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Menu icon

From EverybodyWiki Bios & Wiki

Example menu icon

The Collapsed Menu Icon,Burger Button or Hamburger Button is a button placed typically in a top corner of a graphical user interface.[1]

It takes the form of an icon that consists of three parallel horizontal lines (displayed as ), suggestive of a list,[2]. The names refer to its resemblance to the menu that is typical exposed or opened when interacting with it.[3]

Selecting (tapping or clicking) this button results in a menu being revealed (sliding out or popping up), which distinguishes it from a menu bar, which is always on display.

The icon was originally designed by Norm Cox as part of the user interface for the Xerox Star, introduced in 1981;[2] it saw a resurgence starting in 2009 stemming from the limited screen area available to mobile apps.[4]

The wider button may be reduced to three vertically stacked dots (displayed as a tri-colon or vertical ellipsis ),[5]. In the Microsoft Office 365 platform, a similar application menu consisting of three rows of three squares is displayed. [6]

In the context of mobile apps, compared to a bottom bar menu, a menu button increases interaction cost and pays out in less space usage of the screen.[7]

Menu buttons have been criticized by TechCrunch as a "poor design choice" in apps for mobile devices.[8]

[9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15]

See also[edit]


  1. "How To Create a Menu Icon".
  2. 2.0 2.1 Campbell-Dollaghan, Kelsey (March 31, 2014). "Who Designed the Hamburger Icon?". Gizmodo. Retrieved February 2, 2016.
  3. Lessin, Jessica (March 18, 2013). "What's a 'hamburger' button? A guide to app features". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  4. "A Brief History of the Hamburger Icon". 29 October 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  5. "Why did Google choose to use vertical three dots icon instead of Hamburger icon on Chrome? - Quora". Retrieved 2017-01-10.
  6. Nguyen, Chuong (June 26, 2015). "Office 365 Store saves time with single sign-on to web apps". Tech Radar Pro. Retrieved 2018-02-08.
  7. Tsiodoulos, Dimitrios (2016). Comparison of hamburger and bottom bar menu on mobile devices for three level navigation (PDF) (Thesis). Retrieved 2018-06-13.
  8. Constine, Josh (May 24, 2014). "Kill the hamburger buttons". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  9. "The origin of the hamburger icon".
  10. "A Brief History of the Hamburger Icon - Placeit Blog". 29 October 2014.
  11. "Three Line Menu Navicon - CSS-Tricks". 10 October 2012.
  12. Keith, Jeremy. "Navicon".
  13. Ltd., Stuff & Nonsense. "We need a standard show navigation icon for responsive web design".
  14. Robson, Stuart. "Create a pure CSS menu button".
  15. Kadlec, Tim. "Mobile Navigation Icons -".

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