Single liquid flow battery

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Single liquid battery (SLIQ) is a liquid battery which consist of only one rechargeable liquid and a technology which can be used for grid storage. This is an interesting concept due to the simplicity, low cost, durability, thermal stability (no thermal runaway), low carbon foot print, eliminating the need of rare earth minerals for storage and its applicability to transportation systems. Departments of Business Energy And Industrial Strategy of UK (BEIS) has identified a company which has successfully installed such a prototype in year 2013. This is a novel battery technology that is low-cost, long lasting and easily scalable. In this battery technology, the electrolyte and part of the cathode is converted to free flowing liquid, making this a different battery variant. The result is a polysulfide redox Single Liquid Battery (SLIQ). This technology has the potential to make a significant cost reduction to both the capital and levelized cost of energy storage. In addition to low cost, the SLIQ has high energy density, millisecond response time and +20 year lifetime.[1] The power and energy are independently scalable giving complete flexibility and high efficiency (92%) has been demonstrated by the first demonstrator installed at Inverie on the Knoydart peninsula in Scotland, UK. A detailed report of the first prototype of this groundbreaking technology can be found in this case study.[2] Technologies such as the SLIQ are crucial to fight the present climate crisis. Inventors have shared audio and visual material online for interested parties to understand the technology and to use it with renewable energy technologies[3]

Standalone SLIQ Battery

Invention and Inventor[edit]

The Single Liquid battery (SLIQ) technology was invented in 2013 by Pasidu Pallawela. According to World Intellectual property organisation WIPO Pasidu Pallawela and StorTera (Power Migration Partners Ltd) holds patent rights to this technology. Patent information is shown here - Pasidu Pallawela's Single Liquid Battery Technology Further information about this patent is found in the UK intellectual Property office website. Single liquid battery patent[4]

Pasidu Pallawela is credited with multiple inventions and granted patents over the past years such as surface area-based pressure sensing device [5] to life saving energy back packs.[6]

Pasidu Pallawela has delivered talks about this novel energy storage technology in several high-profile industrial energy conferences such as All Energy conference and exhibition in the UK.[7] As a business innovation, this was nominated for MEL British Chamber of commerce Awards[8] in 2017 as the best business innovation and won the category award[9]. StorTera won several Rushlight [10] Awards for this ground breaking battery technology in 2020, winning the prestigious overall Rushlight award [11], energy environmental group category award[12] and the Energy Efficiency group Award [13][14]. The Society for the Environment website [15] describes this technology as a "highly novel system". It uses one rechargeable liquid composed of low cost, abundant and natural materials. An artificial intelligence-based control system complements the SLIQ battery to optimise performance by storing renewable energy when it is available on the grid and delivering it when it is not. It learns usage behaviour to maximise profitability and uses machine learning to maximise the efficiency of the SLIQ battery.[16]

Prototypes and industry application[edit]

A 30kWh/8 kW prototype has been installed in Scotland to support a remote community and has been running successfully since 2013. [17]

Single liquid battery installed in Knoydart, UK in 2017 March

The company has been recently selected by Canadian and UK governments to install large scale SLIQ battery systems to support the grid and to support storage of renewable generation. This project will demonstrate how this energy storage technology can save money and increase the uptake of renewables, consequently reducing carbon emissions.[18]


  1. "BEIS Energy Storage Cost Reduction Competition - Summary Project Details" (PDF).
  2. "SLIQ Flow Battery | Off-grid Community Project, Knoydart".
  4. "Alkali polysulphide flow battery".
  5. Intellectual Property Office, Concept House (March 9, 2013). "Intellectual Property Office - Patent document and information service (Ipsum)".
  6. "UK-based Sri Lankan engineer perfects power storage facility for all purposes".
  8. "Chamber News".
  10. "Rushlight Awards". Rushlight Events. Retrieved 2020-05-09.
  11. "StorTera Wins Rushlight". Future Economy Network. February 19, 2020.
  12. "StorTera Wins Energy Environmental group category award". Carbon Limiting Technologies. 10 February 2020.
  13. "StorTera Wins Energy Efficiency Award". Carbon Limiting Technologies. 10 February 2020.
  14. "StorTera Wins Rushlight Awards 2019-20 - Society for the Environment". Retrieved 2020-05-09.
  15. "StorTera Wins Rushlight Awards 2019-20 - Society for the Environment". Retrieved 2020-05-09.
  16. "StorTera's Novel liquid battery - Society for the Environment". Retrieved 2020-05-09.
  17. "StorTera". Sustainable Islands International. September 10, 2018.
  18. "Energy tech StorTera lands £1.6m to power Scot-Canadian pilot".

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