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List of discoveries by disciplines

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List of discoveries by disciplines includes entries which fulfill the criteria of belonging to science (i.e. including Astronomy, Biochemistry, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Cognitive Science, Paleobotany, Paleontology), and the humanities (i.e. including Archaeology, Social Anthropology, Human Geography, Social and Cultural Geography, Classical Archaeology, Egyptology, Greek Archaeology, History of Art, Forensic Anthropology, American Studies, Writings);[1]

The word discovery is understood to indicate, or has a meaning, that encompasses notions of contrive, conceive of, design,[2] detection,[3] develop[2] devise, discernment,[3] to find,[4] identification, invention, locating and location of,[3] origination,[3][2] pioneer,[2] realization[5] unearthing.[3] The basis of fulfillment of the criteria of discovery is, an object or thing, or information,[6][4] existing prior to the location (object) or comprehension of (information), but not previously known of,[6] that causes the learning of something not previously understood.[7] Although the emphasis for discovery is being, in relation to the time and individual, or group of individuals, relevant to entries, the first time in history the change from unknown to known occurred,[8] the determination for discovery includes also objects or information lost at some prior time in humanities history and subsequently recovered at a later time.[9]

Observations, experiments, explorations [10] and serendipity,[11] are all possible routes to the moment of the realization[disambiguation needed] of a discovery. [10]

Contents

Anthropology[edit]

Anthropology has four aspects: Archaeological, Biological, Linguistic, Sociocultural.[12]

Archaeological[edit]

19th century[edit]

21st[edit]

  • Origins of Holocene European people.
  • published 2011, February, only evidence existing within the British Isles, and the oldest directly dated examples known, of activity of alteration of human skulls, dated to approximately 14,700 BP, 14,450 BCE, to make drinking cups (from Gough's Cave, Somerset) – Bello, Parfitt, Stringer[15]
  • 2015, July, identification of four bodies discovered 2010 in a 1608 church of Jamestown as, Reverend Robert Hunt, Captain Gabriel Archer, Sir Ferdinando Wainman, and Captain William West – Douglas Owsley et al.[16]
  • 2018, January 26, a find at Mislya cave within Israel, suggests the homo sapiens species moved from Africa at the minimum time of approximately 175,000 years B.C., previous evidence from archaeology suggested a time of emigration from Africa of 88,000 to 118,000 years B.C[17] – Israel Hershkovitz, of the Department of Anatomy and Anthropology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, et al.[18]
  • 2019, August, stone tools (projectile points formally similar to upper Paleolithic period within Japan), charcoal remains and animal remains dated to between 14, 500 and 13,300 B.C.E. found within the precinct of Idaho at the Cooper’s Ferry site, near a tributary of the Columbia River – Loren Davis (Oregon State University in Corvallis) Davis, Madsen, Becerra-Valdivia, Higham,Sisson, Skinner, Stueber, Nyers, Keen-Zebert, Neudorf, Cheyney, Izuho, Iizuka, Burns, Epps, Willis, Buvit[19]

Biological[edit]

The subjects of biological anthropology are the evolution and ecology of humans and non-human primates[20]

19th[edit]

Finds made in Trinil Java during 1891 and 1892 by Marie Eugène François Thomas Dubois were the first of hominid fossils to accepted as evidence of evolution of the human species[21]

20th[edit]

21st[edit]

2019, June 5, (published),[26] DNA of individuals genetically close to Native Americans,[27] from within remains dated to about 28,980 B.C., from within Siberia, – Eske Willerslev et al.[26]

Linguistic[edit]

19th[edit]

Historical relatedness of languages and the existence of the Indo-European languages deriving from Proto-Indo-European

Sociocultural[edit]

6th century B.C.E.[edit]

c.592,[28] nibbhāna[29] (including;[30] bodhi[31][32] (enlightenment[32]), cattari ariya saccani[33][34] (the four noble truths[34]), anitya, &, pratītyasamutpāda[35]) — Siddharth Gautama[36] (consequently known within Buddhism as the Buddha)

15th A.D.[edit]

sometime after the 1st and before the 6th of November, 1492, the use of[37][38] tobacco by Native Americans[39][40][41]Rodrigo de Jerez and Luis de Torres[37][42][38]

19th[edit]

sometime before December 28[43] during the year 1896, the birthplace of[44] Prince Gautama[45] (the Lumbini garden[43]) – Alois Anton Führer[44][46][47][48][49] and General[44] Khadga Shamsher[47] Rana,[44][50] Governor of Palpa[44]

20th[edit]

21st[edit]

  • 2001, October, a tree[55] (Pyrus calleryana[56]Callery pear) afterwards known as the Survivor Tree, is discovered at the site of the World Trade Center attack,[55] the last living organism recovered[57] (the last living person discovered was during September 12, 2001[58] sometime after 09:00 hours[59])
  • 2006, James Fallon[60] (a neuroscientist), while studying people who had committed murder, those diagnosed with schizophrenia, and the genetics of those with Alzheimer's, discovers his brain is psychopathic – James Fallon[61]
  • 2016, sometime after August, Yoshida Shoin's (1830–59) tanto, a member of the closing generation of the samurai class, is discovered within the United States – by Timothy Arai (after meeting with Akira Kurosawa)[62]
  • 2017, 7 June,[63] deaths of approximately 80% of the population of Aztecs,[64] during the early contact period, occurring within Mexico, during 1545–1550 CE, caused by enteric fever — Vågene, Herbig, Campana, et al[63]
  • 2018, October 29, the identification of a biomolecular history of Nicotiana use amongst northwestern North America indigenous hunter-gatherer populations prior to the post-1790's introduction of Nicotiana tabacum by European first contact settlers and traders — Tushingham, Snyder, Brownstein, Damitio, Gang[65]

Archaeology[edit]

Eastern Asian[edit]

Chinese[edit]

20th century[edit]

China's 100 major archaeological discoveries in the 20th century

Western Asian[edit]

4th century A.D.[edit]

325/326/327, the tomb of Jesus of Nazareth,[66] in Golgotha[67]Helena Augusta (of Drepanum[67]), the mother of the Roman Emperor, Constantine,[66][67] the first emperor to accept Christianity[68]

19th[edit]

20th[edit]

21st[edit]

Northern African[edit]

Egyptian[edit]

18th[edit]

1799, July, Rosetta stone, in a fortress in a dilapidated condition, within Rachid, Egypt – Pierre-François-Xavier Bouchard[82]

19th[edit]
21st[edit]
  • 2010 and afterwards, after a survey and examination of the catacombs of Anubis within Saqqara, Egypt, researchers estimate as many as 8,000,000 mummified animals (thought mostly dog) were within the catacombs — Steven Mills, Scott Williams, Hendrikje Nouwens[91]
  • 2014, the mummy of an elite woman with tattoos, in Deir el-Madina, Egypt[92]
  • 2016, 14th – early 13th century B.C.E. amulet inscribed with he name of a pharaoh Thutmose III, Jerusalem – Neshama Spielman (aged 12)[76]
  • 2018
    • August – two sandstone reliefs showing the figure of Ptolemy V, Mit Rahina,[93] 20 km south of Cairo[94] in the Demerdash basin area, Egypt (at the same site as the discovery of September 25)[92]
    • September
      • 2 – a Neolithic period village within the Nile Delta, Egypt[92]
      • 5 – a cemetery located in the proximity of the pyramid of Senusret I, Egypt[92]
      • 16 – a sphinx statue in the Temple of KomOmbo in Aswan, Egypt[92] – Egyptian archaeological mission working on the project of reducing the groundwater level in the Temple of KomOmbo[93]
      • 18 – a late period tomb containing a largely undamaged mummy, Egypt[92]
      • 20 – 20 Graco-Roman period tombs, Egypt[92]
      • 25 – a very large building,[92] Mit Rahina[93] in the Demerdash basin area, Egypt[92]
      • 27 – two mummified corpses in two tombs, Egypt[92]
    • October
      • 1 – a painting of King Seti I and a painting of King Ptolemy IV, Egypt[92]
      • 25 – Ramses II era royal celebration hall, Egypt[92]
    • November
      • 6 – fragments at the Temple of the Sun in Matariya, Egypt[92]
      • 10 – tombs of modern dynastic era and ancient era, within the Saqqara necropolis, Egypt[92]
      • 14 – a grave of a woman and fetus Kom Ombo, Aswan, Egypt[92]
    • December

Ukrainian, Russian, Georgian[edit]

19th[edit]

1871,[96] Gontsy in the Ukraine, the first paleolithic site discovered within eastern Europe – G.S. Kyriakov, F.I. Kaminski[97]

20th[edit]

21st[edit]

2016, mining pits and sites for the working of obsidian, Koyundağ, Lesser Caucasus (Georgia) – Biagi & Nisbet (Ca' Foscari University of Venice), Gratuze (University of Orléans)[100]

United Kingdom of Britain[edit]

21st[edit]

2004, monuments of the Viking people within Sherwood Forest of Nottingham, England – Stuart Reddish and Lynda Mallett[101]

Art[edit]

19th century[edit]

20th[edit]

21st[edit]

Astronomy/Cosmology[edit]

13th century B.C.E.[edit]

nova (located near to Antares), China – inscribed onto bone[126]

3rd[edit]

2nd[edit]

2nd C.E.[edit]

185 CE, supernova, China – Book of Later Han[135]

16th[edit]

Explicit heliocentric model by Nicolaus Copernicus

17th[edit]

18th and 19th[edit]

19th[edit]

20th[edit]

Synopses[edit]

Details[edit]

21st[edit]

  • 2002, October[159] 17th[156] (published), discovery of orbital information for the closest star (which was designated as S2[156]) of a number of stars in orbit to the probable existing black-hole (located at Sagittarius A*) at the centre of the Milky Way – Schödel, Ott, Genzel, Hofmann, Lehnert, Eckart, Mouawad, Alexander, Reid, Lenzen, Hartung, Lacombe, Rouan, Gendron, Rousset, Lagrange, Brandner, Ageorges, Lidman, Moorwood, Spyromilio, Hubin, Menten,[159]
  • 2012, November, 13.3 billion l.y. distant galaxy MACS0647-JD, at the time the furthest observed object from earth – Marc Postman and others of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey (CLASS) (NASA Hubble space telescope and Spitzer space telescope)[160]
  • 2015, 05:51 hrs Eastern standard time (09:51 UTC) September 14, Confirmed existence of gravitational waves detected, due to an event at an astronomical distance of approximately 1.3 billion years ago – Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington (at LIGO facilities), both within the United States,[161][162]
  • 2017, October 19, the first known object of interstellar origin to pass through the solar system 1I/2017 U1[163]Robert Weryk[164] of the University of Hawaii[163]
  • 2018, November 14 (published), evidence from photometric and spectroscopic signalic returns (including measurements spanning an approximate 20 years period) suggests with almost absolute certainty the existence of a planet orbiting Barnard's star, the closest star not within a system of other stars (α Centauri system is closer), to the sun – Ribas, Tuomi, Reiners, Butler, Morales, Perger, Dreizler, Rodríguez-López, González Hernández, Rosich, Feng, Trifonov, Vogt, Caballero,Hatzes, Herrero, Jeffers, Lafarga, Murgas, Nelson, Rodríguez, Strachan, Tal-Or, Teske, Toledo-Padrón, Zechmeister, Quirrenbach, Amado, Azzaro, Béjar, Barnes, Berdiñas, Burt, Coleman, Cortés-Contreras, Crane, Engle, Guinan, Haswell, Henning, Holden, Jenkins, Jones, Kaminski, Kiraga, Kürster, Lee, López-González, Montes, Morin, Ofir, Pallé, Rebolo, Reffert, Schweitzer, Seifert, Shectman, Staab, Street, Suárez Mascareño, Tsapras, Wang, Anglada-Escudé (Red Dots,[165] CARMENES)[166]
  • published 2019, April 18, HEH+ – Güsten et al.[167]

habitable zone exoplanets[edit]

List of potentially habitable exoplanets

From within the period 2007 to 2017 (approximately) the number of exoplanets (all planets, not only habitable zone planets) discovered is within the range of thousands.[168]

  • 2016 May to 2017, February 21 (published), the TRAPPIST-1 exoplanets system included 3 habitable zone (hz) planets[169] of a total of 7, all of which could exist with liquid water — Gillon (University of Liège), Triaud, Demory, Jehin, Agol, Deck, Lederer, de Wit, Burdanov, Ingalls, Bolmont, Leconte, Raymond, Selsis, Turbet, Barkaoui, Burgasser, Burleigh, Carey, Chaushev, Copperwheat, Delrez, Fernandes, Holdsworth, Kotze, Van Grootel, Almleaky, Benkhaldoun, Magain & Queloz[170]
  • 2016, August 24, planet Proxima b orbiting Proxima Centauri , the closest star, (1.295 parsecs[171]), to the solar system – Anglada-Escudé, Amado, Barnes, Berdiñas, Butler, Coleman, de la Cueva, Dreizler, Endl, Giesers, Jeffers, Jenkins, Jones, Kiraga, Kürster, López-González, Marvin, Morales, Morin, Nelson, Ortiz, Ofir, Paardekooper, Reiners, Rodríguez, Rodrίguez-López, Sarmiento, Strachan, Tsapras, Tuomi & Zechmeister[172]
  • 2018, May 31 (paper received at publisher), ("..with high statistical confidence..") the spectroscopic signature of water in the atmosphere of K2-18b a habitable zone planet orbiting a 34pc distant M2.5 class dwarf star – (All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript), Tsiaras (performed the data analysis and developed HST analysis software Iraclis), Waldmann (developed atmospheric retrieval software Tau-REx), Tinetti (contributed to the interpretation of the results), Tennyson & Yurchenko (coordinated the ExoMol project)[173]
  • published 2019, June 18, 2 planets in the hz in orbit of Teegarden's Star (distance from Earth – approximately 12.5 light years) – Mathias Zechmeister et al.[174]

Autopsies[edit]

The autopsy report made of the death of Caesar is the root cause of the word forensics, by the fact of the pre-existing Latin language word forensis, a word that indicates forum[175] (i.e. the Roman Forum[176]) The first Roman forum to be created was the Imperial forum of Julius Caesar,[177] constructed on an area previously used to bury[178] the ashes of the cremated dead, from at least during the 8th century BCE,[179] from within the population of individuals inhabiting the[178] Collis[180] or Mons Palatinus,[181] (the mount, or, the hill[182] Palatine[178]) thought,[183] by tradition originating from Virgil,[184] Livy and Dionysius,[185] to at least the seventeenth century (within the English language),[186] the first[183] mount[182] (of the Septemontium,[182] the word indicating the seven mounts the city of Rome was known by during the earliest times[187]) of the area later to become Rome, to be inhabited[183] From the time of Caesar[188] until the 13th century, few autopsies were ever undertaken.[189]

1st century B.C.E.[edit]

44 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar,[190][191] the physician who examined the corpse stated he found a stab wound (one of twenty-three) was the cause of death[190] – Antistius[190][191]

5th A.D.[edit]

456, Princess Takukete, findings of the laparotomy were noted as being, fluid, and a solid particle (described as a "stone"). The dissection was the first recorded in the history of Japan.[192]

17th[edit]

1670,[193] 30 June, Henriette, Duchesse d’Orléans (aged 26 years[194] and fourteen days[193]), (the sister-in-law of Louis XIV) (daughter of Charles I[195]), was found to be due to cholera morbus caused by bile existent in a corrupt and boiling state, this itself the cause of subsequent gangrene (is total cessation of functioning of a body part caused by the part ceasing to receive blood, or by bacterial infection[196]) of her entrails-lower abdomenal parts — French doctors[194]

18th[edit]

1760, 25 October,[197] "in the trunk of the aorta we found a transverse fissure on its inner side, about an inch and a half long, through which some blood had recently passed under its external coat and formed an elevated ecchymosis" (Nicholls) (subsequently determined by modern assessment as:) cardiac tamponade causative to acute A-type[198] dissecting aneurism of the aorta, was the found cause of death for George II[199][200]Frank Nicholls[197]

20th[edit]

1993, November 1 at 10:00 hours, the death of River Phoenix (during the early hours of the morning of October 31, 1993) was found to be due to[201] accidental cause of acute multiple drug intoxication,[202][203] being the effects of cocaine, heroin,[201] benzodiazepines,[202] cannabis (marihuana) and ephedrine[201] — D. Anderson: (present in the blood: free Codeine (o.39 ug/ml), free Morphine (1.7 ug/ml) Desmethyldiazepam (0.05 ug/ml), Diazepam (0.19 ug/ml); present in the stomach: Codeine (o.o3 mg), Morphine (0.20 mg), Benzoylecgonine (4.6 ug/ml), Cocaine (100.8 ug/ml)); J. Anderson: (present in the blood: Cocaine (7.8 ug/ml))), L. Chwa: (marihuana metabolite); R. Budd: (present the blood: Ephedrine (0.37 ug/ml) and Pseudoephedrine (1.29 ug/ml)), present in the urine: Pseudoephedrine, Benzoylecgonine, Morphine)[202]

21st[edit]

2012, 13 November,[204] in the case of Whitney Houston (died, 11 February 2012) the mode of death was accidental, the cause was found to be drowning (in the water of a bath[205]) because of cocaine use[206] and atherosclerosis[207] of the heart.[206] The toxicological analysis[208] found, cocaine (0.57 ug/mL & 0.61 ug/mL; Benzoylccgonine 7.3 ug/mL: D. Anderson) in addition, the presence of cocaethylene (<0.03 ug/ml: D. Anderson)[206] (a product of the metabolism of cocaine with ethanol (alcohol)[209]), marijuana (Carboxy-THC 49 ng/ml, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) <2.5 ng/ml: S. Brooks), Ibuprofen (5.1 ug/mL: O. Pleitez), alprazolam (85 ng/mL; S. DcQuinlana)[206] (a sedative-hypnotic; benzodiazepine[210]), cyclobenzaprine (0.09 ug/mL)[206] (a centrally acting muscle relaxant,[211] related by chemical structure to first-generation anti-depressants[212]), and diphenhydramine (0.33 ug/mL)[206] (an antihistamine which also causes drowsiness and sleepiness[213])

Biochemistry[edit]

Synopsis[edit]

Dideoxy method of DNA sequencingFrederick Sanger

19th century[edit]

21st[edit]

Biology[edit]

Synopses[edit]

Human[edit]

Synopses[edit]

Details[edit]

4th and 3rd centuries B.C.[edit]

circa. 350-260 B.C., pulse within the arteries – Herophilus[226]

17th century A.D.[edit]

circulation of the blood – Harvey[227]

19th[edit]
20th[edit]
21st[edit]

published 2019, June 5, evidence for an (conversion of food to energy, being an) alimentary energy supply limit within the human body of approximately 2.5 × BMR as a maximum possible sustained energy expenditure for humans in endurance exercise events, that correspondingly greater expenditure requires utilisation of the body's energy stores – Thurber, Dugas, Ocobock, Carlson, Speakman and Pontzer (Duke University)[245]

Microbiological[edit]

17th century[edit]

19th[edit]

20th[edit]

1961,[249] cells existing in a state externally from living organisms are able to replicate only a limited number of times (previously to the discovery, externally existing cells were thought to not undergo ageing), termed subsequently (by Macfarlane Burnet) as the Hayflick limit, the discovery is a subject of biogerontologyLeonard Hayflick[250]

Plant[edit]

18th century[edit]

1771,[251] photosynthesis, Joseph Priestley (1733–1804)[252]

20th[edit]

Zoological[edit]


the Atlantic of North America[edit]

20th century[edit]

1995, the royal red shrimp, discovered in an approximately 20-mile-long by approximately half-mile wide area at sea, approximately 100 miles southeast of Stonington — Mr. Bomster and the crew of a fishing boat[263]

North America[edit]

20th century[edit]

1973, August, the snail darter, in Little Tennessee River — by David Etnier[264]

21st[edit]

published 2005, 25 March, soft-tissue vessels and preserved cells exist within the processed bone of a Tyrannosaurus rex — Schweitzer, Wittmeyer, Horner, Toporski[265]

Bering sea of Alaska[edit]

21st[edit]

2016, July 26, a new species of beaked whale, genus Berardius, known to Japanese fishermen as the karasu[266]

the Pacific of South America[edit]

21st[edit]

September 2018, 3 new species of Snailfish, approximately 7.5 kilometres below the surface of the ocean – a team of 40 scientists from 17 different nations[267][268]

Armenia[edit]

19th[edit]

circa 1985, A.abrotanum L.[269]

20th[edit]

1995, A.szovitziana[269]

Australia[edit]

18th[edit]

Austria[edit]

18th[edit]

1758, astacus astacusLinnaeus[271]

19th[edit]

China[edit]

20th[edit]

1983, the endangered species Ochotona iliensis (native to the Xinjiang region) living within the Tianshan mountain range — Li Weidong (a conservationist)[272]

Indonesia[edit]

20th[edit]

1910, Varanus komodoensis (the Komodo dragon) — van Steyn van Hensbroek[273]

Indo-Pacific[edit]

21st[edit]

2019, during January to sometime before February 22 (date of publication), Megachile pluto, (is a rediscovery because was previously discovered; Wallace's giant bee, but subsequently unlocatable sometime during 1981 and after) — Robson, Chilton (University of Saint Mary's, Canada), Wyman (Princeton University), Bolt (conservationalistic photography)[274]

Philippines[edit]

21st[edit]

2017, Cirrhilabrus shutmani (the magma fairy wrasse), a species of fairy wrasse (Cirrhilabrus; Temminck & Schlegel (1845)) found at Didicas Volcano, Babuyan Islands in depths of 50 to 70 metres — Tea & Gill[275]

New Zealand[edit]

21st[edit]

May 2014, Mola Teca the Hoodwinker Sunfish off Birdlings Flat near Christchurch, New Zealand, — Marianne Nyegaard (Murdoch University in Australia)[276][277]

Chemistry[edit]

Synopses[edit]

Details[edit]

18th[edit]

19th[edit]

20th[edit]

Deaths[edit]

20th century[edit]

21st[edit]

2012, 11 February, at approximately 15:55 hours, Whitney Houston (in her 48th year) – Beverly Hilton Hotel, Beverly Hills, California, by the assistant of Houston[206]

Fugitives[edit]

Canada[edit]

21st century[edit]

evidence of the repeating activity of killing (commencing during 1991) was found after the arrestation of[301] Robert Pickton[302] was made during February 5 of 2002, subsequently charged with 6 murders, (Robert claims he killed 49)[301]

China[edit]

21st century[edit]

2003 Yang Xinhai was arrested, subsequently executed for 67 killings during 2004[303]

France[edit]

15th[edit]

1440, October the 26th,[304] Gilles de Rais[305] is condemned to execution[304]

Japan[edit]

21st[edit]

2017, October 31,[306] Takahiro Shiraishi[307] arrested because DNA linked him to 1 murder, of a total of 9[306]

Russia[edit]

20th[edit]

United Kingdom of Britain[edit]

19th[edit]

1888, August 31, the 1st victim, a prostitute, of Jack the Ripper, is found Whitechapel, London[314]

20th[edit]

1964, October, Ian Brady and[315] Myra Hindley[316] arrested,[315] sentenced May 6 1966[317] for 5 killings (1 aged within her 10th year, 2 in their 12th, 1 in her 16th, 1 in his 17th)[315]

United States[edit]

19th[edit]

1895, July 15, 1st victim (a girl) is found, of[318] Herman Webster Mudgett[316] (born 1861[319]), found guilty for 28 killings (evidence indicates he had killed perhaps as many as 200 people)[318] executed May 7, 1896[320]

20th[edit]

  • 1901, October 29, Honora Kelley is arrested,[321] initially confessing to 11 killings, subsequently confessed to 31,[322] from since about the year 1886[321]
  • 1962, June 14, 1st victim[323] of 13 women killed[324] by the Boston Strangler[316]
  • 1966, August, 1st victim of[325][326] Kenneth Allen McDuff[316]
  • 1974 January 15, the first victim(s) (a mother, father and two of their children) of 10 killed by Dennis Rader (apprehended during the 25th of February , 2005) is found by the parents third child[327][328]
  • 1975, October, hairs found in a vehicle owned by[329] Theodore Robert Bundy[316] are matched to victims,[329] after escaping prison, Bundy is re-arrested 1978, 01:30 hours 15th of February, consequently confessing to 30 killings and subsequently executed[330] January 1989[329]
  • 1975, December 4, 1st victim discovered (the perpetrators part brother, by one parent only) of Donald Gaskins[316][331] sentenced to 10 terms of life imprisonment, and subsequently executed by electric chair for an additional killing while incarcerated[332]
  • 1977, December 29, first individual determined as a victim of[333] Richard Trenton Chase[316] killed, 1978 January 28, Chase is arrested, 29th January, confessed, subsequently sentenced for the deaths of 6 people[333]
  • 1982, July 15, 1st victim found of the serial-killer Gary Leon Ridgway,[334] arrested November 30, 2001, subsequently convicted of 48 homocides (most of whom were prostitutes)[335]
  • 1984, June 28, the first victim of Richard Ramirez is found,[316] information on the registration plate of a stolen vehicle during August 25 1985[336] leads to identification of a fingerprint during August 28,[337] Ramirez is detained by police August 31, during November 7 1989 sentenced for 12 first degree murders and 1 second-degree murder[338]
  • 1989, December 13, 1st victim of Aileen Wuornos found[339] subsequently executed by electrical chair method of execution for the conviction of 6 killings[340]
  • 1991, July 22,[316] the remains of victim(s) are found by Tracey Edwards,[341] a survivor of the serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer, subsequently police are led by Edwards to the evidence of 15 homicides[316] occurring during the latter times of the 1970's and terminating during the former parts of the 1990's[342]

21st[edit]

2010, September, location of Osama bin Laden, killed[343] Abbottabad, Pakistan,[344] May 2, 2011 (May 1 within the United States) – Central Intelligence Agency of the United States government (location), United States Navy Seal(s) (death)[343]

Geography/Geology[edit]

15th[edit]

the New World, 1492, Columbus[345][346]

16th[edit]

19th[edit]

20th[edit]

21st[edit]

Mathematics[edit]

5th century B.C.[edit]

incommensurability[367] (incommensurable straight line proportions[368]) — Hippasus (of Metapontum)[367] (5th century B.C)[368]

7th century A.D.[edit]

628[369] 1st discovery[370] (Harriot 1601,[371] Snell 1619) of the theorum of the area and diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateralBrahmagupta[370]

18th[edit]

1743, the mathematical relationship of the oscillatory trigonometric functions cosine and sine to the complex exponential function,[372] in the equation e^(ix)= cosine(x)+ isine(x),[373] in which e (the complex exponential function) is the basis of natural logarithms equalling 2.718 2818, and i = (the square root of) − 1,[372]Leonard Euler[373][374]

19th[edit]

before 1903 and after the 21st of January of the year 1889,[375] chaotic motionHenri Poincaré[376]

21st[edit]

Medicine[edit]

19th[edit]

20th[edit]

Paleoanthropology[edit]

19th century[edit]

20th[edit]

21st[edit]

  • 2003, homo sapiens (Bouri Formation) dated to within approximately 160,000 and 154,000 years ago — Clark, Beyene, WoldeGabriel, Hart, Renne, Gilbert, Defleur, Suwa, Katoh, Ludwig, Boisserie, Asfaw, White (Afar Rift, Ethiopia)[432]
  • 2005, method-argon re-dating for Omo 1, Omo 2 (40Ar/39Ar; of feldspar crystals, from pumice clasts within tuffs below and above the level where the fossils were found indicate the age of the fossils is closer to the median within the range 184,000 to 202,000 years of age (for crystals below the fossils)), is dated to an age of 190,000 to 200, 000 years of age, indicating the two finds are the most old (for finds dated by reliable methods) yet discovered for homo sapiens — McDougall, Brown, Fleagle[433]
  • 2008,[434] method-radiocarbon-dating techniques[434][435] dating of Buckland 1823 generates an age of approximately 31,000 to 32,000 B.C.[13] (the Mid-Upper Paleolithic[434][13])
  • 2015, homo nalediLee R Berger[436]
  • 2017, June (published), a crania of a homo sapiens of sometime within the range of 281,000 to 349,000 years of age (ageing was achieved by method-thermoluminescence), of an individual alive during the Middle Stone Age of Africa, places the origination of the evolution of the homo variation sapiens to sometime within an approximate range of 81,000 to 149,000 thousand years prior to the previously determined time of evolution — Hublin, Ben-Ncer, Bailey, Freidline, Neubauer, Skinner, Bergmann, Le Cabec, Benazzi, Harvati, Gunz (Jebel Irhoud, Morocco)[437]
  • 2018, January 26 (published), a hemimaxilla[17] containing dentes, of a homo sapiens alive between approximately 175,000 to 192,000 years B.C, Misliya Cave, Israel, at the time the most anciently existing homo sapiens externally to Africa – Hershkovitz, Weber, Quam, Duval, Grün, Kinsley, Ayalon, Bar-Matthews, Valladas, Mercier, Arsuaga, Martinón-Torres, Bermúdez de Castro, Fornai, Martín-Francés, Sarig, May, Krenn, Slon, Rodríguez, García, Lorenzo, Carretero, Frumkin, Shahack-Gross, Bar-Yosef Mayer, Cui, Wu, Peled, Groman-Yaroslavski, Weissbrod, Yeshurun, Tsatskin, Zaidner, Weinstein-Evron[18]
  • 2019, June, two milk teeth, at the Yana Rhinoceros Horn Site (2001), Siberia – Willerslev[438]
  • 2019, July 25, U-series radiometric dating of homo sapiens crania Apidema-1, discovered within Greece (1978), finds the crania is from a time of approximately 208,000 B.C.[439] belonging to the more recent era of the Middle Pleistocene period[439][440] – Harvati, Röding, Bosman, Karakostis, Grün, Stringer, Karkanas, Thompson, Koutoulidis, Moulopoulos, Gorgoulis, Kouloukoussa[439]

Paleobotany[edit]

21st[edit]

  • 2007, a Carboniferous period (~ 300 million years ago) forest, in a coalmine, Illinois USA[441] – William Dimichele, Howard Falcon-Lang, W. John Nelson, Scott D. Elrick, Phillip R. Ames[442]

Paleontology[edit]

19th century[edit]

1822,[443] teeth (subsequently named Iguanadon)[444]Mary Ann Mantell & Gideon Mantell[443] (Wealdon beds, Tilgate Forest of West Sussex, England[445])

20th[edit]

21st[edit]

  • 2002, the most oldest fossil (estimated as approximately 125 million years of age, discovered within the Yixian Formation) of a mammal with a placenta (eutherian), alive sometime during the Lower Cretaceous. Skeletal features similar to arboreal (habitats on trees and tree branches) and scansorial (climbs) mammal fossils, and dissimilar to the terrestrial (land bound) or cursorial (with the behaviour of running) features of all other known Cretacean eutherians — Ji, Luo, Yuan, Wible, Zhang, Georgi (northeastern China)[452]
  • 2013 June (published); the most oldest fossil (not including older partially complete) of a close to complete fossil skeleton of a primitive haplorhine primate alive during the most ancient years of the Eocene period (approximately 55,000,000 years ago,[453] discovered on a lake bed[454]), subsequently found to orient as the base of all known members of the tarsiiform clade — Ni, Gebo, Dagosto, Meng, Tafforeau, Flynn, Beard[453] (Hubei Province, central[454] China)[453]
  • 2014, currently (for all fossils found up to and including 2014) the most ancient known fossil within the world of a panthera, dated to a period of time of, (less ancient within this period) the Miocene period (being 23.03 to 5.3 million years ago), to, (more ancient within this period) the Pliocene period (being 5.3 to 2.6 m.y.a.) — Tseng, Wang, Slater, Takeuchi, Li, Liu, Xie (discovered within southwestern Tibet)[455]
  • 2016,[456] a close to complete crania of[457] Australopithicus anamensis[456] dated to approximately 3,800,000 years of age (figure is rounded) at the time the most old specimen of the species Australopithicus (hominins)[458] — Yohannes Haile-Selassie,[456] Melillo, Vazzana, Benazzi, Ryan[457] (Woranso-Mille in Ethiopia)[456]
  • 2017 May (published), NMMNH P-54500, an incomplete crania and additional postcrania (i.e. skeletal parts additionally to the crania) of Torrejonia wilsoni. The first discovery of postcrania for the palaechthonid (only one other taxa of the palaechthonid group is known of, from fossil finds of more than only dental fossils), became the most anciently existing find (from the most ancient years of the Palaeocene period (approximately 62,000,000 years ago, found within the Nacimiento Formation) of the plesiadapiforms group (primitive euarchontan mammals of the Palaeocene and Eocene periods within modern North America, Europe and Asia) with three members, fossils of primate, fossil finds similar to modern tree-shrews, and finds similar to modern colugos, (P-54500 was found amongst the remains of one M. pungens, and one Acmeodon secans (a eutheria mammal)) — Williamson,[459] Williamson and Williamson[460] & Chester, Bloch, Silcox, Sargis (San Juan Basin of New Mexico)[459]

Pathology[edit]

5th-4th century B.C.E.[edit]

Hippocrates of Cos[461] born (c.)460 B.C.[462] and died c. 375,[463][464] who received teaching from his father and Herodicos Selymbria,[464] introduced to thought the concept of disease having cause by wordly[461] natural[465] cause instead of by the provenance[461] of θεοί[466] (gods[461])


On the subject of Hippocrates as provenance of worldy cause superceeding godly cause; explicit to the causative of disease (or death);

Reconsidering the example of Socrates of Alopece, Athens,[467] born 470[468] who chose execution and proceeded to execution 399 BC,[469] for the charge and guilt found through trial, for impiety (and corrupting the young);[470] impiety,[471] (or even atheism[472]), and death causative to conium maculatum[469] were known of at a time earlier than 399 BC;[471][473] (actual execution by[474] Κώνειον (kṓneion)[475] is known of from 404[474])

(2nd) – 1st century B.C.E.[edit]

sometime after perhaps 106 BCE (aged 10) and prior to 27 BCE (year died), the surmised existence of[476][477] animalia quaedam minuta, quae non possunt oculi consequi...atque efficiunt difficilis morbos[478] (germs) — Marcus Terentius Varro[476][477] (116–27 BCE[476])

18th century[edit]

1761, first suggestion tobacco (snuff) causes cancer – John Hill (a doctor):[479][480] "...The acrimony of Snuff is able to produce in those parts with which it immediately or accidentally comes into contact, swellings and excresecences, which, in some kinds, require the severest operations of the surgeons to extirpate them; and in others becomes fatal..."[481]

20th[edit]

  • 1929, causal link of tobacco to cancer – Fritz Lickint[482][483][484][485][486][487][488]
  • 1981, inhalation of the fumes of tobacco by non-smokers by others smoking (second-hand smoke) is associated with lung cancer – Hirayama[489]
  • 1983,[490] (months of the beginning of the year; Pasteur Institute, Paris) a virus (human immunodeficiency virus), from laboratory cultured T lymphocytes sourced from within a biopsy specimen from a lymphadenopathic human lymph-node, because lymphadenopathy was considered at the time to be one of a number of states of pathology indicating the future existence of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) within medical patients (AIDS was first recognized during 1981); a strain of the HIV virus identified from virus isolated in a specimen taken from a patient with Kaposi's sarcoma in Paris, (months towards the finish of 1983; National Institutes of Health, Bethesda) enabling characterization of HIV as the cause of AIDS, sometime during 1984 — Gallo et al. (Bethesda) & Montagnier et al. (Paris)[491]

21st[edit]

published 2013, the risk of secondhand smoke exposure as a cause of subsequent development of coronary artery calcification is the same or a greater risk than well-established risks (high cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes) – Harvey Hecht et alia[492]

Philosophy[edit]

4th century B.C.E.[edit]

at some time after 367 B.C.E (when he re-located to Athens from Stagira, aged in his 17th year, and joined the Academy of Plato,[493] was producing writings certainly during the year 357 B.C.E.[494]) and (arbirarily) before 322 (died[495]), deductive[496] syllogism - Aristotle[497] of Stagira[493]

Although Aristotle is today with the associative attribution[498] for an ipso facto existing syllogism,[499] Platonic thought of Plato made precedents sufficient to find the orign of the Aristotlian exposition of syllogistic thinking from earlier positions in thought of his teacher.[498]

Physics[edit]


6th century B.C.[edit]

  • sometime after c. 570 (died c.495 BC), the concordant intervals of the musical scale are expressed in the proportions 1:2, for an octave, 3:2 for a fifth, 4:3 for the fourth — Pythagoras[500][501]

3rd century B.C.[edit]

Between 290 and 211 BC, the ratio between the volumes of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder is the same as their respective surface areas — Archimedes[502]

circa 1st A.D.[edit]

  • sometime circa 1st century A.D., huo yao (meaning fire chemical), the formulation of gunpowder, China[503]

17th century[edit]


18th[edit]

19th[edit]

20th[edit]

The belief amongst a group of physicists, Maxwell, Kelvin and Michelson at a time of about the end of the 19th and beginning of the twentieth century, was that all the laws of nature were already discovered.[512]

Synopses[edit]

Details[edit]

21st[edit]

Psychopathological[edit]

Psychopathology, the term, created by Hermann Emminghaus (1878), commenced as a scientific discipline from a publication by Karl Jaspers (1913)[550]

21st century[edit]

  • published 2011, the perception of the existence of a mind was found to exist in two perceptive dimensions — Gray, Gray, Wegner[551]
  • 2011 [552] - 2012, hypothesized existence of an identifiable fundamental factor [553] which indicates the existence of an increased likelihood within all individuals of developing any of all of the more usually found disorders [554] — Lahey et alia[552]
  • 2014,[553] the p-factor[555] (General Factor of Psychopathology[556]): the existence of psychopathology in any one individual being correlatable to certain knowable traits, or identifiable behaviours or characteristics in individuals[555] — Caspi et alia[557]

Technological[edit]

18th[edit]

1765, separate condenserJames Watt [558]

20th[edit]

Writings[edit]

4th century CE[edit]

during 317 to 322, the pseudo Kong Anguo, individuals (previously, or, subsequently) acquianted with the court of (or in the mileau of attendandants to the court of) Emporer Yuan (of China)[573]

15th century[edit]

19th[edit]

20th[edit]

21st[edit]

  • 2015, the earliest use of the expletive f---, to an English court document of September 1310 – Paul Booth (Keele University, England)[609]

See also[edit]


Others articles of the Topic Science : OhChouette, /r/science, Catrin Rutland, Philosophy of environment, List of Muslim scientists, Taraneh Javanbakht, Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods
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Bibliography[edit]

criteria: "stemmed projectile points" (from Loren G. Davis, David B. Madsen, Lorena Becerra-Valdivia et al (2019) | (Anthropology archaeological: 21st))

Mounir Ajam (January 18, 2015) – Why You Should Stop Calling It The Middle East, published by Business Insider

The Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom of Britain – https://www.rcpath.org/discover-pathology/what-is-pathology.html


Famous anthropology finds, Arizona State University

Kelly Lipscomb – Toledo, Castilla-La-Mancha & the Path of Don Quixote (use criteria "native name for Forbes Quarry Gibraltar" to access no page number) Hunter Publishing Inc, 5 June 2011, ISBN 1556508468, ISBN 9781556508462


Russell L Ciochon, Frank Huffman – Java man, Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology, Publisher: Springer International Publishing July 2018, pp.1-8

Van Den Tweel, J. G.; Taylor, C. R. (2010). "A brief history of pathology: Preface to a forthcoming series that highlights milestones in the evolution of pathology as a discipline". Virchows Archiv : An International Journal of Pathology. 457 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1007/s00428-010-0934-4. PMC 2895866. PMID 20499087.


Cartledge, Paul (2009). Ancient Greek Political Thought in Practice. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511801747. ISBN 9780511801747. in, Socrates was guilty as charged, published by University of Cambridge

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  518. Judith M. Reichel (11-2-2019) — A Lifetime of Fission: The Discovery of Nuclear Energy, Lindau nobel laureate meetings, "...and hoped that by blasting it with neutrons they would generate even heavier, so-called transuranium elements. However, the resulting particles where lighter than uranium and baffled both Strassmann and Hahn. On December 17th 1938 the two finally managed to identify that what resulted was not a transuranium element, but in fact barium – an element about half the size of uranium. Still confused as to what these results meant, Hahn wrote (to) Meitner, describing their unexpected results, asking if she had an explanation for it...Due to their previous and exclusive correspondence with Hahn, Meitner and Frisch had a head-start in finding an explanation for the observed effects by their Berlin colleagues and devised a theory over Christmas of 1938 which they subsequently tested in their lab. They based their approach on the newly established “liquid-drop-model” of the nucleus... Thus, if a heavy element such as uranium is blasted with neutrons and one of them enters the core...the uranium should break apart into two highly energetic atom cores. Such energetic cores in turn should ionise their surrounding air: this ionisation was proven by Meitner and Frisch. They published their physics-based explanation of the nuclear fission of uranium in a Nature paper on February 11th 1939. In March of that year Meitner and Frisch published another Nature paper detailing the nuclei of the elements that are produced by “(...) the fission of the Uranium Nucleus”....", Retrieved 2019-08-31
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