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List of Muslim scientists

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This is a list of Muslim scientists who have contributed significantly to science and civilization.

Astronomers and astrologers[edit]

  • Sind ibn Ali (-864)
  • Ali Qushji (1403-1474)
  • Ahmad Khani (1650-1707)
  • Ibrahim al-Fazari (-777)
  • Muhammad al-Fazari (-796 or 806)
  • Al-Khwarizmi, Mathematician (780-850 CE)
  • Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi (Albumasar) (787-886 CE)
  • Al-Farghani (800/805-870)
  • Banū Mūsā (Ben Mousa) (9th century)
  • Dīnawarī (815-896)
  • Al-Majriti (d. 1008 or 1007 CE)
  • Al-Battani (858-929 CE) (Albatenius)
  • Al-Farabi (872-950 CE) (Abunaser)
  • Abd Al-Rahman Al Sufi (903-986)
  • Abu Sa'id Gorgani (9th century)
  • Kushyar ibn Labban (971-1029)
  • Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin (900-971)
  • Al-Mahani (8th century)
  • Al-Marwazi (9th century)
  • Al-Nayrizi (865-922)
  • Al-Saghani (-990)
  • Al-Farghani (9th century)
  • Abu Nasr Mansur (970-1036)
  • Abū Sahl al-Qūhī (10th century) (Kuhi)
  • Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi (940-1000)
  • Abū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī (940-998)
  • Ibn Yunus (950-1009)
  • Ibn al-Haytham (965-1040) (Alhacen)
  • Bīrūnī (973-1048)
  • Avicenna (980-1037) (Ibn Sīnā)
  • Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (1029-1087) (Arzachel)
  • Omar Khayyám (1048-1131)
  • Al-Khazini (fl. 1115-1130)
  • Ibn Bajjah (1095-1138) (Avempace)
  • Ibn Tufail (1105-1185) (Abubacer)
  • Nur Ed-Din Al Betrugi (-1204) (Alpetragius)
  • Averroes (1126-1198)
  • Al-Jazari (1136-1206)
  • Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī (1135-1213)
  • Anvari (1126-1189)
  • Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi (-1266)
  • Nasir al-Din Tusi (1201-1274)
  • Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236-1311)
  • Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī (1250-1310)
  • Ibn al-Shatir (1304-1375)
  • Shams al-Dīn Abū Abd Allāh al-Khalīlī (1320-80)
  • Jamshīd al-Kāshī (1380-1429)
  • Ulugh Beg (1394-1449)
  • Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf (1526-1585)
  • Ahmad Nahavandi (8th and 9th centuries)
  • Haly Abenragel (10th and 11th century)
  • Abolfadl Harawi (10th century)
  • Mu'ayyad al-Din al-'Urdi (1200-1266)


Biologists, neuroscientists, and psychologists[edit]

  • Aziz Sancar, Turkish biochemist, the first Muslim biologist awarded the Nobel Prize
  • Ahmad-Reza Dehpour (1948- ), Iranian pharmacologist
  • Ibn Sirin (654-728), author of work on dreams and dream interpretation[1]
  • Al-Kindi (Alkindus), pioneer of psychotherapy and music therapy[2]
  • Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, pioneer of psychiatry, clinical psychiatry and clinical psychology[3]
  • Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi, pioneer of mental health, [4] medical psychology, cognitive psychology, cognitive therapy, psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine[5]
  • Al-Farabi (Alpharabius), pioneer of social psychology and consciousness studies[6]
  • Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), pioneer of neurosurgery[7]
  • Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), founder of experimental psychology, psychophysics, phenomenology and visual perception[8]
  • Al-Biruni, pioneer of reaction time[9]
  • Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā), pioneer of neuropsychiatry,[10] thought experiment, self-awareness and self-consciousness[11]
  • Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), pioneer of neurology and neuropharmacology[7]
  • Syed Ziaur Rahman, pioneer of Environmental Pharmacovigilance
  • Averroes, pioneer of Parkinson's disease[7]
  • Ibn Tufail, pioneer of tabula rasa and nature versus nurture[12]
  • Mohammad Samir Hossain, theorist,[13] author and one of the few Muslim scientists[14] in the field of death anxiety research[13] [15]

Chemists and alchemists[edit]

  • Khalid ibn Yazid (-704) (Calid)
  • Jafar al-Sadiq (702-765)
  • Jābir ibn Hayyān (721-815) (Geber), father of chemistry[16][17][18]
  • Abbas Ibn Firnas (810-887) (Armen Firman)
  • Al-Kindi (801-873) (Alkindus)
  • Al-Majriti (fl. 1007-1008)
  • Ibn Miskawayh (932-1030)
  • Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973-1048)
  • Avicenna (980-1037)
  • Al-Khazini (fl. 1115-1130)
  • Nasir al-Din Tusi (1201-1274)
  • Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406)
  • Salimuzzaman Siddiqui (1897-1994)
  • Al-Khwārizmī (780-850), algebra, mathematics
  • Ahmed H. Zewail (1946-2016), Egyptian Chemist and 1999 Nobel Prize in Chemistry[19]
  • Abbas Shafiee (1937-2016)
  • Mostafa El-Sayed (1933- )
  • Abdul Qadeer Khan (1936- )
  • Atta ur Rahman
  • Omar M. Yaghi (1965- )
  • Sara Akbar
  • Tahir Ullah Chemist (1995- )

Economists and social scientists[edit]

  • Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man (699–767), Islamic jurisprudence scholar
  • Abu Yusuf (731–798), Islamic jurisprudence scholar
  • Al-Saghani (-990), one of the earliest historians of science[20]
  • Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir (Qabus) (d. 1012), economist
  • Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973–1048), considered the "first anthropologist"[21] and father of Indology[22]
  • Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) (980–1037), economist
  • Ibn Miskawayh (1030-), economist
  • Al-Ghazali (Algazel) (1058–1111), economist
  • Al-Mawardi (1075–1158), economist
  • Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (Tusi) (1201–1274), economist
  • Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288), sociologist
  • Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328), economist
  • Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406), forerunner of social sciences[23] such as demography,[24] cultural history,[25] historiography,[26] philosophy of history,[27] sociology[24][27] and economics[28][29]
  • Al-Maqrizi (1364–1442), economist
  • Akhtar Hameed Khan, Pakistani social scientist; pioneer of microcredit
  • Muhammad Yunus, Nobel Peace Prize winner Bangladeshi economist; pioneer of microfinance
  • Shah Abdul Hannan, pioneer of Islamic banking in South Asia
  • Mahbub ul Haq, Pakistani economist; developer of Human Development Index and founder of Human Development Report[30][31]

Geographers and earth scientists[edit]

  • Al-Masudi, the "Herodotus of the Arabs", and pioneer of historical geography[32]
  • Al-Kindi, pioneer of environmental science[33]
  • al-Hamdani
  • Ibn Al-Jazzar
  • Al-Tamimi
  • Al-Masihi
  • Ali ibn Ridwan
  • Muhammad al-Idrisi, also a cartographer
  • Ahmad ibn Fadlan
  • Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, father of geodesy,[21][24] considered the first geologist and "first anthropologist"[21]
  • Avicenna
  • Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi
  • Averroes
  • Ibn al-Nafis
  • Ibn Jubayr
  • Ibn Battuta
  • Ibn Khaldun
  • Piri Reis
  • Evliya Çelebi

Mathematicians[edit]

Further information: Islamic mathematics: Biographies
  • Masatoshi Gündüz Ikeda (1926 Tokyo–2003 Ankara)
  • Cahit Arf (1910 Selanik (Thessaloniki)–1997 Istanbul)
  • Ali Qushji
  • Al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn Matar
  • Khalid ibn Yazid (Calid)
  • Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algorismi), father of algebra[34] and algorithms[35]
  • 'Abd al-Hamīd ibn Turk
  • Abū al-Hasan ibn Alī al-Qalasādī (1412–1482), pioneer of symbolic algebra[36]
  • Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam
  • Al-Abbās ibn Said al-Jawharī
  • Al-Kindi (Alkindus)
  • Banū Mūsā (Ben Mousa)
    • Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
    • Al-Hasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
  • Al-Mahani
  • Ahmed ibn Yusuf
  • Al-Majriti
  • Al-Battani (Albatenius)
  • Al-Farabi (Abunaser)
  • Al-Nayrizi
  • Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin
  • Brethren of Purity
  • Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi
  • Al-Saghani
  • Abū Sahl al-Qūhī
  • Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi
  • Abū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī
  • Ibn Sahl
  • Al-Sijzi
  • Ibn Yunus
  • Abu Nasr Mansur
  • Kushyar ibn Labban
  • Al-Karaji
  • Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen/Alhazen)
  • Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
  • Ibn Tahir al-Baghdadi
  • Al-Nasawi
  • Al-Jayyani
  • Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel)
  • Al-Mu'taman ibn Hud
  • Omar Khayyám
  • Al-Khazini
  • Ibn Bajjah (Avempace)
  • Al-Ghazali (Algazel)
  • Al-Marrakushi
  • Al-Samawal
  • Ibn Rushd (Averroes)
  • Ibn Seena (Avicenna)
  • Hunayn ibn Ishaq
  • Ibn al-Banna'
  • Ibn al-Shatir
  • Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi (Albumasar)
  • Jamshīd al-Kāshī
  • Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī
  • Muḥyi al-Dīn al-Maghribī
  • Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi
  • Muhammad Baqir Yazdi
  • Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, 13th century Persian mathematician and philosopher
  • Qāḍī Zāda al-Rūmī
  • Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi
  • Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī
  • Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī
  • Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf
  • Ulugh Beg
  • Al-Samawal al-Maghribi (1130–1180)

Philosophers[edit]

For a detailed list of Muslim philosophers, refer to the List of Muslim philosophers, for an exhaustive list of widely-known philosophers with Muslim faith or Islamic background, including modern day philosophers from Muslim community, a list is given here;

  • Al-Kindi
  • Averroes
  • Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi
  • Al-Farabi
  • Avicenna
  • Ibn Arabi
  • Rumi
  • Jami
  • Ibn Khaldun
  • Mir Damad
  • Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
  • Muhammad Iqbal
  • Quassim Cassam

Physicians and surgeons[edit]

Physicists and engineers[edit]

  • Mimar Sinan (1489-1588), also known as Koca Mi'mâr Sinân Âğâ
  • Jafar al-Sadiq, 8th century
  • Banū Mūsā (Ben Mousa), 9th century
    • Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
    • Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
    • Al-Hasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
  • Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman), 9th century
  • Al-Saghani (d. 990)
  • Abū Sahl al-Qūhī (Kuhi), 10th century
  • Ibn Sahl, 10th century
  • Ibn Yunus, 10th century
  • Al-Karaji, 10th century
  • Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), 11th century Iraqi scientist, father of optics,[37] and experimental physics,[38] considered the "first scientist"[39]
  • Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, 11th century, pioneer of experimental mechanics[40]
  • Ibn Sīnā/Seena (Avicenna), 11th century
  • Al-Khazini, 12th century
  • Ibn Bajjah (Avempace), 12th century
  • Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi (Nathanel), 12th century
  • Ibn Rushd/Rooshd (Averroes), 12th century Andalusian mathematician, philosopher and medical expert
  • Al-Jazari, 13th century civil engineer,
  • Nasir al-Din Tusi, 13th century
  • Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, 13th century
  • Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī, 13th century
  • Ibn al-Shatir, 14th century
  • Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf, 16th century
  • Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi, 17th century
  • Lagari Hasan Çelebi, 17th century
  • Sake Dean Mahomet, 18th century
  • Abdus Salam, 20th century Pakistani physicist, winner of Nobel Prize in 1979
  • Fazlur Khan, 20th century Bangladeshi Structural Engineer
  • Mahmoud Hessaby, 20th century Iranian physicist
  • Ali Javan, 20th century Iranian physicist
  • B. J. Habibie, 20th century Indonesian aerospace engineer and president
  • Abdul Kalam, Indian aeronautical engineer, nuclear scientist and the 11th President of India
  • Mehran Kardar, Iranian theoretical physicist
  • Munir Nayfeh Palestinian-American particle physicist
  • Abdul Qadeer Khan, Pakistani metallurgist and nuclear scientist
  • Riazuddin, Pakistani theoretical physicist
  • Samar Mubarakmand, Pakistani nuclear scientist known for his research in gamma spectroscopy and experimental development of the linear accelerator
  • Shahid Hussain Bokhari, Pakistani researcher in the field of parallel and distributed computing
  • Sultan Bashiruddin Mahmood, Pakistani nuclear engineer and nuclear physicist
  • Ali Musharafa, Egyptian nuclear physicist
  • Sameera Moussa, Egyptian nuclear physicist
  • Munir Ahmed Khan, Pakistani nuclear scientist
  • Kerim Kerimov, founder of Soviet space program, a lead architect behind first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), and the lead architect of the first space stations (Salyut and Mir)[41][42]
  • Farouk El-Baz, NASA scientist involved in the first Moon landings with the Apollo program[43]
  • Cumrun Vafa, Iranian theoretical physicist and string theorist
  • Jamal Nazrul Islam, Bangladeshi mathematical physicist and cosmologist

Political scientists[edit]

  • Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
  • Taqiuddin al-Nabhani
  • Syed Qutb
  • Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr
  • Abul Ala Maududi
  • Hasan al-Turabi
  • Hassan al-Banna
  • Mohamed Hassanein Heikal
  • M. A. Muqtedar Khan
  • Rashid al-Ghannushi
  • Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb
  • Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
  • Mohammad Ali Jinnah
  • Allama Muhammad Iqbal

Notes[edit]

  1. Haque 2004, p. 375.
  2. Saoud 2004.
  3. Haque 2004, p. 361.
  4. Deuraseh & Abu Talib 2005.
  5. Haque 2004, p. 362.
  6. Haque 2004, p. 363.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Martin-Araguz et al. 2002.
  8. Khaleefa 1999.
  9. Iqbal 1934.
  10. Safavi-Abbasi, Brasiliense & Workman 2007.
  11. Nasr & Leaman 1996.
  12. Russell 1994.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Death and Dying 2009.
  14. Siddique 2009.
  15. Meyers, Golden & Peterson 2009.
  16. Warren 2005.
  17. Zahoor 1997.
  18. Vallely 2006.
  19. "All Nobel Laureates in Chemistry". The Nobel Prize.
  20. Rosenthal 1950, p. 559.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Ahmed 1984.
  22. Khan 2000.
  23. Ahmed 2002.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Mowlana 2001.
  25. Abdalla 2007.
  26. Ahmed 1999.
  27. 27.0 27.1 Akhtar 1997.
  28. Oweiss 1988.
  29. Boulakia 1971.
  30. ul Haq 1995.
  31. Sen 2000.
  32. "Mas'udi, al-". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006.
  33. Gari 2002.
  34. Gandz 1936.
  35. Nanisetti 2006.
  36. O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu'l Hasan ibn Ali al Qalasadi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
  37. Al Deek 2004.
  38. Thiele 2005.
  39. Al-Khalili 2009.
  40. Rozhanskaya & Levinova 1996.
  41. Bond 2003.
  42. Blair 1995.
  43. IslamOnline 2008.

References[edit]

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  • Saoud, R (March 2004). "The Arab Contribution to the Music of the Western World" (PDF). Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilization. Retrieved 2007-01-12.
  • Deuraseh, Nurdeen; Abu Talib, Mansor (2005). "Mental health in Islamic medical tradition". The International Medical Journal. 4 (2): 76–79.
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  • Rosenthal, Franz (1950). "Al-Asturlabi and as-Samaw'al on Scientific Progress". Osiris. 9: 555–564. doi:10.1086/368538.
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  • Al-Khalili, Jim (2009-01-04). "The 'first true scientist'". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
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  • Ahmed, Akbar (2002). "Ibn Khaldun's Understanding of Civilizations and the Dilemmas of Islam and the West Today". Middle East Journal. 56 (1): 5.
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