Cavatak is the trade name for a preparation of wild-type Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA21) developed by the Australian biotechnology company Viralytics Ltd. for the treatment of malignant melanoma and other cancers such as breast, prostate and head and neck cancer.
Within the Picornaviradae family of viruses, Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA21) is a member of the Human enterovirus C species. The virus consists of a single positive-stranded RNA genome within a capsid of approximately 28 nm in diameter. The virus is known to utilise the viral entry receptor ICAM-1 as its primary entry receptor, with DAF as a co-receptor to infect host cells. Traditionally known as a common-cold virus that causes mild upper respiratory tract infections, the anti-cancer properties of this virus for the destruction of malignant melanoma cells was first published in 2004. The proposed mechanism of CVA21 oncolysis is through the preferential targeting of melanoma cells that over-express the molecules ICAM-1 and/or DAF compared to normal cells.
Cavatak is currently in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of malignant melanoma. This is an open label study, and classified as a safety/efficacy study. Outcome measures will include immune-related Progression-Free Survival (irPFS) at 6 months, Durable Response Rate at 6 months, 6 month Progression-Free Survival, 1 year Survival, Overall Survival and provide information on the safety of intratumorally administered Cavatak and Quality of Life.
- Oncolytic virus
- "Intratumoural Administration of Coxsackievirus A21 for the Control of Malignant Melanoma". clinicaltrials.gov. PMID nct00235482. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- "A Safety Study of Two Intratumoural Doses of Coxsackievirus Type A21 in Melanoma Patients". clinicaltrials.gov. PMID NCT00438009. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- "A Study of Intratumoral CAVATAK in Patients With Stage IIIc and Stage IV Malignant Melanoma". clinicaltrials.gov. PMID nct01227551. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- "Coxsackie Virus A21 Administered Intravenously (IV) for Solid Tumour Cancers". clinicaltrials.gov. PMID NCT00636558. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- "Intratumoural Administration of Coxsackievirus A21 for the Control of Malignant Melanoma". clinicaltrials.gov. PMID nct00832559. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- Shafren DR, Dorahy DJ, Ingham RA, Burns GF, Barry RD (1997). "Coxsackievirus A21 binds to decay-accelerating factor but requires intercellular adhesion molecule 1 for cell entry". J Virol. 71 (6): 4736–43. PMC 191695. PMID 9151867.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Shafren DR, Au GG, Nguyen T, Newcombe NG, Haley ES, Beagley L; et al. (2004). "Systemic therapy of malignant human melanoma tumors by a common cold-producing enterovirus, coxsackievirus a21". Clin Cancer Res. 10 (1 Pt 1): 53–60. PMID 14734451.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Skelding KA, Barry RD, Shafren DR (2009). "Systemic targeting of metastatic human breast tumor xenografts by Coxsackievirus A21". Breast Cancer Res Treat. 113 (1): 21–30. doi:10.1007/s10549-008-9899-2. PMID 18256929.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Berry LJ, Au GG, Barry RD, Shafren DR (2008). "Potent oncolytic activity of human enteroviruses against human prostate cancer". Prostate. 68 (6): 577–87. doi:10.1002/pros.20741. PMID 18288643.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Au GG, Lincz LF, Enno A, Shafren DR (2007). "Oncolytic Coxsackievirus A21 as a novel therapy for multiple myeloma". Br J Haematol. 137 (2): 133–41. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2007.06550.x. PMID 17391493.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
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