Welcome to EverybodyWiki 😃 ! Nuvola apps kgpg.png Log in or ➕👤 create an account to improve, watchlist or create an article like a 🏭 company page or a 👨👩 bio (yours ?)...

Noometry

From EverybodyWiki Bios & Wiki

Noometry is the measurment of the mind;[1][2][3] - a branch of the science of measures, dimensions and quantitative measurements of structural and functional parameters of intelligent systems.

Term origin[edit]

Noo, nous (UK: /ˈns/, US: /ˈns/) – from the ancient Greek νόος, has synonyms in other languages 智慧 (Chinese), is a term that currently encompasses the semantics: mind, intelligence, intellect, reason; wisdom; insight, intuition, thought, - in a single phenomenon.[4][5][6]

Noometry was first mentioned by English novelist Thomas Love Peacock in Melincourt (novel) in 1817 [7] There was no definition of this term.

Recent developments[edit]

Modern understanding[edit]

Noometry of the reaction speed in the noogenesis. [8] In unicellular organism – the rate of movement of ions through the membrane ~ m/s, water through the membrane m/s, intracellular liquid (cytoplasm) m/s; Inside multicellular organism – the speed of blood through the vessels ~0.05 m/s, the momentum along the nerve fibers ~100 m/s; In population (humanity) – communications: sound (voice and audio) ~300 m/s, quantum-electron ~ m/s (the speed of radio-electromagnetic waves, electric current, light, optical, tele-communications).

When considering the terminology associated with "noo", it is noted: noometry - measurement of the mind or mind-measurement .[9]

In 2005 a new concept of noogenesis was proposed in understanding the evolution of intellectual systems,[10][11] concepts of intellectual systems, information speed, intellectual energy, consolidated into a theory of the intellect[12] which combines the biophysical parameters of intellectual energy—the amount of information, its acceleration (frequency, speed) and the distance it's being sent.[13] According to the new concept—proposed hypothesis of the analogy between the human brain with the enormous number of neural cells firing at the same time and a similarly functioning human society.[14] Therefore, generalizing and summarizing:

"Noometry — [noo - mind, thought + metreo - measure] - a branch of the science of measures, dimensions and quantitative measurements of structural and functional parameters of information and intelligent systems (in contrast to biometrics [bios - life] and geometry [geo - earth])".[15]

Measurement of speed of interaction between components of intellectual sistems[edit]

The first person to measured the speed (in the range of 24.6 – 38.4 meters per second) at which the signal is carried along a nerve fibre in 1849 was Helmholtz.[16][17] To date, the measured rates of nerve conduction velocity are 0,5 – 120 m/s. Speed of sound and speed of light were determined earlier in the XVII century. By the XXI century, it became clear that they determine mainly the speeds of physical signals-information carriers, between intelligent systems and their components: sound (voice and audio) ~300 m/s, quantum-electron ~ m/s (the speed of radio-electromagnetic waves, electric current, light, optical, tele-communications).

Quantification of components of intellectual sistems[edit]

Number of components in Intellectual systems.[10] A - number of neurons in the brain during individual development (ontogenesis), B - number of people (evolution of populations of humanity), C - number of neurons in the nervous systems of organisms during evolution (phylogenesis).

In 1906 year have received universal recognition neuron was opened by Santiago Ramón y Cajal, and the neuron doctrine is the concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells.[18] According to modern data, in the brain H. sapiens in the process of ontogenesis and phylogenesis of an adult human there are 86 billion neurons.[19] Alexei Eryomin came to the conclusion that superintellect can be realized in the form Global Intelligence, Allworld Mind, World Brain on the planet Earth. Humanity intellectually evolving. Joint global highly intelligent activity of humanity has led in the second half of the twentieth century to the acts, showing the unity and the level of intellectual potential of humanity: organization of the UN, the victory over smallpox, the use of atomic energy, space exploration, organization of the satellite television, satellite navigation systems, etc.[20] Eryomin “proposed an analogy between the human brain, consisting of a large number of parallel-working neurons, and human community, consisting of people".[14] In the process of evolution, the number of human increases from two first-born to about 70 million people (twentieth century BC), about 300 million (at the beginning of the first century AD), about one billion (at the 30 years of the twentieth century AD), 6 billion at the end of the twentieth century, 7.7 billion - now world population. According to the mathematical models of Sergey Kapitsa, the amount of mankind can reach 12.5 - 14 billion in the XXI-XXII centuries.[10]

Counting of links between components of intellectual sistems[edit]

Number of connections of intelligent systems.[21] A - number of synapses between neurons during individual development (ontogenesis) of intelsystem of the human brain, B - number of connections between people in the dynamics of population growth of the human population, C - number of synapses between neurons in the historical evolutionary development (phylogenesis) of nervous systems to the human brain.

Synapse – from the Greek synapsis (συνάψις), meaning "conjunction", in turn from συνάπτεὶν (συν ("together") and ἅπτειν ("to fasten")) – was introduced in 1897 by Charles Sherrington.[22] The relevance of measurments in this direction is confirmed by both modern comprehensive researches of cooperation, and connections of information, genetic, and cultural,[23] due to structures at the neuronal level of the brain,[24] and the importance of cooperation in the development of civilization. In this regard, A. L. Eryomin analyzed the known data on the evolution of the number of connections for cooperation in intelligent systems.[21] Connections, contacts between biological objects, can be considered to have appeared with a multicellularity of ~ 3-3.5 billion years ago.[25] The system of high — speed connections of specialized cells that transmit information using electrical signals, the nervous system, in the entire history of life appeared only in one major evolutionary branch: in multicellular animals (Metazoa) and appeared in the Ediacaran period (about 635-542 million years ago).[26] During evolution (phylogeny), the number of connections between neurons increased from one to ~ 7000 synoptic connections of each neuron with other neurons in the human brain. It has been estimated that the brain of a three-year-old child has about of synapses (1 quadrillion). In individual development (ontogenesis), the number of synapses decreases with age to ~ .[27] According to other data, the estimated number of neocortical synapses in the male and female brains decreases during human life from ~ to ~ .[28] The number of human contacts is difficult to calculate, but the "Dunbar’s number" ~150 stable human connections with other people is fixed in science, the assumed cognitive limit of the number of people with whom it is possible to maintain stable social relations,[29] according to other authors - the range of 100–290. Structures responsible for social interaction have been identified in the brain.[30] With the appearance of Homo sapiens ~50-300 thousand years ago, the relevance of cooperation, its evolution in the human population, increased quantitatively. If 2000 years ago there were 0.1 billion people on Earth, 100 years ago - 1 billion, by the middle of the twentieth century – 3 billion,[10] and by now, humanity - 7.7 billion. Thus, the total number of "stable connections" between people, social relationships within the population, can be estimated by a number ~ ." [21]

Noometry of intellectual interaction[21]
Parameter Results of the measurements
(limits)
Number of components of
intellectual systems
~
Number of links between
components
~
Speed of interaction between
components (m/s)
~

Other parameters and dimensions of the "noo" phenomenon[edit]

Several published works which do not employ the term "noometry", however, address some parameters, measurement results, and limits:

- working memory capacity 7,[31]

- hierarchical (6 layers neurons) system of information analysis,[32]

- energy limits to the computational power of the human brain [33]

- measurements of magnetic fields of single nerves[34]

- generated and consumed information calculations (in bytes)[35] etc.

- limits of a function of several physiological aspects of human intelligence.[36]

Unsolved problems in noometry[edit]

There are unsolved problems in computational neuroscience, although some of these problems have evidence supporting a hypothesized solution, and the field is rapidly evolving. These problems include:

- the precise timing of action potentials for information processing in the neocortex;

- canonical computation performed by cortical columns;

- level of simplification is suitable for a description of information processing in the brain;

- neural code;

- quantification of long-term memory.

Issues and further research prospects and measurements[edit]

The development of the human brain, perception, cognition, memory and neuroplasticity are unsolved problems in neuroscience. Several megaprojects are being carried out in: Blue Brain Project, Allen Brain Atlas, Human Connectome Project, Google Brain, - in attempt to better our understanding of the brain's functionality along with the intention to develop human cognitive performance in the future with artificial intelligence, informational, communication and cognitive technology.[37] An International Brain Initiative currently integrated national-level brain research initiatives (American BRAIN Initiative, European Human Brain Project, China Brain Project, Japan Brain/MINDS, Canadian Brain Research Strategy, Australian Brain Alliance, Korea Brain Initiative) with goals support an interface between countries to enable synergistic interactions with interdisciplinary approaches arising from the latest research in neuroscience and brain-inspired artificial intelligence etc.[38]

See also[edit]


Other articles of the topics Evolutionary biology AND Earth sciences : Alexei Eryomin, Noogenesis

Other articles of the topics Earth sciences AND Philosophy : Noogenesis, Alexei Eryomin

Other articles of the topics Evolutionary biology AND Philosophy : Noogenesis, Alexei Eryomin

Other articles of the topic Evolutionary biology : Alexei Eryomin, Noogenesis

Other articles of the topic Earth sciences : Noogenesis, Fossil Taxon, March 2021 Miyagi earthquake, World, Alexei Eryomin, Chupadera Formation, Okeechobee Group

Other articles of the topic Philosophy : Fu Jen School, A priori and a posteriori, Tad DeLay, Noogenesis, Rami Elias, Sovereignty, Alexei Eryomin

Other articles of the topic Psychology : Werner Erhard & Associates v. Christopher Cox for Congress, Vystopia, List of people who have learned Transcendental Meditation, Noise: A Flaw in Human Judgment, Alexei Eryomin, Funds of knowledge, Estate of Jack Slee v. Werner Erhard

  • Allometry
  • Anthropometry
  • Biological neural network
  • Brain size
  • Collective intelligence
  • Dunbar's number
  • Information society
  • Intelligence
  • Global brain
  • List of animals by number of neurons
  • Metrology
  • Mind
  • Neuroinformatics
  • Neuroscience and intelligence
  • Noogenesis – Emergence and evolution of intelligence
  • Noosphere
  • Co-operation (evolution)
  • Psychophysics
  • Social organism
  • Superorganism
  • World Brain

References[edit]

  1. Noometry // Collins English Dictionary.
  2. Noometry //The Free Dictionary.
  3. Noometry // Dictionary Wordpanda.
  4. The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles (3 ed.), Oxford University Press, 1973, p. 1417
  5. See entry for νόος in Liddell & Scott, on the Perseus Project.
  6. See entry for intellectus in Lewis & Short, on the Perseus Project.
  7. Complete Works of Thoma Love Peacock. UK: Delphi Classics, 2018. (ISBN 978 1 78656 125 1 1 78656 125 1 Search this book on link=https://www.amazon.com/gp/search?ie=UTF8&tag=everybodywikien-20&index=books&keywords=978 1 78656 125 1.)
  8. Eryomin A.L. The Laws of Evolution of the Mind // 7th International Teleconference on "Actual Problems of Modern Science". Tomsk, 2012. – P. 133-134.
  9. Issac, R. M. Cybernetics and Human Cognition. Advanced Research in Electrical and Electronic Engineering p-ISSN: 2349-5804; e-ISSN: 2349-5812 Volume 4, Issue 5, October-December, 2017, pp. 258-267
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Eryomin A.L. Noogenesis and Theory of Intellect. Krasnodar, 2005. — 356 p. (ISBN 5-7221-0671-2 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png.)
  11. Dombrovskaya I.S.To the problem of psychological analysis of the cultural genesis of humor // Cultural-historical psychology. 2010. №3. P. 57-59.
  12. Kononovich V.G. The basis of security - oriented information theory. Part 2. There are the informative fields in physical and informative world // Digital Tehnologies. – 2011 - № 9. Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
  13. Mamedova M.D. The Concept of "Mind" in Chinese and Russian Linguistic Morld-images (on the material of phraseological units, proverbs and sayings). Dushanbe: Russian-Tajik (Slavonic) University, 2015. 245 pp.[permanent dead link]
  14. 14.0 14.1 Orehov B.D. Forecasting of the development of mankind with regard to factor of knowledge. Zhukovsky: MIM LINK, 2015. – 210 p.
  15. Eryomin A.L. Noogenesis and Theory of Intellect. Krasnodar, 2005. — p.331.
  16. Vorläufiger Bericht über die Fortpflanzungs-Geschwindigkeit der Nervenreizung. In: Archiv für Anatomie, Physiologie und wissenschaftliche Medicin. Jg. 1850, Veit & Comp., Berlin 1850, S. 71–73. MPIWG Berlin
  17. Glynn, Ian (2010). Elegance in Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 147–150. ISBN 978-0-19-957862-7. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  18. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906.
  19. Suzana Herculano-Houzel The Human Advantage: A New Understanding of How Our Brain Became Remarkable. MIT Press, 2016. 256 pp.
  20. Krivosheev S. World Mind // Itogy, 2005. - No.26(472), P. 77-79.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Eryomin A.L., Zibarev E.V. (2020) Intellectual labour - physiology, hygiene, medicine: retrospective and modern fundamental research. Occupational Health and Industrial Ecology 60(12) 951-957.
  22. Foster, M.; Sherrington, C.S. (1897). Textbook of Physiology, volume 3 (7th ed.). London: Macmillan. p. 929. Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png
  23. Voorhees B., Read D., Gabora L. Identity, kinship, and the evolution of cooperation. Current anthropology. 2020; 2: 194-218.
  24. Rilling, J.K. et al. A Neural Basis for Social Cooperation. Neuron. 2002; 35: 395-405.
  25. Grosberg R.K., Strathmann R.R. The evolution of multicellularity: A minor major transition? Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst. 2007; 38: 621–654.
  26. Budd G. E. Early animal evolution and the origins of nervous systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 2015; 370(1684): 20150037.
  27. Drachman D.A. Do we have brain to spare? Neurology. 2005; 64 (12): 2004–5.
  28. Nguyen T. Total number of synapses in the adult human neocortex. Undergraduate Journal of Mathematical Modeling: One+ Two. 2010; 3(1): 26.
  29. Dunbar, R. I. M. Neocortex size as a constraint on group size in primates. Journal of Human Evolution. 1992; 22 (6): 469–493.
  30. Walbrin J. et al. Neural responses to visually observed social interactions. Neuropsychologia. 2018; 112: 31-39.
  31. Read D.W. Working memory: A Cognitive Limit to Non-Human Primate Recursive Thinking Prior to Hominid Evolution Archived 2012-01-31 at the Wayback Machine // Evolutionary Psychology. 2008. — V.6.- P.676-714
  32. Hawkins J., Blakeslee S. On Intelligence. NY: Times books, 2005. — 240 p.ISBN 0-8050-7456-2 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png.
  33. Merkle R.C. Energy Limits to the Computational Power of the Human Brain. Foresight Update. 1989. №6.
  34. Jensen K. et al. Non-invasive detection of animal nerve impulses with an atomic magnetometer operating near quantum limited sensitivity //Scientific reports. – 2016. – Т. 6. – №. 1. – С. 1-7.
  35. Lyman P., Varian H.R. How Much Information? 2003 / Release of the University of California. Oct.27, 2003. — 112 pp.
  36. Fox D. The limits of Intelligence. Scientific American. June No14, 2011.
  37. Seung S. Connectome. 2015. - 440 p. (ISBN 978-5-9963-1685-4 Search this book on Amazon.com Logo.png.)
  38. Adams, Amy; Albin, Stephanie; Amunts, Katrin; Asakawa, Tasia; Bernard, Amy; Bjaalie, Jan G.; Chakli, Khaled; Deshler, James O.; De Koninck, Yves; Ebell, Christoph J.; Egan, Gary; Hale, Melina E.; Häusser, Michael; Jeong, Sung-Jin; Illes, Judy; Lanyon, Linda; Li, Pingping; Li, Yan; Magistretti, Pierre; McMahon, Agnes; Montojo, Caroline; Ohtsuka, Toshihisa; Okabe, Shigeo; Okano, Hideyuki; Pei, Gang; Pouget, Alexandre; Reindorp, Jason; Richards, Linda J.; Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Sajda, Paul; Scobie, Kimberly N.; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Tanaka, Keiji; Thiels, Edda; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A.; Welchman, Andrew E.; White, Samantha; Wilson, Gary; Yuste, Rafael; Zhang, Xu; Zheng, Jialin (Jan 22, 2020). "International Brain Initiative: An Innovative Framework for Coordinated Global Brain Research Efforts". Neuron. 105 (2): 212–216. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2020.01.002. PMID 31972144. Retrieved May 20, 2020 – via ScienceDirect.


This article "Noometry" is from Wikipedia. The list of its authors can be seen in its historical and/or the page Edithistory:Noometry. Articles copied from Draft Namespace on Wikipedia could be seen on the Draft Namespace of Wikipedia and not main one.