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Pietro Cugini

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Pietro Cugini
Born(1936-12-13)December 13, 1936
Rome, Italy
💀DiedApril 6, 2020(2020-04-06) (aged 83)
Rome, ItalyApril 6, 2020(2020-04-06) (aged 83)
🏳️ Nationality
🏫 EducationSapienza University of Rome
💼 Occupation

Pietro Cugini (December 13, 1936 – April 6, 2020) was an Italian doctor, academician and scientist, discoverer of the clinical syndrome: "Tension damage of target organs / pressurometry-diagnosable prehypertension" who was recognized as the nosographic eponym of "Cugini's Syndrome".


Born to Antonio Cugini and Elvira Petrini, Pietro Cugini dedicated his whole life to teaching, research, medical practice and the growth of his three children Silvia, Raffaella and Riccardo. He graduated cum laude in Medicine and Surgery from the University of Rome "La Sapienza" 1962. He holds the cum laude diploma of specialization, respectively, in Cardiology 1964, Gastroenterology 1966, Hematology 1967, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases 1969, national eligibility for Primary 1978, Unanimous Freelance in Endocrinology 1972. His academic career in teaching, assistance and research includes positions at the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Rome "La Sapienza ", belonging to the Institute of Medical Pathology 1962, the Institute of Medical Clinic II 1968, the Department of Clinical Sciences (from 1999 to 2001). He was among the first to understand the importance of digitizing medical data for research. A great sailing enthusiast, in the 70s and 80s he participated in various regional and national regattas, primarily on Lake Bracciano, in Lavinio, Anzio and Nettuno. He competed in various classes, including Flying Junior, Vaurien, 470, and his preferred class, the Flying Dutchman as helmsman of "Fantomas" a 1968 Bianchi & Cecchi FD. He was a Visiting Professor in the US and Japan, in the context of international research projects, respectively with the Chronobiology Laboratories of Minnesota University, Minneapolis (1980, 1985) and with the Institute of Health Science della Kyushu University, Fukuoka, (1988, 1990, 1996). In 2001 he retired from teaching but continued on his path of research and study. He died in Rome in the Appio-Latino area where he has always lived and is buried in the Monumental cemetery of Marino.

Cugini's Syndrome[edit]

Despite his commitments as professor and doctor at the Policlinico Umberto I in Rome and at the Sapienza University of Rome Professor Pietro Cugini never stopped his research or his studies on a particular form of pre-hypertension which can affect certain target organs in an imperceptible way. Professor Cugini realized that these patients would eventually develop problems of hypertension in the future and therefore need to be treated preventively, without waiting for the onset of the disease. This intuition led to the discovery of the syndrome that takes his name, Cugini’s Syndrome[1]. He came to these conclusions thanks to his pioneering statistical study of medical data.

Teaching and university activity[edit]

In addition to his passion for research and work in hospitals, Professor Pietro Cugini held numerous positions as Professor at the Sapienza University of Rome: he became Full Professor of Endocrine Physiopathology, Medical Semiotics, Medical Pathology, Clinical methodology and finally of Internal Medicine. During this period Professor Cugini wrote several books[2] related to the subject he taught. Professor Cugini also taught the following subjects at the following Specialization Schools:

  • Endocrine Biochemistry, Endocrine Pathophysiology and Chronoendocrinology at the Second School of Specialization in Endocrinology;
  • Replacement Diseases and Kidney and Arterial Hypertension at the Second School of Specialization in Nephrology

He was also a free lecturer of Chronobiology Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Florence

Scholarships, awards, honors[edit]

  • Scholarships and specialization for deserving students (1956-1965)
  • Maria Dina Gori Degree Award as Best in Class (1962)
  • Scholarships and specialization for deserving internal doctors (1963, 1964)
  • Portico d'Onofrio Award for research on longevity in Campodimele (1994)
  • Honor of Commendatore of the Italian Republic (1998)
  • Honorary Citizenship of the Municipality of Campodimele (2002)
  • Academic Award of the Lancisian Academy (2009)
  • Academic Award of the Academy of Physiocritics (2011)
  • Nosographic recognition (2007-2009) of the "Initial Tensive Damage of Target Organ / Monitoring Prehypertension Syndrome" also known as "Cugini's Syndrome" (1997-2002)
  • Gold medal honoring 50 years from graduation (2012)

Clinical discoveries[edit]

  • Diencephalo-pituitary hypogonadism from neurotoxoplasmosis (1973)
  • Syndrome of masculine ambiguous genitalia, congenital glomerulonephritis and high renin hypertension (1981)
  • Lymphocytic aldosteronoma (1985)
  • Normotensive hypokalemic variant of nasal spray syndrome induced by 9-alpha-fluoro-prednisolone (1985)
  • Diabetic cutaneous-cerebral syndrome (1989)
  • Bartter's syndrome associated with indirect hyperbilirubinemia (1990)
  • Circaseptan and circannual rhythm of headache (1990)
  • Headache syndrome, nocturnal hypertension (1992)
  • Pseudoipoaldosteronism due to (Na + / K +) deficiency - erythrocyte membrane ATPase (1992)
  • How much of hypertension (1994)
  • Obese "carbohydrate-sensitive" and "carbohydrate-non-sensitive" (1997)
  • Arterial hypertension (1998)
  • Tension retinopathy with minimal injuries ”and pre-arterial hypertension (1998)
  • Presumptive risk of hypertensive crisis (2001)
  • Silent cardiac neurovegetative dysautonomia in type 2 diabetes (2001)
  • Initial Tensive Damage of Target Organ/Monitoring Prehypertension Syndrome (1997-2002)
  • Sindrome del “minimum delirium cordis” da disautonomia diabetica silente[3] (2007)

Scientific discoveries[edit]

  • Circannual rhythm of renin and aldosterone (1982)
  • Circadian rhythm of prorenin (1983)
  • Circadian rhythm of the (Na + / K +) - ATPase of the red cell membrane (1984)
  • Circannual rhythm of 25-hydrissicolecalciferol (1984)
  • Circadian rhythm of the angitensin[check spelling] converting enzyme (1990)
  • Hyper-Mediterranean diet in the elderly Campodimele (1990–91)
  • Circadian rhythm of the Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (1991)
  • Circadian rhythm of blood pressure in infants on their first day of life (1991)
  • Reduced average daily blood pressure levels in the elderly and their offspring
  • Persistence of the circadian rhythm of melatonin in the elderly (1991, 1997)

Innovative chronobiological methods[edit]

  • Clinospectror method[4](1991)
  • Cosint method (1992)
  • Periodic Correlation Method (1992)
  • Cosicum method (2000)
  • Time series fractal interpolation method (2001)


  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone. Scientific Thought. Rome 1981
  • Humoral regulation of blood pressure. SEU, Rome 1985
  • Monitoring of blood pressure and history of hypertension. Style Compostampa, Rome, 1992
  • Outpatient Monitoring of Blood Pressure: History of Hypertension. L. Pozzi editions, Rome 2000
  • Aphorismatic thoughts of a Clinical Methodologist. SEU, Rome 2004 ISBN 8887753881 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png.
  • Biostatistics - Chronobiology - Chaosbiology. Key methods. SEU, Rome 2006 ISBN 8889548304 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png.
  • The Statistical Bases of Biology and Medicine, SEU, Rome, 2007 ISBN 9788889548561 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png.
  • Epistemology and Statistics for Bio-Medical Sciences. SEU, Rome 2009 (Slide book) ISBN 888954872X Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png.
  • The New Diagnostic Frontiers of Outpatient Blood Pressure Monitoring - Slide-Book - SEU, Rome 2010 (Slide book) ISBN 8865150173 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png.


  • Clinical chemistry of adrenocortical glucocorticoids. : I. Basic Biochemistry (1981)
  • Clinical chemistry of adrenocortical glucocorticoids: II. Measurement and reference intervals (1981)
  • Clinical chemistry of adrenocortical glucocorticoids: III. Explorative tests (1981)
  • Male pseudohermaphroditism: classification and diagnostic work-up (1983)
  • Hyperaldosteronisms (1983)
  • Endocrine Approach to Arterial Hypertension (1983)
  • Cushing's syndrome (1983)
  • Hyperaldosteronisms and pseudohyperaldosteronisms (1983)
  • Chronobiologic Approach to Aging: the Clinospectroscopic Method (1991)
  • Campodimele Study (1990–91)
  • Campodimele Study: 24-Hour Blood Pressure in the elderly and Descendants (1990–91).
  • Campodimele Study: Lifestyle, Anthropometric Characteristics, Eating Habits, Nutritional Aspects (1990–91)


  • Why chronobiology (1981)
  • Philosophical-scientific basis of chronobiology (1986)
  • The nature of time: a misinterpreted entity (1989)
  • Nature and ethical value of time in medicine (1990)
  • Epistemological and philosophical bases of chronobiology (1991)
  • Time in biology and medicine (1997)
  • Chaos, health and disease (1997)
  • The need for chaos (1998)
  • From Cronos to Chaos: that is, from the determinism of the circadian rhythm of blood pressure to the indeterminism of hypertensive crises (1998).
  • Order and chaos, linearity and non-linearity, periodicity and homeostasis (1999)
  • Adduction: Identification and description of a new epistemological category of inferential reasoning of meta-naturalist science (2010)
  • Essay on science and language (2011)
  • Essay on science, cosmogenesis and religion (2012)

Book chapters[edit]

  • Enciclopedia Medica Italiana, 1988
  • Trattato Italiano di Medicina di P. Introzzi, 1988
  • Lineamenti di Igiene del Lavoro di C. Melino, 1992
  • Cronobiologia dell'Apparato Cardiovascolare, Casalnoceto, 1995
  • Universo del Corpo, Enciclopedia Italiana Treccani, 2000
  • Trattato Italiano di Medicina Interna di U. Teodori, VI Ed., SEU 2000
  • Trattato Italiano di Medicina Interna di U. Teodori, VII Ed, SEU, 2004
  • Manuale di Nutrizione Clinica e Scienze Dietetiche Applicate, SEU, 2006


  • Italian Medical Encyclopedia, 1988
  • Italian Treatise on Medicine by P. Introzzi, 1988
  • Features of Occupational Hygiene by C. Melino, 1992
  • Chronobiology of the Cardiovascular System, Casalnoceto, 1995
  • Universe of the Body, Italian Treccani Encyclopedia, 2000
  • Italian Treatise on Internal Medicine by U. Teodori, VI Ed., SEU 2000
  • Italian Treatise on Internal Medicine by U. Teodori, VII Ed, SEU, 2004
  • Manual of Clinical Nutrition and Applied Diet Sciences, SEU, 2006

Cultural activities[edit]

  • Founder of the scientific journal Chronobiological Section
  • Scientific Director of the magazine "La Clinica Terapeutica" (2006), listed with Impact Factor and reviewed on the most important international databases

(MedLine, Embase/Excerpta Medica, Index Medicus, Science Citation Index Expanded, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Derwent Drug File)

President or Chairman at the following national and international conferences[edit]

  • XVII International Conference for Chronobiology (1985)
  • Workshop on "Methodologies, Morphology and Computers in Chronobiology" (1986)
  • II World Conference on Chronobiology (1988)
  • Health of Inner Cities and Urban Areas (1989)
  • VII Annual Meeting of European Society for Chronobiology (1991)
  • Clinical Chronobiology: Application Aspects in Medicine and Surgery (1991)
  • VII International Congress on Ambulatory Monitoring (1996)
  • ECM Medical Statistics Course (2008)

Prior membership of the Editorial Board[edit]

  • New Trends in Gestational and Perinatal Hypertension
  • Medicine and Computer Science
  • Functional Neurology
  • Methodology and Clinical Didactics (MEDIC)
  • Biological Rhythm Research
  • Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Journal of Eating and Weight Disorder

Prior membership of Scientific Institutions[edit]

  • New York Academy of Sciences
  • American Association for the Advancement of Sciences
  • European Society for Chronobiology
  • International Society for Chronobiology
  • Italian Society of Chronobiology
  • Italian Society of Clinical Biochemistry
  • Italian Society of Endocrinology
  • Italian Society of Internal Medicine

Scientific research activity abroad[edit]

  • Visiting Professor negli USA presso i Chronobiology Laboratories della Minnesota University, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55455, USA (1980, 1985, 1989)
  • Visiting Professor in Giappone presso lo Institute of Health Science della Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Kasuga 816, Giappone (1988, 1990, 1996)

Scientific relationships with scholars[edit]

International institutions

  • Chronobiology Laboratories della Minnesota University, Minneapolis, USA
  • Tokyo Women's Medical College (Daini Hospital), Tokyo, Japan
  • Yamanashi Medical College (Yamanashi Hospital), Yamanashi, Japan
  • Institute of Health Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Kasuga 816, Japan,
  • Tenovus Institute for Cancer Research, University of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, U.K.
  • Institute of Cardiology, Yerevan, Armenia
  • Institute of Pharmacology, University of Mannheim-Heidelberg, Germany
  • Hôpital Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France
  • Laboratory of Chronobiology and Chronome-Geriatrics, Mexico City, Mexico
  • St. Paul-Ramsay Medical Center, St Paul, Minnesota, USA
  • Foundation De Rothschild, Parigi, France
  • Hines VA Hospital, Chicago, USA
  • University of Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands
  • University of Sant Paul, San Paulo, Brazil
  • Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

National institutions

  • Institute of Medical Clinic, University of Chieti
  • Institute of Medical Clinic, University of Ferrara
  • Institute of Medical Pathology, University of Florence
  • Institute of Chronobiology, University of L'Aquila
  • Institute of Chronobiology, University of Milan
  • Institute of Geriatrics, University of Pavia
  • Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Turin

TV and radio interviews[edit]

Foreign networks

  • NBC UK (1994)
  • CNN USA (1994)
  • BBC Scotland(1995)
  • Radio Canada (1995)
  • TV Arthè Archimedes, France (1995)
  • TV Arthè Archimedes, France (1996)
  • TV Hanfgarn & Ufer Filmproduktion, Germany (2013)
  • TV HTB – NTV Channel, Russia (2013)

Italian networks

  • RAI 2 Cronaca in diretta (1994)
  • Telemontecarlo Tappeto volante (1994)
  • Telemontecarlo Tappeto volante (1995)
  • RAI 2, Cronaca in diretta (1997)
  • RAI 2, Check up (1999)
  • RAI 1, Uno mattina (2012)
  • RAI 2, Sereno Variabile (2013)


  1. "Lectio Magistralis Cugini Syndrome".
  2. "Study book on blood pressure".
  3. "Circadian rhythm".
  4. Cugini, P.; De Rosa, R.; Pellegrino, A. M.; De Laurentis, T.; Fontana, S.; Petrangeli, C. M.; Leone, G.; Cellitti, R.; Marsili, D.; Scardia, C.; Menghetti, E.; Tamura, K. (2000). "Clinospectror". La Clinica Terapeutica. 151 (6): 405–10. PMID 11211473.

External links[edit]

  • [1] Curriculum vitae
  • [2] Explanation Cugini's Syndrome
  • [3] Presentation at the Lancisiana Academy
  • [4] Biological time and physical time
  • [5] Lectio Magistralis Cugini's Syndrome

Others articles of the Topics Medicine AND Biography : Andrea Ammon, Grady A. Dugas, M.D., George B. Mowad, Rami Elias, Paul McMillian Davis Jr.

Others articles of the Topic Medicine : George B. Mowad, CoviVac, Laurent Schwartz, Franck Zal, Yakup Avşar, Zorecimeran, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Others articles of the Topic Biography : Pedro Fernando (artist), Frank O. Slater, Ksenija Divjak, Darshana Singh, Henry L. Yelverton, Najib Tareque, Nargis

Category:1936 births Category:2020 deaths Category:Italian physicians Category:People from Rome

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