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پاكستانى قوم
Total population
c. 221 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Pakistan not specific212,742,631
 Saudi Arabia2,600,000+ (2017 estimate)[2]
 United Kingdom1,174,983 (2011 Official UK Census)[3][lower-alpha 1]
 United Arab Emirates1,200,000 (2014 estimate)[4]
 United States700,000 (2010 APF Research)[5]
 Oman235,000 (2013 estimate)[6]
 Canada215,560 (2016 Official Canada Census)[7]
 Qatar125,000 (2016 Official Qatar estimate)[9]
 Italy118,181 (2017 Official Italy estimate)[10]
 Bahrain112,000 (2013 estimate)[11]
 France104,000 (2017 estimate)[2]
 Spain82,738 (2018 Official Spain estimate)[12]
 Germany73,000 (2017 Official Germany estimate)[13]
 Afghanistan71,000 (2017 estimate)[2]
 Australia61,913 (2016 Official Australia Census)[14]
 Malaysia59,281 (2017 Official Malaysia estimate)[15] [16]
Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Balochi, Saraiki, Kashmiri, Brahui, Balti and others
Islam 97% (majority Sunni, 5-20% Shia and <1% being Ahmadiyya) Other Religions: Christianity, Bahai Faith, Hinduism, Kalash Faith, Sikhism, Zoroastrianism

Pakistanis (Urdu: پاكِستانى قوم‎; Pakistani Qaum) are the people who are citizens of the modern Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Pakistan is a multi-ethnic and multilingual state: the majority of its people belong linguistically to the Indo-Aryan and Iranian subgroups of Indo-Iranian while the remaining minority of Brahuis, Baltistanis and Hunzakuts mainly belong to a small number of other ethno-linguistic groups and families or none such as the case of the Hunza. As per the 2017 Census, the estimated population of Pakistan was over 212+ million making it the world's fifth most-populous country.[18] In terms of overseas Pakistanis, there are an estimated 2.4 million Pakistanis living in Europe.[19]

Ethnic sub-groups[edit]

Map showing population density in Pakistan, per 2017 census.[20]

Specific-linguistic groups: Punjabi, Sindhi, Saraiki, Pashtun, Balochi, and Kashmiri, with substantial numbers of Brahui, Hindko, Pahari, Shin, Burusho, Wakhi, Balti, Chitrali and other minority ethnic groups in the remote north of the country.

Main Groups of Pakistan: the Punjabi people, the Pashtun people, the Sindhi people, the Balochi people, the Muhajirs and the Kashmiri people.


Pakistan has a rich culture, with all of the provinces maintaining differing social mores. However, Islam has significantly shaped the values and traditions of many Pakistanis. Pakistani culture falls in the category of high context, and Pakistani wear the Shalwar Qamiz that is the culture of Pakistan.


Map showing population density in Pakistan, per 2017 census.[21]

According to Provisional results of 2017 Census in Pakistan, the total population in Pakistan was 207.8 million, representing a 57% increase in 19 years.[22][23][1] which is equivalent to 2.6% of the world population.[24] Pakistan's census provisional results exclude data from Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir, which is likely to be included in the final report.[25][26] Noted as the fifth most populated country in the world, its growth rate in 2016 was reported to be 1.45%, which is the highest of the SAARC nations, though this growth rate has been decreasing in recent years.[27] The population is projected to reach 210.13 million by 2020. At the time of the partition in 1947, Pakistan had a population of 32.5 million;[28][29] the population increased by ~57.2% between the years 1990 and 2009.[30] By 2030 Pakistan is expected to surpass Indonesia as the largest Muslim-majority country in the world.[31][32] Pakistan is classified as a "young nation", with a median age of 23.4 in 2016;[27] about 104 million people were under the age of 30 in 2010. In 2016 Pakistan's fertility rate was estimated to be 2.68,[27] higher than its neighbour India (2.45).[33] Around 35% of the people are under 15.[28] The vast majority of those residing in southern Pakistan live along the Indus River, with Karachi being the most populous commercial city in the south.[34] In eastern, western, and northern Pakistan, most of the population lives in an arc formed by the cities of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sheikhupura, Nowshera, Mardan, and Peshawar.[35] During 1990–2008, city dwellers made up 36% of Pakistan's population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia, which increased to 38% by 2013.[35][28][36] Furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis live in towns of 5,000 people or more.[37]

Expenditure on healthcare was ~2.8% of GDP in 2013. Life expectancy at birth was 67 years for females and 65 years for males in 2013.[36] The private sector accounts for about 80% of outpatient visits. Approximately 19% of the population and 30% of children under five are malnourished.[38] Mortality of the under-fives was 86 per 1,000 live births in 2012.[36]


Pakistan's main language is Urdu. Urdu was chosen as a token of unity and as a lingua franca so as not to give any native Pakistani language preference over the other. It is mostly learned as a second language, with nearly 93% of Pakistan's population having a mother tongue other than Urdu. Urdu is spoken as a first, second or at times third tongue by almost all Pakistani people. Numerous regional and provincial languages are spoken as first languages by the ethno-linguistic groups making up the country, with Punjabi having a plurality of native speakers with 45% of the total population. English is spoken at an official level.

Languages spoken in Pakistan: Most languages spoken are Punjabi, Pashto and Sindhi. Followed by Balochi, Kashmiri, Saraiki and Urdu.


The largest religion practiced in Pakistan is Islam. Other religious groups are Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, the Kalash faith, and Christianity. 95% of people in Pakistan are Muslims (majority Sunni), 2% are Hindus, 2% are Christians and less than 1% of the population are Zoroastrian, Kalash, Bahai and Sikh. Irreligion and atheism <2% and 1% of people are Ahmadiyyah.[clarification needed]


There are large populations of Pakistani ancestry around the world due to emigration.[according to whom?] The population of Pakistanis abroad is exceeds seven million and can be found in the Middle East, North America, Europe, Asia and Australia.[citation needed] In 2018, Reuters reported that in Germany, thousands of Pakistani asylum seekers were among those whom the country was attempting but unable to repatriate due to insufficient identity papers.[39]

See also[edit]


  1. This census figure may not include recent immigrants or people of partial Pakistani ancestry.


  1. 1.0 1.1 "U.S. and World Population Clock". United States Census Bureau. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "USCB" defined multiple times with different content
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Economic Survey 2014–15: Ishaq Dar touts economic growth amidst missed targets". The Express Tribune. 4 June 2015.
  3. "2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom". Office for National Statistics. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  4. "UAE's population - by nationality". 11 July 2015. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2018. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  5. Template:Https://
  7. Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables - Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Canada, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data".
  8. Al-Qarari, Hussein (2009-03-29). "Pakistanis celebrate National Day in Kuwait". Kuwait Times. Archived from the original on 2011-06-17. Retrieved 2012-04-14.
  9. (2017)"Population of Qatar by nationality - 2017 report". Retrieved 2017-02-08.
  12. "TablaPx". Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  13. "Ausländeranteil in Deutschland bis 2016 - Statistik". Statista. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
  14. "2016 Census of Population and Housing: General Community Profile: Catalogue No. 2001.0" (ZIP). 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  17. 출입국·외국인정책본부. "통계연보(글내용) < 통계자료실 < 출입국·외국인정책본부". Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  18. (2017-08-28). "Census results show 59.7pc growth in Karachi's population, 116pc in Lahore's since 1998". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2017-09-01.
  20. "Block Wise Provisional Summary Results of 6th Population & Housing Census-2017". Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2018. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  21. "Block Wise Provisional Summary Results of 6th Population & Housing Census-2017". Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2018. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  22. "132 million in 1998, Pakistan's population now reaches 207.7 million: census report". ARYNEWS. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  23.[permanent dead link]
  24. World Meters staff works. "Pakistan Population". World Meters. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  25. "Pakistan's population reaches 208 million: provisional census results".
  26. "Pakistan's 6 th Census – 207 Million People Still Stuck In Malthusian Growth".
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 "Pakistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named young
  29. "High population growth rate affecting economy'". Daily Times. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2011. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  30. "CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion" (PDF). International Energy Agency (IEA) Paris. 2011. p. 88. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  31. "World Muslim Population Doubling, Report Projects". Assyrian International News Agency. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  32. "Pakistan set to become most populous Muslim nation". Samaa Tv. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 26 February 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  33. "India". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  34. "The Urban Frontier—Karachi". National Public Radio. 2 June 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
  35. 35.0 35.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ciafactbook
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 "WHO | Pakistan". World Health Organization. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
  37. Jason Burke (17 August 2008). "Pakistan looks to life without the general". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  38. "Pakistan Country Report" (PDF). RAD-AID. 2010. pp. 3, 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2011. Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  39. "Pakistanis among top failed asylum seekers in Germany". Mar 27, 2018. Retrieved 2019-06-02.

Further reading[edit]

  • Abbasi, Nadia Mushtaq. "The Pakistani diaspora in Europe and its impact on democracy building in Pakistan." International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (2010).
  • Awan, Shehzadi Zamurrad. "Relevance of Education for Women's Empowerment in Punjab, Pakistan." Journal of International Women's Studies 18.1 (2016): 208+ online
  • Bolognani, Marta, and Stephen Lyon, eds. Pakistan and its diaspora: multidisciplinary approaches (Springer, 2011).
  • Eglar, Zekiya. A Punjabi Village in Pakistan: Perspectives on Community, Land, and Economy (Oxford UP, 2010).
  • Kalra, Virinder S., ed. Pakistani Diasporas: Culture, conflict, and change (Oxford UP, 2009).
  • Lukacs, John, ed. The people of South Asia: the biological anthropology of India, Pakistan, and Nepal (Springer, 2013).
  • Marsden, Magnus. "Muslim village intellectuals: the life of the mind in northern Pakistan." Anthropology today 21.1 (2005): 10-15.
  • Mughal, M. A. Z. "An anthropological perspective on the mosque in Pakistan." Asian Anthropology 14.2 (2015): 166-181.
  • Rauf, Abdur. "Rural women and the family: A study of a Punjabi village in Pakistan." Journal of Comparative Family Studies (1987): 403-415.