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Tamil Nadu

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Tamil Nadu
Flag of Tamil Nadu

Vaymaiye Vellum
(Truth alone triumphs)
Anthem: "Tamil Thai Valthu"[1]
(Invocation to Mother Tamil)
Location of Tamil Nadu in India
Location of Tamil Nadu in India
Coordinates: 13°05′N 80°16′E / 13.09°N 80.27°E / 13.09; 80.27Coordinates: 13°05′N 80°16′E / 13.09°N 80.27°E / 13.09; 80.27

Country India
Formation1 November 1956
(Tamil Nadu Day)
Capital and
largest city
 • BodyGovernment of Tamil Nadu
 • GovernorBanwarilal Purohit
 • Chief MinisterEdappadi K. Palaniswami (AIADMK)
 • Deputy Chief MinisterO. Panneerselvam (AIADMK)
 • LegislatureUnicameral (234)[1]
 • Parliamentary ConstituencyLok Sabha (39)
Rajya Sabha (18)
 • Total130,058 km2 (50,216 sq mi)
Area rank10th
 • Total72,147,030
 • Rank6th
 • Density550/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
GDP (2019–20)
 • Total18.54 lakh crore (US$260 billion)
 • Per capita214,236 (US$3,000)
 • OfficialTamil[4]
 • Additional officialEnglish[4]
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-TN
Vehicle registrationTN
HDI (2018)Increase 0.708[5]
high · 11th
Literacy (2011)80.33%[6]
Sex ratio (2019)996 /1000
^# Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem, while "Invocation to Mother Tamil" is the state song/anthem.
^† Established in 1773; Madras State was formed in 1950 and renamed as Tamil Nadu on 14 January 1969[7]
Tiruvilliputhur Andal Temple
"Invocation to Goddess Tamil"
Emerald dove
Tamil Yeoman
Gloriosa lily
Palm Tree

Tamil Nadu (Tamil: [ˈt̪amiɻ ˈn̪aːɽɯ] (About this soundlisten)), is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.

The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empiresChera, Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine, culture, and architecture. After the fall of Kingdom of Mysore, the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai, then known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganisation of states on linguistic lines. The state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites.[8][9][10]

Tamil Nadu is the tenth largest Indian state by area and the sixth largest by population. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with 18.54 lakh crore (US$260 billion) in gross domestic product with a per capita GDP of 214,000 (US$3,000).[3] Tamil Nadu has the 11th highest ranking among Indian states in human development index.[5] It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.[11] Its official language is Tamil, which is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world.

  1. "Tamil Nadu: K. Shanmugam appointed as new Tamil Nadu Chief Secretary". The Hindu. Tamil Nadu. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  2. "Census of india 2011" (PDF). Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2014. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 "MOSPI Net State Domestic Product, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India". Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 "52nd report of the Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in India (July 2014 to June 2015)" (PDF). Ministry of Minority Affairs (Government of India). 29 March 2016. p. 132. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  6. "" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2014. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  7. Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly history 2012.
  8. UNESCO 2012.
  9. Press Information Bureau releases 2012.
  10. "The Living culture of the Tamils; The UNESCO Courier: a window open on the world" (PDF). The UNESCO Courier. XXXVII, 3; 1984. March 1984. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  11. "Rajan report: Odisha, Bihar least developed; Goa, Kerala on top". Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2013. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)