamow shows that the atom can be split using low-energy ions. ... fission, the basic principle of atomic bombs and nuclear power...", Retrieved 2019-08-30
    • https://www.britannica.com/biography/George-Gamow "...There he proposed his “liquid drop” model of atomic nuclei, which served as the basis for the modern theories of nuclear fission and fusion...", Encyclopædia Britannica online, Retrieved 2019-08-30
    • Roger Stuewer, (in, Niels Bohr: A Centenary Volume, edited by A. P. French and P. J. Kennedy, Harvard University Press 1985, ISBN 0674624165 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., ISBN 9780674624160 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., p.209: "...Gamow as the originator of the liquid-drop model...") in, Christine Sutton (1985) — Magazine issue 1985, New Scientist online 8 July 1995, Retrieved 2019-08-30
  512. Antimatter, Institute of Physics, Retrieved 2019-06-23
  513. 521.0 521.1 Experiment finds evidence for the Majorana fermion, a particle that's its own antiparticle Stanford University (July 20, 2017) Retrieved 2019-06-23
  514. Mitsuru Kikuchi (10 November 2010) – A Review of Fusion and Tokamak Research Towards Steady State Operation : A JAEA Contribution: file:///C:/Users/gga/Downloads/energies-03-01741-v2.pdf – p.1743, Energies 2010, 3, 1741–1789, doi:10.3390/en3111741, ISSN 1996-1073 Retrieved 2019-06-27
  515. Heinrich Hora — Plasmas at High Temperature and Density: Applications and Implications of Laser-Plasma Interaction, Volume 1, p.331, Springer Science & Business Media 28 August 1991, ISBN 3540543120 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., ISBN 9783540543121 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., Retrieved 2019-09-02
  516. 524.0 524.1 ITER https://www.iter.org/mag/3/29, Retrieved 2019-09-02
  517. 525.0 525.1 Fritz Krafft — Im Schatten der Sensation. Leben und Wirken von Fritz Strassmann (In the shadow of sensation; Life and Works by Fritz Strassmann translated by Karl Dietz) Weinheim/Deerfield Beach, Florida/Basel: Verlag Chemie 1981. XVII und 541 Seiten, DM 150 , 220–221, (German language) – Paul Lawrence Rose (1986) Berichte zur Wissenschaftgeschichte (History of Science and Humanities) Volume 9 Issue 2, in, Ruth Lewin Sime (2008) (edited by Carsten Reinhardt) — Chemical Sciences in the 20th Century: Bridging Boundaries, pp.(146-)155, John Wiley & Sons 26 Sep 2008, ISBN 3527612742 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., ISBN 9783527612741 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., p.155 – "...Strassman thought he found barium among the uranium products during 1937, but Meitner shrugged it off so he didn't pursue it...", Retrieved 2019-08-31
  518. Judith M. Reichel (11-2-2019) — A Lifetime of Fission: The Discovery of Nuclear Energy, Lindau nobel laureate meetings, "...and hoped that by blasting it with neutrons they would generate even heavier, so-called transuranium elements. However, the resulting particles where lighter than uranium and baffled both Strassmann and Hahn. On December 17th 1938 the two finally managed to identify that what resulted was not a transuranium element, but in fact barium – an element about half the size of uranium. Still confused as to what these results meant, Hahn wrote (to) Meitner, describing their unexpected results, asking if she had an explanation for it...Due to their previous and exclusive correspondence with Hahn, Meitner and Frisch had a head-start in finding an explanation for the observed effects by their Berlin colleagues and devised a theory over Christmas of 1938 which they subsequently tested in their lab. They based their approach on the newly established “liquid-drop-model” of the nucleus... Thus, if a heavy element such as uranium is blasted with neutrons and one of them enters the core...the uranium should break apart into two highly energetic atom cores. Such energetic cores in turn should ionise their surrounding air: this ionisation was proven by Meitner and Frisch. They published their physics-based explanation of the nuclear fission of uranium in a Nature paper on February 11th 1939. In March of that year Meitner and Frisch published another Nature paper detailing the nuclei of the elements that are produced by “(...) the fission of the Uranium Nucleus”....", Retrieved 2019-08-31
  519. 527.0 527.1 Rudolf A. Treumann — A Post-Fission Perspective of the Discovery of Nuclear Fission "...the working relations between Hahn and Meitner, the forced emigration of Meitner was advantageous insofar as it emancipated Hahn from the physical guardianship of Meitner, and liberated his chemical competence. This was a prerequisite to recognizing the presence of Barium in the debris of Uranium decay. At the same time it liberated Meitner so that she could break with the old physical concepts of knowledge when accepting Hahn's chemical results, and find the correct interpretation of the experiment...", Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie (Journal for General Philosophy of Science) Volume 22, No. 1 (1991), pp. 143–153, Retrieved 2019-08-31
  520. 528.0 528.1 Lise Meitner & O.R. Frisch (11 February 1939) – Disintegration of Uranium by Neutrons: a New Type of Nuclear Reaction Nature volume 143, pages 239–240 (1939), Retrieved 2019-08-31
  521. Michael Thoennessen The Discovery of Isotopes: A Complete Compilation p.59, Springer 2 June 2016, ISBN 3319317636 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., ISBN 9783319317632 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png. p.59 – "Noddack...she continued by already suggesting the possibility of fission" & p.3 source D. Hilscher "September 10, 1934" Retrieved 2019-08-31
  522. Office of History and Heritage Resources – Discovery of Fission, United States Department of Energy, "...Frisch, borrowing the term for cell division in biology – binary fission – named the process "fission."..", Retrieved 2019-08-31
  523. Ernest B. Hook — Prematurity in Scientific Discovery: On Resistance and Neglect, pp. 141–142, University of California Press, 2 October 2002, ISBN 0520231066 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., ISBN 9780520231061 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png., p.125 – "Hahn and Strassmann in January 1939. This report led shortly afterwards to the recognition of nuclear fission...In the conclusion to their report....As chemists, we really ought to revise the decay scheme to include Ba, Le, Ce, in place of Ra, Ac, Th...as 'nuclear chemists'...There could be a series of unusual coincidences which has given us false indications...We know ourselves that into Ba, it can not really split" Retrieved 2019-08-31 (ed. note: Fermi did not recognise/identify products as non transuraniumic elements (c.f. source: Giuseppe Bruzzaniti, p.204, &, source: United States Department of Energy), Hahn did not recognize/identify bombardment products as non-transuraniumic elements, if Hahn did think "barium" (c.f. Fine and Herrmann in D Hilscher, & "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944 was awarded to Otto Hahn "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei.", & Sime (2000) "The Search for Transuranium Elements...") sources don't show he stated as such)
  524. D Hilscher – Discovery of nuclear fission in Berlin 1938, Pramfi.na – Journal Physics, Volume 33, No. 1, July 1989, p.1 – "Hahn writing – December 19, 1938 – our Ra-isotopes do not behave like Ra but like Ba. Thus nuclear fission was discovered..." & "Hahn said many years later...(Fine and Herrmann, unpublished): Therefore we could conclude the substances ... could be really only radium because barium was prohibited by the physicists...we were so afraid of the physicists that we didn't dare to think it was barium in those times..." Retrieved 2019-08-29
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