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Soyombo Revival Society

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Soyombo Revival Society
Participant in Kumul Rebellion and Actions in Inner Mongolia
Общество Возрождения Соёмбо.png
LeadersGeneral N. I. Bektieieff
Area of operationsMongolia, Mengjiang, Xinjiang

Soyombo Revival Society (in Russian Общество Возрождения Соёмбо, abbreviated ОВС, OVS) was a secret society founded by white émigrés in Mongolia (according to a few sources[1][2], it denoted both Mongolia and Chinese ethnic Mongol provinces). In 1930, it became a subsidiary organization of Mongolian department of the Russian All-Military Union (ROVS). Its main purpose was to gain the support of the local Asiatic population in various anti-communist activities.


Precursors and foundation[edit]

Sample membership card of Mongolian Department of ROVS

The ROVS was established Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1924, and its Far-Eastern Department was founded in 1927[1] from which the Mongolian Department was separated from in 1929.[2][3] Surrounded by pro-Soviet forces, senior officials of the Mongolian Department (mostly former staff of Semyonov and Ungern[4]) decided to form separate a conspiracy organization to attract more supporters from local population.[4][5] Its structure and customs were largely inspired by traditional Mongolian Duguilang societies and Ungern's idea of the "Order of Militant Buddhists"[6] in contrast with paramilitary organization of regular ROVS departments. Despite initial success, the Society had proven to be unable to survive after the beginning of the mass purges in Mongolia and was forced to retreat to China.[5]

Participation in conflicts[edit]

In Xinjiang, the OVS managed to gain support from exiled Semirechye Cossacks[7] and later participated in the Kumul Rebellion and coup against Jin Shuren.[8][9]

The OVS possibly provided volunteer forces in the Suiyuan.[8]


The Society was eventually dissolved after arrests of most of its members following the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and Chinese Civil War.[5][4]

See also[edit]

  • White émigré
  • Russian All-Military Union
  • Roman von Ungern-Sternberg


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Документы и материалы РОВС 1924-1928 гг". Русское поле.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Документы и материалы РОВС 1930-1932 гг". Перекличка - электронный журнал русского обще-воинского союза. 2017.
  3. Ханжин, Михаил (1927). "Приказ об учреждении Монгольского отдела РОВС".
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Breuillard, Sabine. General V. A. Kislitsin: From Russian Monarchism to the Spirit of Bushido. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Назаров, Михаил (1994). Миссия русской эмиграции. Москва: Родник. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  6. Жуков, Андрей. БАРОН УНГЕРН Даурский крестоносец или буддист с мечом. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  7. "Русская Диаспора в Монголии".[permanent dead link]
  8. 8.0 8.1 Foreign affairs, Volume 32. Council on Foreign Relations. 1954. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  9. Forves, Andrew. Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911‒1949. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png

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