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Left-wing fascism and left fascism are sociological and philosophical terms used to categorize tendencies in left-wing politics that are otherwise commonly attributed to the ideology of fascism—which has historically been attributed to the far-right.[excessive citations]
The term was formulated as a position by sociologists Jürgen Habermas and Irving Louis Horowitz. Another early use of the term was by Victor Klemperer when describing the close similarities between Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic.
In 1960, Seymour Martin Lipset classified some nationalist and authoritarian regimes in underdeveloped countries as left-wing fascist—namely in South America, such as those led by Juan Perón in Argentina and Getulio Vargas in Brazil—characterized by an appeal to the working classes against the upper classes, and accusing the latter of being guilty for the underdevelopment of the country and for the subjection to foreign interests.
Writing his 1984 book Winners and Losers, sociologist Irving Louis Horowitz built on Vladimir Lenin's work "Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder, in which Lenin describes the enemies of the working class as opportunists and petty-bourgeois revolutionaries operating on anarchist premises. Horowitz claimed that "left-wing fascism" emerged again in the United States political life during the 1980s in the form of a refusal to disengage radical rhetoric from totalitarian reality.
In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the term left fascism has been used to describe unusual hybrid political alliances. Historian Richard Wolin has used this term in arguing that some European intellectuals have been infatuated with postmodernist or anti-Enlightenment theories, opening up the opportunity for cult-like, irrational, anti-democratic positions that combine characteristics of the left with those of fascism.
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- Definitions of fascism
- Economic Freedom Fighters
- Euston Manifesto
- Fascism (epithet)
- Fascism and ideology
- Fascist syndicalism
- Horseshoe theory
- Liberal Fascism
- National Bolshevism
- New antisemitism
- Paternalistic conservatism
- Palingenetic ultranationalism
- Red fascism
- Red-green-brown alliance
- Social fascism
- Third Position
- Peter Davies; Derek Lynch (2002). The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right. Routledge. pp. 1–5. Search this book on
- Roger Griffin. Fascism. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1995. pp. 8, 307.
- Aristotle A. Kallis. The fascism reader. New York: Routledge, 2003. p. 71
- Hartley, John (2004). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies: The key concepts (3rd ed.). Routledge. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-521-55982-9. Search this book on
- Wilhelm, Reich (1970). The Mass Psychology of Fascism. Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0-285-64701-5. Search this book on
- Mary Hawkesworth; Maurice Kogan (1992). Encyclopaedia of Government and Politics: Volume 1. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-71288-7. Search this book on
- Chalmers, Martin (2003). The Lesser Evil: The Diaries of Victor Klemperer, 1945–1959. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Retrieved 2019-01-08. Search this book on
- Lipset, Seymour Martin (1960). "Fascism—Left, Right, and Center". Political Man. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company. pp. 131–176. Retrieved 2018-12-02. Search this book on
- Horowitz, Irving Louis. Winners and Losers: Social and Political Polarities in America (Duke University Press, 1984). ISBN 0-8223-0602-6 Search this book on .. ISBN 978-0-8223-0602-3 Search this book on .. ch. 17. p. 209.
- TELOS (fall 2008). no. 144.
- Wolin, Richard. 2004. The Seduction of Unreason: The Intellectual Romance with Fascism from Nietzsche to Post-modernism. Princeton University Press.
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